A tank car is a type of railroad car or rolling stock designed to transport liquid and gaseous commodities. 1869, Wrought iron tanks, with an capacity of 3,500 US gal per car. 1888, Tank-car manufacturers sell units directly to the oil companies,1903, Tank-car companies develop construction safety standards. More than 10,000 tank cars are in operation,1915, A classification system is developed by the tank-car industry to ensure the correct match of car type to product being shipped. Some 50,000 tank cars are in use,1920, Welding replaces riveting in tank-car construction, enhancing the safety of cars. 1930,140,000 tank cars transport some 103 commodities, 1940s, Virtually every tank car is engaged in oil transport in support of the war effort. 1950, Pipelines and tank trucks begin to compete for liquid transport business,1963, The Union Tank Car Company introduces the Whale Belly tank car. Many variants exist due to the variety of liquids and gases transported. Tank cars can be pressurized or non-pressurized, insulated or non-insulated, non-pressurized cars have various fittings on the top and may have fittings on the bottom.
Some of the top fittings are covered by a protective housing, pressurized cars have a pressure plate, with all fittings, and a cylindrical protective housing at the top. Loading and unloading are done through the protective housing, Tank cars are specialized pieces of equipment. As an example, the interior of the car may be lined with a material, such as glass, care is taken to ensure that tank contents are compatible with tank construction. As a result of this specialization, tank cars have generally been one-way cars, other cars, like boxcars, can easily be reloaded with other goods for the return trip. Combinations of the two types were attempted, such as boxcars with fluid tanks slung beneath the floors, while the car could certainly carry a load in both directions, the limited tank size made this unsuccessful. A large percentage of cars are owned by companies serviced by railroads instead of the railroads themselves. This can be verified by examining the marks on the cars. These marks invariably end in X, meaning that the owner is not a common carrier, within the rail industry, tank cars are grouped by their type and not by the cargo carried.
Food-service tank cars may be lined with steel, glass
The Kunze-Knorr brake is an automatic compressed-air brake for goods and express trains. It was the first graduated brake for goods trains in Europe, when it was introduced after the First World War, goods train brakes switched from hand operation to compressed-air in various European countries. The Deutsche Reichsbahn alone put the cost of equipping German goods wagons with Kunze-Knorr brakes between 1918 and 1927 at 478.4 million Reichsmarks, the operating cost savings from faster goods services and having fewer brakemen was assessed by the Reichsbahn at almost 96.3 million Reichsmark annually. The Kunze-Knorr brake brought together the ideas of Prussian senior surveyor, Bruno Kunze and it was the first, compressed-air brake that, even on long goods trains, enabled the brake force not only to be applied gradually, but released again gradually. By combining a single-stage and a brake cylinder with a compound brake a significant increase in brake effort was achieved. Three versions of the brake were developed, for trains, passenger trains.
The goods wagon variant offered the option of switching between empty and loaded braking, the passenger train version was given an accelerator valve as well as a control valve. The express train brake had, in addition, a pressure regulator in order to prevent the wheels locking when braking quickly. The Kunze-Knorr brake was developed and manufactured by the firm of Knorr-Bremse AG in Berlin and it was produced by their subsidiary company Süddeutsche Bremsen-AG at what is nowadays the head office of Knorr-Bremse AG in Munich. A total of about 550,000 Kunze-Knorr brake control valves were made, in the 1930s they were superseded by the Hildebrand-Knorr brake. In many places, including the Deutsche Reichsbahn in East Germany, wilhelm Hildebrand, Die Entwicklung der selbsttätigen Einkammer-Druckluftbremse bei den europäischen Vollbahnen. Jan-Henrik Peters, Personalpolitik und Rationalisierungsbestrebungen der Deutschen Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft zwischen 1924 und 1929, jan-Henrik Peters, Rationalisierungsbestrebungen der Deutschen Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft zwischen 1924 und 1929, in, Zeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte 41,1996, 187–200.
