Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through the words, music and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have been called musicals. Although music has been a part of dramatic presentations since ancient times, modern Western musical theatre emerged during the 19th century, with many structural elements established by the works of Gilbert and Sullivan in Britain and those of Harrigan and Hart in America; these were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the musical theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan at the turn of the 20th century.
The Princess Theatre musicals and other smart shows like Of Thee I Sing were artistic steps forward beyond revues and other frothy entertainments of the early 20th century and led to such groundbreaking works as Show Boat and Oklahoma!. Some of the most famous musicals through the decades that followed include West Side Story, The Fantasticks, Hair, A Chorus Line, Les Misérables, The Phantom of the Opera, The Producers and Hamilton. Musicals are performed around the world, they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller venues, such as fringe theatre, Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, regional theatre, or community theatre productions, or on tour. Musicals are presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia and Latin America.
Since the 20th century, the "book musical" has been defined as a musical play where songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals, able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter. The three main components of a book musical are its music and book; the book or script of a musical refers to the story, character development and dramatic structure, including the spoken dialogue and stage directions, but it can refer to the dialogue and lyrics together, which are sometimes referred to as the libretto. The music and lyrics together form the score of a musical and include songs, incidental music and musical scenes, which are "theatrical sequence set to music combining song with spoken dialogue." The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its creative team, which includes a director, a musical director a choreographer and sometimes an orchestrator. A musical's production is creatively characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties and sound.
The creative team and interpretations change from the original production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the original production. There is no fixed length for a musical. While it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are presented in two acts, with one short intermission, the first act is longer than the second; the first act introduces nearly all of the characters and most of the music and ends with the introduction of a dramatic conflict or plot complication while the second act may introduce a few new songs but contains reprises of important musical themes and resolves the conflict or complication. A book musical is built around four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show, although it sometimes consists of a series of songs not directly musically related. Spoken dialogue is interspersed between musical numbers, although "sung dialogue" or recitative may be used in so-called "sung-through" musicals such as Jesus Christ Superstar, Les Misérables and Hamilton.
Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades. Moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are performed in song. Proverbially, "when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing. In a book musical, a song is ideally crafted to suit the character and their situation within the story; as The New York Times critic Ben Brantley described the ideal of song in theatre when reviewing the 2008 revival of Gypsy: "There is no separation at all between song and character, what happens in those uncommon moments when musicals reach upward to achieve their ideal reasons to be." Many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is less time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length, since a musical devotes more time to music than to dialogue. Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the plot; the ma
Little, Brown and Company
Little and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors. Early lists featured Little Women by Louisa May Alcott, Emily Dickinson's poetry, Bartlett's Familiar Quotations; as of 2016, Brown & Company is a division of the Hachette Book Group. Little and Company had its roots in the book selling trade, it was founded in 1837 in Boston by James Brown. They formed the partnership "for the purpose of Publishing and Selling Books." It can trace its roots before that to 1784 to a bookshop owned by Ebenezer Batelle on Marlborough Street. They published works of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington and they were specialized in legal publishing and importing titles. For many years, it was the most extensive law publisher in the United States, the largest importer of standard English law and miscellaneous works, introducing American buyers to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the dictionaries of William Smith, many other standard works.
In the early years Little and Brown published the Works of Daniel Webster, George Bancroft's History of the United States, William H. Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella, Jones Very's first book of poetry, Letters of John Adams and works by James Russell Lowell and Francis Parkman. Little and Company was the American publisher for Edward Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; the firm was the original publisher of United States Statutes at Large beginning in 1845, under authority granted by a joint resolution of Congress. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office, responsible for producing the set since that time. 1 U. S. C. § 113 still recognizes their edition of the laws and treaties of the United States are competent evidence of the several public and private Acts of Congress and international agreements other than treaties of the United States. In 1853, Brown began publishing the works of British poets from Chaucer to Wordsworth.
