Claremont is a city on the eastern edge of Los Angeles County, United States, 30.3 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. It is in the Pomona Valley, at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains, has a population, as of the 2015 United States Census estimate, of 36,283 people. Claremont is known as the home of the Claremont Colleges and other educational institutions, for its tree-lined streets with numerous historic buildings. In July 2007, it was rated by CNN/Money magazine as the fifth best place to live in the United States, was the highest rated place in California on the list, it was named the best suburb in the West by Sunset Magazine in 2016, which described it as a "small city that blends worldly sophistication with small-town appeal." In 2018, Niche rated Claremont as the 17th best place to live in the Los Angeles area out of 658 communities it evaluated, based on crime, cost of living, job opportunities, local amenities. Due to its large number of trees and residents with doctoral degrees, as well as its proximity to the renowned Claremont Colleges, it is sometimes referred to as "The City of Trees and PhDs."The city is residential, with a significant portion of its commercial activity located in "The Village," a popular collection of street-front small stores, art galleries and restaurants adjacent to and west of the Claremont Colleges.
The Village was expanded in 2007, adding a controversial multi-use development that includes a cinema, a boutique hotel, retail space, a parking structure on the site of an old citrus packing plant west of Indian Hill Boulevard. Claremont has been a winner of the National Arbor Day Association's Tree City USA award for 22 consecutive years; when the city incorporated in 1907, local citizens started what has become the city's tree-planting tradition. Claremont is one of the few remaining places in North America with American Elm trees that have not been exposed to Dutch elm disease; the stately trees line Indian Hill Boulevard in the vicinity of the city's Memorial Park. The Claremont Institute, a conservative think tank, is located in nearby Upland, CA; the city hosts several large retirement communities, among them Pilgrim Place, the Claremont Manor and Mt. San Antonio Gardens; the citrus groves and open space which once dominated the northern portion of the city have been replaced by residential developments of large homes.
Construction of Stone Canyon Preserve, one of the final residential tract developments in the north of the city, commenced in 2003 as part of a complicated agreement between Pomona College and the City of Claremont which resulted in the creation of the 1,740-acre Wilderness Park. The foothill area includes the Padua Hills Theatre, a historic site constructed in 1930 and the Claraboya residential area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.35 square miles, of which 13.3 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. Claremont is located at the eastern end of Los Angeles County and borders the cities of Upland and Montclair in San Bernardino County, as well as the cities of Pomona and La Verne in Los Angeles County, it is geographically located in the San Gabriel Valley. Claremont is 24 miles east of Pasadena and 30 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. Claremont has a Mediterranean climate. In the summer months, temperatures can rise above 100 °F. In the autumn months, Claremont can receive gusty winds known as the "Santa Ana Winds", which can bring fire danger to nearby foothills.
In the winter, most of its annual rainfall occurs. Snow is rare but can be viewed in the nearby San Gabriel Mountains. In early summer, Claremont can receive overcast weather due to its strong onshore flow from the ocean known as "May Gray" or "June Gloom"; the 2010 United States Census reported that Claremont had a population of 34,926. The population density was 2,589.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Claremont was 24,666 White, 1,651 African American, 172 Native American, 4,564 Asian, 38 Pacific Islander, 2,015 from other races, 1,820 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,919 persons; the Census reported that 29,802 people lived in households, 4,926 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 198 were institutionalized. There were 11,608 households, out of which 3,576 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,305 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,223 had a female householder with no husband present, 397 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 429 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 138 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,957 households were made up of individuals and 1,556 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57. There were 7,925 families; the population was spread out with 6,459 people under the age of 18, 6,778 people aged 18 to 24, 6,940 people aged 25 to 44, 8,979 people aged 45 to 64, 5,770 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.7 males. There were 12,156 housing units at an average density of 901.3 per square mile, of which 7,700 were owner-occupied, 3,908 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.9%. 21
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting research university in Pasadena, California. Known for its strength in natural science and engineering, Caltech is ranked as one of the world's top-ten universities. Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century; the vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910 and the college assumed its present name in 1921. In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities and the antecedents of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán; the university is one among a small group of institutes of technology in the United States, devoted to the instruction of pure and applied sciences. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research.
Its 124-acre primary campus is located 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles. First-year students are required to live on campus and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks, student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations; the Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III's Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. As of October 2018, Caltech alumni and researchers include 73 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners. In addition, there are 53 non-emeritus faculty members who have been elected to one of the United States National Academies, 4 Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force and 71 have won the United States National Medal of Technology. Numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. According to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U.
S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a vocational school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop; the school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute and Throop College of Technology before acquiring its current name in 1920. The vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when scientific research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale, a solar astronomer from the University of Chicago, founded the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904, he joined Throop's board of trustees in 1907, soon began developing it and the whole of Pasadena into a major scientific and cultural destination. He engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, to Throop's presidency in 1908. Scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site. Arthur Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. Theodore Roosevelt delivered an address at Throop Institute on March 21, 1911, he declared: I want to see institutions like Throop turn out ninety-nine of every hundred students as men who are to do given pieces of industrial work better than any one else can do them. In the same year, a bill was introduced in the California Legislature calling for the establishment of a publicly funded "California Institute of Technology", with an initial budget of a million dollars, ten times the budget of Throop at the time; the board of trustees offered to turn Throop over to the state, but the presidents of Stanford University and the University of California lobbied to defeat the bill, which allowed Throop to develop as the only scientific research-oriented education institute in southern California, public or private, until the onset of the World War II necessitated the broader development of research-based science education.