Manfred Pohl, Sicherheit auf Schiene und Straße
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
The so-called Austauschbauart wagons were German railway vehicles produced from the late 1920s onwards which had common components built to agreed standards. The German term Austauschbau is a manufacturing concept, the idea was initially used in the field of mechanical engineering, but is now the basis for industrial mass production techniques. In short, it is a system of common, standard production tolerances and fits that are specified for components, to comply with the standards, special machines and tools are used that meet precise tolerances. In addition, measurement tools and training are needed, to ensure compliance with the guidelines, part of the principle is to design in as many standard parts as possible - screws, etc. - right from the concept stage. Austauschbau has enabled the division of labour and specialisation in modern industry, leading to mass production of complex machines, tools. The wagon bodies were painted in red-brown livery, the roofs in light grey. In 1927 the DR switched over to standard colours based on the RAL colour system 840-B, to that end the Joint Wagon Standards Committee, as well as the German Institute for Standardisation or DIN, developed the relevant norms.
The construction of wagons to these principles began in 1927, the first Austauschbauart goods wagons were based on the extremely successful Verbandsbauart or DSV wagons. Of the original 11 types of DSV wagon, eight were standardised into Austauschbau versions, the two short open wagon types were not longer up-to-date, so that no A6 wagons and only 32 A1 wagons were made. Also outmoded were the cradle wagons produced in a batch of 26 units. Their role had been subsumed in the meantime by the rail wagons built in large numbers. The wagons were fitted with Kunze-Knorr brakes. Several were built to be adaptable for Soviet broad gauge and designated with the secondary letter r. From 1933, the transition from rivetted to welded technology reduced the weight of the vehicles. At about the time the Hildebrandt-Knorr brake became standard, so that the majority of welded wagons were equipped with them. In the middle of the 1930s, several types appeared with an axle base that enable faster running. Some of these wagons were equipped with steam heating pipes in order to enable their inclusion in passenger trains, the numbers of Austauschbauart wagons never approached those of the DSV wagons because, to begin with, the worldwide economic crisis caused a reduction in the demand for transportation.
Only with the start of the Second World War did the transport requirement rise again, as a result, the Oppeln and Stuttgart classes quickly became the most numerous Austauschbauart wagons built by far
Flat wagons, as classified by the International Union of Railways, are railway goods wagons that have a flat, usually full-length and little or no superstructure. By contrast, open wagons have high side and end walls and covered goods wagons have a fixed roof, flat wagons are often designed for the transportation of goods that are not weather-sensitive. Some flat wagons are able to be covered completely by tarpaulins or hoods and are suitable for the transport of weather-sensitive goods. Unlike a goods wagon with opening roof, the area of a flat is entirely open. Gravel and other goods are transported on flat wagons with side panels. Flat wagons are classified by the UIC into, Ordinary goods wagons with category letters K, O and R, within both types of flat wagon, there are variants with separate axles as well as bogie wagons. In addition numerous other terms are used to classify flat wagons according to their purpose, attempts by the International Union of Railways to standardise flat wagons go back to the 1950s.
These efforts led to the establishment of characteristics for so-called standard wagons, since the end of 1977, flat wagons that partially conform to these guidelines are identified by the designation UIC. Flat beds that comply fully with the leaflets, and are therefore true UIC standard wagons, are given the designation UIS St. The Class K flats were originally one of the largest families of goods wagons, not least in Germany, the bulk of their work has since been taken over by special flat wagons. By 1998, DB only had 10,000 of this type left. The majority of ordinary two-axle flat beds built since the 1950s were those with folding sides and short swivelling stanchions of UIC type 1 with, at least in Germany, in recent years new K wagons have been developed. These have fixed ends and a cover and are therefore suitable for hygroscopic goods. Their designation is Kils, based on the UIC classification of goods wagons, as a rule, L wagons do not have stanchions. The UIC has standardised three types of L wagon, the Class Lgss being based heavily on the Class Ks, The standard mixed open flat wagon group has folding sides, most types have short, swivelling stanchions.