Ninety-six volumes were published in the series in five years. In 1859, John Bartlett became a partner in the firm, he held the rights to his Familiar Quotations, Little, Brown published the 15th edition of the work in 1980, 125 years after its first publication. John Murray Brown, James Brown's son, took over when Augustus Flagg retired in 1884. In the 1890s, Brown expanded into general publishing, including fiction. In 1896, it published Quo Vadis. In 1898, Brown purchased a list of titles from the Roberts Brothers firm. 19th century employees included Charles Carroll Soule. John Murray Brown died in 1908 and James W. McIntyre became managing partner; when McIntyre died in 1913, Brown incorporated. In 1925, Brown entered into an agreement to publish all Atlantic Monthly books; this arrangement lasted until 1985. During this time the joint Atlantic Monthly Press/Little Brown imprint published All Quiet on the Western Front, Herge's The Adventures of Tintin, James Truslow Adams's The Adams Family, Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall's Mutiny on the Bounty and its sequels, James Hilton's Goodbye, Mr. Chips, Walter D. Edmonds's Drums Along the Mohawk, William Least Heat-Moon's Blue Highways, Tracy Kidder's The Soul of a New Machine, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.
Salinger terminated his contract with the publishing house sometime in the 1970s, though his novel was still published by Little, Brown. Other prominent figures published by Little, Brown in the 20th and early 21st centuries have included Nagaru Tanigawa, Donald Barthelme, Louisa M. Alcott, Catherine Drinker Bowen, Bernie Brillstein, Thornton Burgess, Hortense Calisher, Bruce Catton, A. J. Cronin, Peter De Vries, J. Frank Dobie, C. S. Forester, John Fowles, Malcolm Gladwell, Pete Hamill, Cynthia Harrod-Eagles, Lillian Hellman, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Henry Kissinger, Elizabeth Kostova, Norman Mailer, William Manchester, Nelson Mandela, John P. Marquand and Johnson, Stephenie Meyer, Rick Moody, Ogden Nash, Edwin O'Connor, Erich Maria Remarque, Alice Sebold, David Sedaris, George Stephanopoulos, Gwyn Thomas, Gore Vidal, David Foster Wallace, Evelyn Waugh, P. G. Wodehouse, James Patterson and Herman Wouk. Little, Brown published the photography of Ansel Adams; the imprint was purchased by Time Inc. in 1968, was made part of the Time Warner Book Group when Time merged with Warner Communications to form Time Warner in 1989.
All editing staff moved from Boston to Time Warner Book Group offices in New York City by 2001. In 1996, Brown's legal and medical publishing division was purchased by Wolters Kluwer. In 2001, Michael Pietsch became Publisher of Brown. Little, Brown expanded into the UK in 1992 when TWBG bought MacDonald & Co from Maxwell Communications, taking on its Abacus and Orbit lists, authors including Iain Banks. Feminist publisher Virago Press followed in 1996. In 1996, Wolters Kluwer acquired Little, Brown's professional division and incorporated it into its Aspen and Lippincott-Raven imprints. In 2006, the Time Warner Book Group was sold to French publisher Hachette Livre. Following this, the Little, Brown imprint is used by Hachette Livre's U. S. publishing company, Hachette Book Group USA. In 2011, Brown launched an imprint devoted to suspense publishing: Mulholland Books. In 2018, Brown launched an imprint devoted to health, lifestyle and science: Little, Brown Spark; the company received the Publisher of the Year Award three times.
On April 1, 2013, Reagan Arthur became publisher of Brown. Badminton Library Books in the United States List
Sir John Mills, was an English actor who appeared in more than 120 films in a career spanning seven decades. On screen, he played people who are not at all exceptional, but become heroes because of their common sense and good judgment, he received an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his work in Ryan's Daughter. John Mills was born in Norfolk, the son of Edith, a theatre box office manager, Lewis Mills, a mathematics teacher. Mills was born at Watts Naval School, he spent his early years in the village of Belton where his father was the headmaster of the village school. He first felt the thrill of performing at a concert in the school hall, he lived in a modest house in Gainsborough Road Felixstowe until 1929. His older sister was Annette Mills, remembered as presenter of BBC Television's Muffin the Mule, he was educated at Balham Grammar School in London, Sir John Leman High School in Beccles and Norwich High School for Boys, where it is said that his initials can still be seen carved into the brickwork on the side of the building in Upper St. Giles Street.
