Francis Gordon Caffey
Francis Gordon Caffey was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Born on October 28, 1868, in Gordonville, Caffey received an Artium Magister degree in 1887 from Howard College, an Artium Baccalaureus degree in 1891 from Harvard University, an Artium Magister degree in 1892 from the same institution and attended Harvard Law School, he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Third Alabama Volunteer Infantry during the Spanish–American War. He entered private practice in Montgomery, Alabama from 1894 to 1902, he was Judge Advocate General for the office of the Governor of Alabama from 1900 to 1902. He returned to private practice in New York City, New York from 1902 to 1912, he was a solicitor for the United States Department of Agriculture from 1913 to 1917. He was the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York from 1917 to 1921, he returned to private practice in New York City from 1921 to 1929. Caffey gained notoriety when his name was associated with possible political advocacy on the part of the Department of Justice.
Just two weeks before the 1920 election, John R. Rathom, publisher of the Providence Journal, charged that the Democratic candidate for Vice President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, had acted improperly while Assistant Secretary of the Navy in releasing sailors convicted on morals charges from Portsmouth Naval Prison. Caffey, once the Attorney General had telegraphed his authorization, released a lengthy document from Justice Department files that discredited Rathom. A report in the New York Times suggested that he may have acted with undue enthusiasm: "Some surprise was shown at the epartment...that District Attorney Caffey had given the entire Rathom letter to the newspapers. He had been authorized, it was said, to make public'excerpts'". Caffey was nominated by President Herbert Hoover on April 18, 1929, to the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, to a new seat authorized by 45 Stat. 1317. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on April 29, 1929, received his commission on April 30, 1929.
He assumed senior status on October 31, 1947. His service terminated on September 1951, due to his death in Verbena, Alabama. Francis Gordon Caffey at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Fort Deposit, Alabama
Fort Deposit is a town in Lowndes County, United States. Since 1890, it has been the largest town in Lowndes County. At the 2010 census the population was 1,344, up from 1,270 in 2000, it is part of the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area. This town is named after a fort, built under the order of General Andrew Jackson; this was a supply fort, built to serve the soldiers during the Creek Indian War. There is an annual arts and crafts fair called Calico Fort on the second weekend of April every year, it was incorporated on February 13, 1891. It sits on the highest point of land between Montgomery and New Orleans, Louisiana. Fort Deposit is located at 31°59′16″N 86°34′16″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 5.6 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,270 people, 489 households, 349 families residing in the town; the population density was 225.1 people per square mile. There were 569 housing units at an average density of 100.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 68.19% Black or African American, 31.50% White and 0.31% from two or more races. 0.47% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 489 households out of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.3% were married couples living together, 27.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.8% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.2 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 83.0 men. The median income for a household in the town was $20,433, the median income for a family was $24,250. Males had a median income of $27,391 versus $20,882 for females.
The per capita income for the town was $12,584. About 29.8% of families and 35.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 42.8% of those under age 18 and 34.2% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,344 people, 512 households, 348 families residing in the town; the population density was 240 people per square mile. There were 592 housing units at an average density of 105.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 75.5% Black or African American, 23.7% White and 0.6% from two or more races. 0.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 512 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.8% were married couples living together, 29.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.0% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.28.
In the town, the population was spread out with 29.5% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 22.1% from 25 to 44, 26.6% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.9 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 76.7 men. The median income for a household in the town was $30,000, the median income for a family was $31,591. Males had a median income of $41,579 versus $25,341 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,411. About 19.4% of families and 22.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.6% of those under age 18 and 25.4% of those age 65 or over. Richard Williamson, former NFL head coach Glenn Dowling Frazier, a subject of Ken Burns' documentary The War Ren Heartsil, known as the Mayor locally, has won the hot dog eating contest at the county fair for a record 41 years in a row. Map of Fort Dollar of 1812 puts it North of Arab Alabama. Fort Dollar appears in 1793 in Town Creek, Alabama clear across the Northern part of the state.
Welcome To Fort Deposit
Sandy Ridge, Alabama
Sandy Ridge, sometimes spelled Sandyridge, is an unincorporated community in Lowndes County, United States. Sandy Ridge appeared on the 1880 and 1890 U. S. Censuses, but was not separately returned in 1890, it has not appeared on the census rolls since. Sandy Ridge is located at 32.02459°N 86.45191°W / 32.02459.
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Lowndesboro is a town in Lowndes County, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 115, down from 140 in 2000, it is part of the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area. Although incorporated in 1856 by an act of the state legislature, it lapsed and was not reincorporated until 1962; as of the 2000 and 2010 U. S. Censuses, along with Benton, are the only two towns in Lowndes County with a white majority of residents. Both are the 7th smallest communities. Known as McGill's Hill, the community began attracting settlers following the conclusion of the Creek War. In 1832, the residents changed the name to Lowndesboro in honor of U. S. Congressman William Lowndes, the son of Rawlins Lowndes, an early South Carolina governor. With its proximity to the Alabama River, the community had grown into a prosperous town by the 1830s. Many wealthy planters settled in the area, leaving a legacy of historic mid-19th-century architecture that survived intact into the modern era. A brief skirmish was fought at Lowndesboro in April 1865 between a group of Confederate cavalry and advance troops of the Union Army during Wilson's Raid.
Federal troops occupied the town after driving off the Confederate force, with little destruction noted from the occupation, thus preserving many of the antebellum houses and structures in the Lowndesboro Historic District. Like many small Southern communities with an economy based on cotton production and trade, Lowndesboro declined in the post-war years. At least attributed to this decline was the survival of much of the pre-war architecture into the 20th century, making it a unique assemblage of 19th-century architecture. Today much of the town is included in the Lowndesboro Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Dicksonia Plantation ruins are a notable place of interest. Lowndesboro was the site of a number of significant events in the civil rights movement. On March 25, 1965, civil rights worker Viola Liuzzo was shot to death during a high-speed chase by Ku Klux Klan members on U. S. Route 80, while driving to Montgomery to pick up a group of demonstrators waiting to return to Selma after the Selma-to-Montgomery march.
The Klansmen spotted the white Liuzzo and her black passenger, Leroy Moton, at a stoplight in Selma, catching up to the pair about two miles west of Lowndesboro. In 1966 a number of Lowndes County African-American families were evicted from their homes in retaliation for their participation in the movement. Twenty of these families set up a tent city outside of Lowndesboro rather than flee the area. Lowndesboro is located at 32°16′23″N 86°36′36″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 square miles, all land. Lowndesboro appeared on the 1850 and 1880 U. S. Census records, it did not appear again until 1970. In 1880, it was the largest town in the county with 472 residents, ahead of Fort Deposit and White Hall, the only two other communities separately returned; as of the census of 2000, there were 140 people, 58 households, 40 families residing in the town. The population density was 176.0 people per square mile. There were 62 housing units at an average density of 77.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 71.43% White, 25.00% Black or African American, 1.43% from other races, 2.14% from two or more races. 3.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 58 households out of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.98. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, 23.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $27,917, the median income for a family was $35,833.
Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $41,250 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,101. There were 16.0% of families and 29.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including 39.4% of under eighteens and 38.6% of those over 64. Private schoolsLowndes Academy Noble C. Powell, prominent leader in the Episcopal Church in the United States of America Lowndesboro Historic District Meadowlawn Plantation Dicksonia Plantation Hasan Kwame Jeffries. Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Black Power in Alabama's Black Belt. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-4305-8. Retrieved 8 January 2013