They are especially suited to the transport of long steel elements, building materials, machines, in the 1990s, the DB purchased Class R wagons with long, light metal stanchions and high end walls for the increasing amount of log transport required. In 1998, the DB had about 17,000 R wagons in service, the UIC has specified two standard R wagons, both of which are very common e. g. in Germany. In the mid-1970s there was a switchover to newly built wagons with foldable sides and this is the largest group of flat wagons both in terms of variety and numbers
The German term Verbandsbauart describes both a type of goods wagon as well as a type of tram. In order to standardise the goods wagons classes of the various German state railways, the so-called Verbandsbauart or DWV wagons, named after this association, were built from 1910 until the emergence of the Austauschbauart wagons in 1927. Externally, the Verbandsbauart wagons looked very much like state railway goods wagons, a total of 11 classes were defined by norms defined by master engineering drawings. The wagons were built in numbers today are hardly conceivable. The most important ones were the A2 and A10 Class wagons of which over 100,000 of each type were built, only did they slowly disappear from the tracks. Many were modified as part of the German goods wagon reconstruction programme, the other meaning of the term is used for one of the tram classes that arose after Second World War in West Germany. The Verband wagons succeeded the rebuilt, war-damaged trams and were built to guidelines issued by the Association of Public Transport Companies, the open wagon with drop-down sides of Class A1 were based on the Prussian truck, built to Sheet II d3.
Just under 50,000 A1s were built from 1910, both with and without brakemans cabs and they had a loading capacity of 18.4 m³, a maximum load of 15 tonnes and a carrying capacity of 17.5 tonnes. The wooden walls of the wagon were 1,000 mm high, the door width was 1,500 mm, the loading length 6,720 mm. The wheelbase for vehicles and without hand brakes was uniformly 4,000 mm, as wagons of the DWV they bore the letter marking Omk. Later when they were incorporated into the Deutsche Reichsbahn after the First World War, the DWV built 120,000 Class A2 goods wagons from 1910 to 1927. These flat-roofed wagons were produced with and without brakes and in two variants of loading door and ventilation flap. One had a door and ventilation flap on each side. Later, most of the variants were converted to two-door wagons as the extra doors were deemed superfluous. Vans with two ventilators were mainly used for transporting fruit and vegetables, the new raised brakemans cab was given a gabled roof with a pointed ridge and handrails were added to the outside of the steps.
These twin-axle wagons had at a volume of 45.7 m³, a payload of 15 tonnes. The wheelbase was uniformly 4,500 mm, the length over buffers was 9,600 mm, it had pressed steel axle boxes, the van had eleven-leaf,1,100 mm long suspension springs. At one point of the wagon a Kunze-Knorr goods train brake was retrofitted from the mid-1920s, in the late thirties the end panels were reinforced by diagonal braces in order to better stabilize the van body when shunting
Covered goods wagon
A covered goods wagon or van is a railway goods wagon which is designed for the transportation of moisture-susceptible goods and therefore fully enclosed by sides and a fixed roof. They are often referred to simply as covered wagons, and this is the used by the International Union of Railways. Since the introduction of the classification for goods wagons by the UIC in the 1960s a distinction has been drawn between ordinary and special covered wagons. Other types of wagon, such as refrigerated vans and goods wagons with opening roofs, are related to covered wagons from a design point of view. Similar freight cars in North America are boxcars, covered goods wagons for transporting part-load or parcel goods are almost as old as the railway itself. Since however the wagon and flat wagon have become more common. By contrast the covered goods wagon still forms the majority of two-axled wagons in countries like Germany, during the 1950s the International Union of Railways developed a standard design for covered goods wagons.