Upon leaving school he worked as a clerk at a corn merchant's in Ipswich before finding employment in London as a commercial traveller for the Sanitas Disinfectant Company. In September 1939, at the start of the Second World War, Mills enlisted in the British Army in the Royal Engineers, he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant, but in 1942 he received a medical discharge because of a stomach ulcer. Mills took an early interest in acting, making his professional début at the London Hippodrome in The Five O'Clock Girl in 1929, he followed this with a cabaret act. Mills got a job with a theatrical company that toured India and the Far East performing a number of plays. Noël Coward saw him appear in a production of Journey's End in Singapore and wrote Mills a letter of introduction to use back in London. On his return Mills starred in The 1931 Revue, Coward's Cavalcade and the Noël Coward revue Words and Music, he made his film début in The Midshipmaid. He appeared in The Ghost Camera with Ida Lupino and Britannia of Billingsgate.
Mills was promoted to leading roles in a comedy. He was in a series of quota quickies: The River Wolves, he was one of many names in Royal Cavalcade. Mills had the star role in Brown on Resolution, it was back to quota quickies for The First Offence. He had another excellent part in an "A", he did Aren't Men Beasts? on stage and worked for Hollywood director Raoul Walsh in O. H. M. S.. Mills starred in The Green Cockatoo directed by William Cameron Menzies, he appeared as Colley in the hugely popular 1939 film version of Goodbye, Mr Chips, opposite Robert Donat. At the Old Vic he was in A Midsummer Night's Dream, She Stoops Of Mice and Men, he joined the army in 1939 but made films on leave. He went back to movies with Old Bill and Son and made Cottage to Let, a war film for Anthony Asquith. Mills went back to supporting Will Hay in The Black Sheep of Whitehall and he was one of many names in the war film, The Big Blockade, he was in Men in Shadow on stage, written by his wife. He achieved acclaim for his performance as an able seaman in Noël Coward's In Which We Serve, a huge hit.
Mills had another good support role in The Young Mr Pitt playing William Wilberforce opposite Robert Donat. He was invalided out of the army in 1942. Mills' climb to stardom began when he had the lead role in We Dive at Dawn, a film directed by Asquith about submariners, he was top billed in This Happy Breed, directed by David Lean from a Noël Coward play, a big hit. Popular was Waterloo Road, from Sidney Gilliat, where Mills played a man who goes AWOL to retrieve his wife from draft-dodging Stewart Granger. Mills played a pilot in The Way to the Stars, directed by Asquith from a script by Terence Rattigan, another big hit in Britain, he did Duet for Two Hands on stage. Mills had his greatest success to date in the lead in Great Expectations, directed by David Lean, it was the third biggest hit at the British box office this year and Mills was voted the sixth most popular star. Less successful critically and financially was So Well Remembered which used American writers and directors; the October Man was a mildly popular thriller from Roy Ward Baker.
Mills played the title role in Scott of the Antarctic, a biopic of Captain Scott. It was the fourth most watched film of the year in Britain and Mills was the eighth biggest star. Mills turned producer with The History of Mr. Polly from the novel by H. G. Wells, it was directed by Anthony Pelissier and Mills said it was his favorite film. Pelisse made The Rocking Horse Winner which Mills produced. More liked at the box office was a submarine drama, Morning Departure, directed by Baker. By this stage his fee was a reported £20,000 a film. After Morning Departure Mills took two years off; the films he made on his return were not popular: a thriller, Mr. Denning Drives North. Mills' had his first hit in a number of years with Hobso
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, was an English actor and director who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson, Peggy Ashcroft and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. He worked in films throughout his career, playing more than fifty cinema roles. Late in his career, he had considerable success in television roles, his family had no theatrical connections, but Olivier's father, a clergyman, decided that his son should become an actor. After attending a drama school in London, Olivier learned his craft in a succession of acting jobs during the late 1920s. In 1930 he had his first important West End success in Noël Coward's Private Lives, he appeared in his first film. In 1935 he played in a celebrated production of Romeo and Juliet alongside Gielgud and Ashcroft, by the end of the decade he was an established star. In the 1940s, together with Richardson and John Burrell, Olivier was the co-director of the Old Vic, building it into a respected company.