The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science and technology. With the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. While he supported the idea of federal appropriations for science, he took exception to a federal bill that would have funded engineering research at land-grant colleges, instead sought to raise a $1 million national research fund from private sources. To that end, as Hale wrote in The New York Times: Throop College of Technology, in Pasadena California has afforded a striking illustration of one way in which the Research Council can secure co-operation and advance scientific investigation; this institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, could be of great service in any broad scheme of cooperation. President S
The Claremont Colleges are a consortium of seven selective institutions of higher education located in Claremont, United States. They comprise five undergraduate colleges — Pomona College, Scripps College, Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College — and two graduate schools — Claremont Graduate University and Keck Graduate Institute. All of the members except KGI have adjoining campuses that together cover 1 square mile; the consortium was founded in 1925 by Pomona president James A. Blaisdell, who proposed a collegiate university design inspired by Oxford University, he sought to provide the specialization and personal attention found in small colleges, but with the resources of a large university. Today, the consortium has 7700 students and 3600 faculty and staff, offers more than 2000 courses every semester; the colleges share a central library, campus safety services, other resources. Among the undergraduate schools, there is significant social interaction and academic cross-registration, but each college still maintains a distinct identity.
For the Class of 2020 admissions cycle, four of the five most selective liberal art colleges in the U. S. by acceptance rate were among the Claremont Colleges, the remaining college, had the second lowest acceptance rate among women's colleges. The Fiske Guide to Colleges has called the consortium "a collection of intellectual resources unmatched in America"; the five undergraduate colleges are: Pomona College, a small, liberal arts college that offers majors in humanities, social sciences, natural sciences. Pomona College is the founding member of the Claremont Colleges. Scripps College, a small, liberal arts, women's college, which offers 35 majors in both the sciences and humanities. Claremont McKenna College, a small, liberal arts college that specializes in economics, political science, international relations, public policy, it maintains a broad set of majors in the natural sciences, social sciences, humanities. Claremont McKenna College is home to the Robert Day School of Economics and Finance, which offers both an undergraduate program and a master's program in finance.
Harvey Mudd College, a small, coeducational college specializing in engineering, computer science, the physical and biological sciences but includes coursework in the humanities and social sciences. Pitzer College, a small, liberal arts college noted for its core values of Social Responsibility, Intercultural Understanding, Interdisciplinary Learning, Student Engagement and Environmental Sustainability. Pitzer is part of the SAT optional movement among liberal arts colleges; the two graduate universities are: Claremont Graduate University, awards master's and doctoral degrees in 31 disciplines: arts, social sciences, behavioral & organizational sciences, management/executive management, educational studies, mathematical sciences, information systems & technology, community & global health, botany. Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences, a biomedical graduate school offers professional Master of Bioscience degree and PhD in Applied Life Science for MBS graduates, it offers a Postdoctoral Professional Masters and a joint PhD program in computational biology with Claremont Graduate University.
The Keck Graduate Institute School of Pharmacy opened in 2014 offering a four-year Doctorate of Pharmacy degree. Keck Graduate Institute sponsors a four-year undergraduate program in collaboration with the Minerva Project, termed Minerva Schools at KGI, though students are not physically present on the Claremont Colleges campuses; the Claremont School of Theology is not a member. According to the American Liberal Arts College rankings released by U. S. News & World Report in fall 2018, the "5Cs" were ranked among the top 50 liberal art colleges in the United States: Pomona College, Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Scripps College, Pitzer College. Additionally, all of the undergraduate colleges are categorized as "Most Selective". Forbes ranked the 5C's among the top 60 undergraduate colleges in the nation and within the top 25 liberal arts colleges for its 2017 report: Pomona College, Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Scripps College, Pitzer College. Niche listed all of the undergraduate colleges within the top 30 small colleges in the United States as measured by surveys rating various components of the undergraduate experience: Pomona College, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont McKenna College, Scripps College, Pitzer College.
U. S. News & World Report releases individual graduate program rankings for the Claremont Graduate University, with several of its programs ranking in the top tier of graduate programs nationwide; each college is independent in that, for example, students receive their degrees from the one college in which they are enrolled, administration and admissions departments are independent. The seven-institution Claremont Colleges system is supported by The Claremont Colleges Services, which provides centralized services, such as a library, student health and human resources, telecommunications, risk management, real estate, physical plant maintenance, other serv
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Athenaeum at Caltech
The Athenaeum is a faculty club and private social club on the California Institute of Technology campus in Pasadena, California. The Athenaeum was designed by Gordon Kaufmann in the Mediterranean Revival style, with landscape design by Florence Yoch and Lucile Council, opened in 1930, it includes a restaurant, a private hotel with several named suites, serves as Caltech's Faculty Club. Membership includes Caltech faculty, graduate students, undergraduate seniors, alumni and Associates of the California Institute of Technology, staff of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Palomar Observatory, the Huntington Library and Art Gallery. Notable regulars at the Athenaeum Round Table have included: David Baltimore Robert Christy Lee Alvin DuBridge Richard Feynman William Alfred Fowler Scott Fraser Jesse L. Greenstein Charles Christian Lauritsen Maarten Schmidt List of American gentlemen's clubs