This has 8 ventilation hatches and is suitable for the transportation of cattle. Since then, European railways have procured covered wagons which at least match the dimensions of this standard. For example, there are wagons with different axle bases or a different number of ventilation hatches, the body is of a mainly wood and steel compound construction. Refrigerated vans were developed, based on the long, twin-axled types. The following table contains details of the UIC ordinary covered wagon according to Behrends because this is the available source with systematic specifications. Other sources may differ in some respects from this, in particular the door height has not been clarified beyond doubt and it is unclear to what extent the present-day, twin-axled, sliding wall wagons were standardised. The UICs ordinary covered wagon class has rigid, fixed walls with sliding doors on each side, the upper third of the side walls has closable openings of various types. These may be designed as ventilation openings, loading hatches or combined ventilation, Class G wagons have been largely superseded by other classes.
The transportation of goods that are susceptible to the weather in boxes, sacks. One disadvantage they have is that the side door does not facilitate rapid loading and unloading of large unit loads. The demand for G wagons fell with the use of intermodal freight transport
A loading gauge defines the maximum height and width for railway vehicles and their loads to ensure safe passage through bridges and other structures. Classification systems vary between different countries and gauges may vary across a network, even if the track gauge remains constant, containerisation and a trend towards larger shipping containers has led rail companies to increase structure gauges to compete effectively with road haulage. Compliance with a loading gauge can be checked with a car which in the past were simple wooden frames or physical feelers mounted on rolling stock. The difference between the two is called the clearance, the terms dynamic envelope or kinematic envelope – which include factors such as suspension travel, overhang on curves and lateral motion on the track – are sometimes used in place of loading gauge. The height of platforms is a consideration when considering the loading gauge of passenger trains, where the two are not directly compatible, steps may be required which will increase loading times.
Where long carriages are used on a platform, gaps will occur between the platform and the carriage door, causing additional risk. Problems increase where trains of several different loading gauges and train floor heights use the same platform, the size of load that can be carried on a railway of a particular gauge is influenced by the design of the rolling stock. Low-deck rolling stock can sometimes be used to carry taller 9 ft 6 in shipping containers on lower gauge lines although their low-deck rolling stock cannot carry as many containers. Larger out-of-gauge loads can sometimes be conveyed by taking one or more of the measures, operate at low speed. Cross over from a track with inadequate clearance to another track with greater clearance, prevent operation of other trains on adjacent tracks. Use refuge loops to allow trains to operate on other tracks, use of Schnabel cars that manipulate the load up and down or left and right to clear obstacles. Use gauntlet track to shift the train to side or center, for locomotives that are too heavy, ensure that fuel tanks are nearly empty.
Turn off power in overhead wiring or in third rail, rapid Transit railways generally have a very small loading gauge. This reduces the cost of tunnel construction and these systems only use their own rolling stock. The loading gauge on the lines of Great Britain, most of which were built before 1900, is generally smaller than in other countries. In mainland Europe, the slightly larger Berne gauge was agreed to in 1913, as a result, British trains have noticeably and considerably smaller loading gauges and smaller interiors, despite the track being standard gauge along with much of the world. This results in increased costs for purchasing trains as they must be designed for the British network. The International Union of Railways has developed a series of loading gauges named A, B, B+
A coupling is a mechanism for connecting rolling stock in a train. The design of the coupler is standard, and is almost as important as the gauge, since flexibility. The equipment that connects the couplings to the stock is known as the draft gear. The different types of coupling do not always have formal or official names and these couplings followed earlier tramway practice but were made more regular. The vehicles are coupled by hand using a hook and links with a turnbuckle that draws the vehicles together, in Britain, this is called a screw coupling. Vehicles have buffers, one at each corner on the ends and this arrangement limits the slack in trains and lessens shocks. The earliest buffers were fixed extensions of the frames. This coupling is still the standard in European countries, the link-and-pin coupling was the original style of coupling used on North American railways. After most railroads converted to semi-automatic Janney couplers, the link-and-pin survived on forestry railways, while simple in principle, the system suffered from a lack of standardisation regarding size and height of the links, and the size and height of the pockets.