There his most celebrated roles included Sophocles's Oedipus. In the 1950s Olivier was an independent actor-manager, but his stage career was in the doldrums until he joined the avant garde English Stage Company in 1957 to play the title role in The Entertainer, a part he played on film. From 1963 to 1973 he was the founding director of Britain's National Theatre, running a resident company that fostered many future stars, his own parts there included the title role in Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. Among Olivier's films are Wuthering Heights, a trilogy of Shakespeare films as actor-director: Henry V, Richard III, his films included The Shoes of the Fisherman, Marathon Man, The Boys from Brazil. His television appearances included an adaptation of The Moon and Sixpence, Long Day's Journey into Night, Love Among the Ruins, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Brideshead Revisited and King Lear. Olivier's honours included a life peerage and the Order of Merit. For his on-screen work he received four Academy Awards, two British Academy Film Awards, five Emmy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards.
The National Theatre's largest auditorium is named in his honour, he is commemorated in the Laurence Olivier Awards, given annually by the Society of London Theatre. He was married three times, to the actresses Jill Esmond from 1930 to 1940, Vivien Leigh from 1940 to 1960, Joan Plowright from 1961 until his death. Olivier was born in Dorking, the youngest of the three children of the Reverend Gerard Kerr Olivier and his wife Agnes Louise, née Crookenden, their elder children were Sybille and Gerard Dacres "Dickie". His great-great-grandfather was of French Huguenot descent, Olivier came from a long line of Protestant clergymen. Gerard Olivier had begun a career as a schoolmaster, but in his thirties he discovered a strong religious vocation and was ordained as a priest of the Church of England, he practised high church, ritualist Anglicanism and liked to be addressed as "Father Olivier". This made him unacceptable to most Anglican congregations, the only church posts he was offered were temporary deputising for regular incumbents in their absence.
This meant a nomadic existence, for Laurence's first few years, he never lived in one place long enough to make friends. In 1912, when Olivier was five, his father secured a permanent appointment as assistant rector at St Saviour's, Pimlico, he held the post for six years, a stable family life was at last possible. Olivier was devoted to his mother, but not to his father, whom he found a remote parent, he learned a great deal of the art of performing from him. As a young man Gerard Olivier had considered a stage career and was a dramatic and effective preacher. Olivier wrote that his father knew "when to drop the voice, when to bellow about the perils of hellfire, when to slip in a gag, when to wax sentimental... The quick changes of mood and manner absorbed me, I have never forgotten them." In 1916, after attending a series of preparatory schools, Olivier passed the singing examination for admission to the choir school of All Saints, Margaret Street, in central London. His elder brother was a pupil, Olivier settled in, though he felt himself to be something of an outsider.
The church's style of worship was Anglo-Catholic, with emphasis on ritual and incense. The theatricality of the services appealed to Olivier, the vicar encouraged the students to develop a taste for secular as well as religious drama. In a school production of Julius Caesar in 1917, the ten-year-old Olivier's performance as Brutus impressed an audience that included Lady Tree, the young Sybil Thorndike, Ellen Terry, who wrote in her diary, "The small boy who played Brutus is a great actor." He won praise in other schoolboy productions, as Maria in Twelfth Night and Katherine in The Taming of the Shrew. From All Saints, Olivier went on to St Edward's School, from 1920 to 1924, he made little mark until his final year, when he played Puck in the school's production of A Midsummer Night's Dream. In January 1924, his brother left England to work in India as a rubber planter. Olivier missed him and asked his father how soon he could follow, he recalled in his memoirs that his father replied, "Don't be such a fool, you're not going to India, you're going on the stage."
In 1924 Gerard Olivier, a habitually fru
William Clark Gable was an American film actor and military officer, at his height during the 1930s and 1940s and referred to as "The King of Hollywood". He began his career as an extra in Hollywood silent films between 1924 and 1926, progressed to supporting roles with a few films for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1930, he landed his first leading role in 1931 and was a leading man in more than 60 motion pictures over the following three decades. Gable was best known for Gone With The Wind, as Rhett Butler opposite co-star Vivien Leigh as Scarlett O'Hara, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor for Frank Capra's It Happened One Night, was nominated for his role in Mutiny on the Bounty. He found success commercially and critically with Red Dust, Manhattan Melodrama, San Francisco, Test Pilot, Boom Town, The Hucksters and The Misfits, his final screen appearance. Gable appeared opposite some of the most popular actresses of the time. Joan Crawford was his favorite actress to work with, he partnered with her in eight films.
Myrna Loy worked with him seven times, he was paired with Jean Harlow in six productions. He starred with Lana Turner in four features, with Norma Shearer and Ava Gardner in three each; the Misfits united him with Marilyn Monroe in her last completed screen appearance. Gable is considered one of the most consistent box-office performers in history, appearing on Quigley Publishing's annual Top Ten Money Making Stars Poll 16 times, he was named the seventh-greatest male star of classic American cinema by the American Film Institute. William Clark Gable was born in Cadiz, Ohio to William Henry "Will" Gable, an oil-well driller, his wife Adeline, his father was his mother a Roman Catholic. Gable was named William after his father, but he was always called Clark or sometimes Billy, he was listed as a female on his birth certificate. He is of Pennsylvania Dutch and German ancestry. Gable was six months old, when he was baptized at a Roman Catholic church in Ohio, his mother died when he was ten months old from a brain tumor, although the official cause of death was given as an epileptic fit.
His father refused to raise him Catholic. The dispute was resolved when his father agreed to allow him to spend time with his maternal uncle Charles Hershelman and his wife on their farm in Vernon Township, Pennsylvania. In April 1903, Gable's father married Jennie Dunlap, whose family came from the small neighboring town of Hopedale, Ohio; the marriage produced no children. Gable was a shy child with a loud voice, his stepmother raised him to be well-groomed. He took up brass instruments and was the only boy in the men's town band when he was 13, he was mechanically inclined and loved to repair cars with his father, who insisted that he do "manly" things such as hunting and hard physical work. Gable loved language, he would recite Shakespeare among trusted company the sonnets, his father agreed to buy a 72-volume set of The World's Greatest Literature to improve his son's education, but he claimed that he never saw him use it. His father had financial difficulties in 1917 and decided to try his hand at farming, the family moved to Ravenna, Ohio near Akron.
His father insisted that he work the farm, but Gable soon left to work in Akron for the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company. At 17, Gable was inspired to be an actor after seeing the play The Bird of Paradise, but he was not able to make a real start until he turned 21 and inherited some money, his stepmother had died, his father moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma to go back to the oil business. Gable toured as well as working the oil fields and as a horse manager, he found work with several second-class theater companies, thus making his way across the Midwest to Seaside, Oregon working as a logger, to Portland, where he worked as a necktie salesman in the Meier & Frank department store. In Portland, he met Laura Hope Crews, a stage and film actress who encouraged him to return to the stage with another theater company. Twenty years Crews played Aunt Pittypat alongside Gable's Rhett Butler in Gone With the Wind. Gable's acting coach Josephine Dillon was a theater manager in Portland, she paid to have his teeth repaired and his hair styled, guided him in building up his chronically undernourished body, taught him better body control and posture.
She spent considerable time training his high-pitched voice, which he managed to lower, to gain better resonance and tone. As his speech habits improved, his facial expressions became more convincing. After a long period of training, Dillon considered him ready to attempt a film career. Gable and Dillon went to Hollywood in 1924 with her financing, she became his manager and his wife though she was 17 years his senior, he changed his stage name from W. C. Gable to Clark Gable and found work as an extra in silent films such as Erich von Stroheim's The Merry Widow, The Plastic Age starring Clara Bow, Forbidden Paradise starring Pola Negri, a series of two-reel comedies called The Pacemakers, he appeared as an extra in Fox's The Johnstown Flood. A 17 year-old Carole Lombard appeared as an extra in that film, as well, although they were not in the same scene, he appeared as a bit player in a series of shorts. However, he was not offered any major film roles, he became lifelong friends with Lionel Barrymore, who initiall
Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939 film)
Goodbye, Mr. Chips is a 1939 British romantic drama film directed by Sam Wood and starring Robert Donat and Greer Garson. Based on the 1934 novella Goodbye, Mr. Chips by James Hilton, the film is about Mr Chipping, a beloved aged school teacher and former headmaster of a boarding school who recalls his career and his personal life over the decades. Produced for the British division of MGM at Denham Studios, Goodbye, Mr. Chips was voted the 72nd greatest British film in the BFI Top 100 British films poll. For his performance as Mr. Chipping, Donat received the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1939. In 2003, the American Film Institute ranked Mr. Chipping the 41st greatest film hero of all time. For the first time in 58 years because of a cold, retired schoolteacher Mr. Chipping misses a first-day assembly at Brookfield Public School; that afternoon he falls asleep in his chair and his teaching career is related in flashback. When 25-year-old Charles Edward Chipping first arrives as a Latin teacher in 1870, he becomes a target of practical jokes on his first day.