The link-and-pin coupler consisted of a body that received an oblong link. During coupling, a worker had to stand between the cars as they came together and guide the link into the coupler pocket. Once the cars were joined, the employee inserted a pin into a hole a few inches from the end of the tube to hold the link in place. This procedure was exceptionally dangerous and many brakemen lost fingers or entire hands when they did not get out of the way of the coupler pockets in time. Many more were killed as a result of being crushed between cars or dragged under cars that were coupled too quickly, brakemen were issued with heavy clubs that could be used to hold the link in position, but many brakemen would not use the club, and risked injury. The link-and-pin coupler proved unsatisfactory because, It made a connection between the cars, with too much slack action. There was no design, and train crews often spent hours trying to match pins. Crew members had to go between moving cars during coupling, and were injured and sometimes killed.
The links and pins were often pilfered due to their value as scrap metal, john H. White suggests that the railroads considered this to be more important than the safety issue at the time
Linienzugbeeinflussung is a cab signalling and train protection system used on selected German and Austrian railway lines as well as the AVE in Spain. The system was mandatory where trains were allowed to exceed speeds of 160 km/h in Germany and 200 km/h in Spain and it was used on some slower lines to increase capacity. The German Linienzugbeeinflussung translates to continuous train control, linear train influencing and it is called linienförmige Zugbeeinflussung. LZB is deprecated and to be replaced with European Train Control System and it is referenced by European Union Agency for Railways as a Class B train protection system in National Train Control. Driving cars mostly have to replace classical control logic to ETCS Onboard Units with common Driver Machine Interface, because high performance trains are often not scrapped ore reused on second order lines, special Specific Transmission Modules for LZB were developed for further support of LZB installation. In Germany the standard distance from a distant signal to its signal is 1,000 metres.
On a train with strong brakes, this is the distance from 160 km/h. In the 1960s Germany evaluated various options to increase speeds, including increasing the distance between distant and home signals, and cab signalling, increasing the distance between the home and distant signals would decrease capacity. Adding another aspect would make the signals harder to recognize, in either case, changes to the conventional signals wouldnt solve the problem of the difficulty of seeing and reacting to the signals at higher speeds. To overcome these problems, Germany chose to develop continuous cab signalling, the LZB cab signalling system was first demonstrated in 1965, enabling daily trains at the International Transport Exhibition in Munich to run at 200 km/h. Meanwhile, additional capabilities were built into to the system, LZB consists of equipment on the line as well as on the trains. A 30–40 km segment of track is controlled by a LZB control center, the control center computer receives information about occupied blocks from track circuits or axle counters and locked routes from interlockings.
It is programmed with the track including the location of points, gradients. With this, it has sufficient information to calculate how far each train may proceed, the control center communicates with the train using two conductor cables that run between the tracks and are crossed every 100 m.2 km depending on the unit and line. As the train approaches a speed restriction, such as one for a curve or turnout, LZB will sound a buzzer and display the distance to, as the train continues the target distance will decrease. As the train nears the speed restriction the permitted speed will start to decrease, at that point the display will change to the next target. The LZB system treats a red signal or the beginning of a block containing a train as a restriction of 0 speed. The driver will see the same sequence as approaching a speed restriction except the speed is 0
Open wagons form a large group of railway goods wagons designed primarily for the transportation of bulk goods that are not moisture-retentive and can usually be tipped, dumped or shovelled. The International Union of Railways distinguishes between ordinary wagons and special wagons, open wagons often form a significant part of a railway companys goods wagon fleet, for example, forming just under 40% of the Deutsche Bahns total goods wagon stock in Germany. Since the 1960s, the majority of goods wagons procured by European railway administrations have been built to standards laid down by, or based on, in addition to open wagons the table shows wagons with opening roofs, whose design is based on open wagons. These wagons have a floor and solid sides with at least one door on each side. They are mainly used for transporting goods, scrap, wood. The majority of wagons have folding sides and end walls, otherwise they are given the letters l or o, wagons may have one or two folding end walls. Steel rings enable ropes, nets or covers to be attached to secure the load, some of these wagons can be completely tipped over, in other words, at certain places they can be lifted up and emptied by being turned about their longitudinal axis.