He reacts by imposing strict discipline in his classroom, making him respected. Twenty years pass and he becomes the senior master, he is disappointed in not receiving an appointment as a housemaster within the school for the following year. However, the new German teacher, Max Staefel, saves him from despair by inviting him to share a walking holiday to his native Austria. While mountain-climbing, Chipping encounters Kathy Ellis, a feisty English suffragette, on a cycling holiday with a friend, they meet again in Vienna. This piece of music is used as a leitmotif. Staefel remarks that the Danube does not appear blue, but Chipping remarks it only appears so to those who are in love. On another part of the same boat, as Kathy looks at the river, she tells her friend. Though Kathy is younger and livelier than Chipping, she loves and marries him, they return to England, where Kathy takes up residence at the school, charming everyone with her warmth. During their tragically short marriage, she brings "Chips" out of his shell and shows him how to be a better teacher.
He acquires a flair for Latin puns. As the years pass, Chips becomes a much-loved school institution, developing a rapport with generations of pupils. In 1909, when he is pressured to retire by a more "modern" headmaster, the boys and the board of governors of the school take his side of the argument and tell him he can stay until he is 100, is free to pronounce Cicero as SIS-er-ro, not as KEE-kir-ro. Chips retires in 1914 at the age of 69, but is summoned back to serve as interim headmaster because of the shortage of teachers resulting from the First World War, he remembers. During a bombing attack by a German zeppelin, Chips insists that the boys keep on translating their Latin - choosing the story of Julius Caesar's battles against Germanic tribes, which describes the latter's belligerent nature, much to the amusement of his pupils; as the Great War drags on, Chips reads aloud into the school's Roll of Honour every Sunday the names of the many former boys and teachers who have died in the war.
Upon discovering that Max Staefel has died fighting on the German side, Chips reads out his name in chapel, too. He continues living nearby, he is on his deathbed in 1933. He responds, "I thought you said it was a pity I never had any children, but you're wrong. I have! Thousands of'em, thousands of'em... and all... boys." Robert Donat as Mr. Chips M. A.. The 34-year-old Donat ages 63 years over the course of the film, he remarked: "As soon as I put the moustache on, I felt the part if I did look like a great airedale come out of a puddle." Greer Garson as Katherine. Garson was offered a contract for MGM in 1937, but refused all the minor parts she was offered until she was given this role. Lyn Harding as Dr John Hamilton Wetherby D. D. headmaster of Brookfield. Paul Henreid as Max Staeffel M. A. the German master. Terry Kilburn as John Colley, Peter Colley I, II and III, several generations of pupils from the same family taught by Mr. Chips John Mills as Peter Colley as an adult Scott Sunderland as Sir John Colley David Croft as Perkins - Greengrocer's boy David Tree as Mr Jackson B.
A. new history master at Brookfield. Simon Lack as Wainwright Judith Furse as Flora Milton Rosmer as Chatteris Frederick Leister as Marsham Louise Hampton as Mrs. Wickett Austin Trevor as Ralston Edmond Breon as Colonel Morgan Jill Furse as Helen Colley The exteriors of the buildings of the fictional Brookfield School were shot at Repton School, an independent school, located in the village of Repton in Derbyshire, whilst the interiors, school courtyards and annexes, including the exterior shots of the Austrian Tyrol Mountains, were filmed at Denham Film Studios near the village of Denham in Buckinghamshire. Around 300 boys from Repton School stayed on during the school holidays so that they could appear in the film. Richard Addinsell's score for the film has been included in a CD of his work; the liner notes of the CD include the lyrics for the Brookfield School song, heard over the beginning cast credits as well as throughout the film itself. The lyrics in the body of the film are all but unintelligible, but per the notes, the lyrics are as follows: Let th
Buckinghamshire, abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east. Buckinghamshire is one of the home counties and towns such as High Wycombe, Amersham and the Chalfonts in the east and southeast of the county are parts of the London commuter belt, forming some of the most densely populated parts of the county. Development in this region is restricted by the Metropolitan Green Belt. Other large settlements include the county town of Aylesbury, Marlow in the south near the Thames and Princes Risborough in the west near Oxford; some areas without direct rail links to London, such as around the old county town of Buckingham and near Olney in the northeast, are much less populous. The largest town is Milton Keynes in the northeast, which with the surrounding area is administered as a unitary authority separately to the rest of Buckinghamshire.