This requires a very robust underframe, sometimes the wagons are fitted with rotatable couplings so that they do not have to be individually uncoupled. In 1998 the DB had about 16,000 four-axle Class E wagons and they have increasingly retired their twin-axled E wagons since the 1990s and they are now rarely seen. In addition to hopper and saddle-bottomed wagons there were wagons with opening roofs, typical loads for these wagons are all sorts of bulk goods, like coal, ore, sand or gravel. Hopper wagons can only be unloaded by gravity with no external assistance and are classed as self-discharging wagons. The majority may be filled, when at rail or road level, because a controlled amount of the load can be discharged at any place the wagons may be sent anywhere and are even used individually. Railway companies use hoppers as departmental wagons in maintenance of way trains for ballasting the track, since the 1990s there has been a trend for new hopper wagons to be built as bogie wagons which have not yet been standardised by the UIC.
Saddle-bottomed wagons are large-volume hoppers are exclusively unloaded by gravity and are classed as self-discharging hoppers. Unlike normal hopper wagons, their discharge cannot be controlled, to unload the flaps on the side swing out allowing the load to empty. This is aided by the floor slopes downwards on both sides like a gable roof. The discharging chutes on either side are high up. These wagons are frequently seen in unit trains for transporting goods such as coal or mineral ore from mines or ports to steelworks or power stations
These containers are known under a number of names, such as simply container, cargo or freight container, ISO container, sea or ocean container, container van or box, sea or c can. The common heights are 8 feet 6 inches and 9 feet 6 inches – the latter are known as High Cube or Hi-Cube containers, in 2012 there were about 20.5 million intermodal containers in the world of varying types to suit different cargoes. Containers have largely supplanted the traditional break bulk cargo – in 2010 containers accounted for 60% of the seaborne trade. The predominant alternative methods of transport carry bulk cargo – whether gaseous, liquid or solid – e. g. by bulk carrier or tank ship, for air freight, the more light-weight IATA-defined unit load device is used. By the 1830s, railways on several continents were carrying containers that could be transferred to other modes of transport, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in the United Kingdom was one of these. Simple rectangular timber boxes, four to a truck, they were used to convey coal from the Lancashire collieries to Liverpool, early versions of standardized containers were used in Europe before World War II.
Construction of these containers had a frame with wooden walls, roof. American containers at this time were not standardized, and these early containers were not yet stackable – neither in the U. S. nor Europe, in November 1932, the first container terminal in the world was opened by the Pennsylvania Rail Road Company in Enola, PA. A system was selected for Western Europe, based on the Netherlands system for goods and waste transportation called Laadkisten. This system used roller containers for transport by rail and ship, in various configurations up to 5,500 kg capacity and this became the first post World War II European railway standard of the International Union of Railways – UIC-590, known as pa-Behälter. It was implemented in the Netherlands, Luxembourg, West Germany, Sweden, the use of standardized steel shipping containers began during the late 1940s and early 1950s, when commercial shipping operators and the US military started developing such units. In 1948 the U. S. Army Transportation Corps developed the Transporter, a rigid, corrugated steel container, able to carry 9,000 pounds.
It was 8 ft 6 in long,6 ft 3 in wide, and 6 ft 10 in high, with doors on one end, was mounted on skids. After proving successful in Korea, the Transporter was developed into the Container Express box system in late 1952, cONEXes could be stacked three high, and protected their contents from the elements. By 1965 the US military used some 100,000 Conex boxes, making this the first worldwide application of intermodal containers. From 1949 onwards, engineer Keith Tantlinger repeatedly contributed to the development of containers, as well as their handling, steel castings on the top corners provided lifting and securing points. In 1955 trucking magnate Malcom McLean bought Pan-Atlantic Steamship Company, to form a container shipping enterprise, the first containers were supplied by Brown, where McLean met Keith Tantlinger, and hired him as vice-president of engineering and research. Under the supervision of Tantlinger, a new 35 ft x 8 ft x 8 ft 6 in Sea-Land container was developed, each container had a frame with eight corner castings that could withstand stacking loads