The remainder of the county is administered by Buckinghamshire County Council as a non-metropolitan county, four district councils. In national elections, Buckinghamshire is considered a reliable supporter of the Conservative Party. A large part of the Chiltern Hills, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, runs through the south of the county and attracts many walkers and cyclists from London. In this area older buildings are made from local flint and red brick. Many parts of the county are quite affluent and like many areas around London this has led to problems with housing costs: several reports have identified the market town of Beaconsfield as having among the highest property prices outside London. Chequers, a mansion estate owned by the government, is the country retreat of the incumbent Prime Minister. To the north of the county lies rolling countryside in the Vale of Aylesbury and around the Great Ouse; the Thames forms part of the county’s southwestern boundary. Notable service amenities in the county are Pinewood Film Studios, Dorney rowing lake and part of Silverstone race track on the Northamptonshire border.
Many national companies have offices in Milton Keynes. Heavy industry and quarrying is limited, with agriculture predominating after service industries; the name Buckinghamshire means The district of Bucca's home. Bucca's home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, is named after an Anglo-Saxon landowner; the county has been so named since about the 12th century. The history of the area predates the Anglo-Saxon period and the county has a rich history starting from the Celtic and Roman periods, though the Anglo-Saxons had the greatest impact on Buckinghamshire: the geography of the rural county is as it was in the Anglo-Saxon period. Buckinghamshire became an important political arena, with King Henry VIII intervening in local politics in the 16th century and just a century the English Civil War was reputedly started by John Hampden in mid-Bucks; the biggest change to the county came in the 19th century, when a combination of cholera and famine hit the rural county, forcing many to migrate to larger towns to find work.
Not only did this alter the local economic situation, it meant a lot of land was going cheap at a time when the rich were more mobile and leafy Bucks became a popular rural idyll: an image it still has today. Buckinghamshire is a popular home for London commuters, leading to greater local affluence; the expansion of London and coming of the railways promoted the growth of towns in the south of the county such as Aylesbury and High Wycombe, leaving the town Buckingham itself to the north in a relative backwater. As a result, most county institutions are now based in the south of the county or Milton Keynes, rather than in Buckingham; the county can be split into two sections geographically. The south leads from the River Thames up the gentle slopes of the Chiltern Hills to the more abrupt slopes on the northern side leading to the Vale of Aylesbury, a large flat expanse of land, which includes the path of the River Great Ouse; the county includes parts of two of the four longest rivers in England.
The River Thames forms the southern boundary with Berkshire, which has crept over the border at Eton and Slough so that the river is no longer the sole boundary between the two counties. The River Great Ouse rises just outside the county in Northamptonshire and flows east through Buckingham, Milton Keynes and Olney; the main branch of the Grand Union Canal passes through the county as do its arms to Slough, Aylesbury and Buckingham. The canal has been incorporated into the landscaping of Milton Keynes; the southern part of the county is dominated by the Chiltern Hills. The two highest points in Buckinghamshire are Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods at 267 metres above sea level, Coombe Hill near Wendover at 260 metres. Quarrying has taken clay for brickmaking and gravel and sand in the river valleys. Flint extracted from quarries, was used to build older local buildings. Several former quarries, now flooded, have become nature reserves; as can be seen from the table, the Vale of Aylesbury and the Borough of Milton Keynes have been identified as growth areas, with a projected population surge of 40,000 in Aylesbury Vale between 2011 and 2026 and 75,000 in Milton Keynes within the same 15 years.
The population of the Borough of Milton Keynes is expected to reach 350,000 by 2031. Buckinghamshire is sub-divided into civil parishes. Today Bucking