Gorkha Kingdom was a kingdom in the confederation of 24 states, known as Chaubisi rajya, located in the Indian subcontinent, present-day western Nepal. The Kingdom of Gorkha extended from the Marshyangdi River in the west to the Trishuli River in the east, which separated it from the kingdoms of Lamjung and Nepal respectively; the Gorkha Kingdom was established by Prince Dravya Shah, second son of King Yasho Brahma Shah of Lamjung Kingdom, on 1559 CE replacing the Khandka chiefs. According to legends, one of the earliest Shah rulers was Rishi-raj Rana-Ji, of the Lunar dynasty, he received the title of Bhattarak. The lunar dynasty remained in power for thirteen generations; the Muslim Yavanas took power. The Bhattarak could only retain his caste family name, Rana-ji; the rajas were titled Rana-Ji for four generations and Rana-ji Rava for a further seventeen generations. Akbar, the Mughal emperor, wished to marry the daughter of Fatte Sinha Rana-Ji Rava. Akbar was refused; this decision led to war.
Many Rajput, including Fatte Sinha Rana-ji Rava, were killed. The survivors of the war were led by Udaybam Rana-Ji Rava, they founded Udaipur. Manmath Rana-Ji Rava went to Ujjain, his son Bhupal Ranaji Rao went to Ridi in the northern hills and in 1417 AD, to Sargha, to Khium in Bhirkot. There, he cultivated the land; the new ruler of Khium had sons and Micha. Their bartabandha was performed. Plans for the boys to marry the daughters of the Raghuvanshi Rajputs were made. Kancha, the elder son went to Dhor, he conquered Mangart and reigned over Garhon and Birkot. Micha, the younger son, became ruler there. From Micha, a dynasty of seven rajas commenced in Nuwakot. Kulamandan, the eldest son of Jagdeva, became ruler of Kaski displacing Gurung king, he was became Shah and succeeded his father. Kalu, the second son was sent to Dura Danda in Lamjung at the people's request to become their king. Kalu was killed by the Sekhant tribe. In the 1500s, another son, became the ruler of Lamjung after he compromised with the Gurungs.
The second son of Yasobramha, Dravya Shah conquered the Ghale people of neighbouring Ligligkot, now in Gorkha. Prince Dravya Shah on 1559 CE replaced the Khandka chiefs to become the first King of Gorkha Kingdom; the ancient name of Gor-kha is Shakya. The following is list of all ten kings of Gorkha hill principality From 1736, the Gorkhalis engaged in a campaign of expansion begun by King Nara Bhupal Shah, continued by his son, King Prithvi Narayan Shah and grandson Prince Bahadur Shah. Over the years, they conquered huge tracts of land to the west of Gorkha. Among their conquests, the most important and valuable acquisition was the wealthy Newar confederacy of Nepal Mandala centered in the Kathmandu Valley. Starting in 1745, the Gorkhalis mounted a blockade in a bid to starve the population into submission, but the inhabitants held out; the Newars appealed to the British East India Company to help, in 1767, it sent an expedition under Captain Kinloch which ended in failure. The three Newar capitals of Kathmandu and Bhaktapur fell to the Gorkhalis between 1768 and 1769.
The Gorkhali king subsequently moved his capital to Kathmandu. In 1788, the Gorkhalis invaded Tibet, they seized the border towns of Kyirong and Kuti, forced the Tibetans to pay an annual tribute. When the Tibetans stopped paying it, the Gorkhalis invaded Tibet again in 1791 and plundered the Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse; this time the Chinese army came to Tibet's defence and advanced close to Kathmandu but couldn't achieve success due to strong counterattack with Khukuri. The anxious Bahadur Shah asked for 10 howitzer mountain guns from the British East India Company. Captain William Kirkpatrick arrived in Kathmandu; the Fu Kanggan was keen to protect his army and war being resultless was concluded by signing a peace treaty at Betrawati. Nepalese–Tibetan War was fought from 1855 to 1856 in Tibet between the forces of the Tibetan government and the invading Nepalese army resulting victory of Nepal; the Gorkha dominion reached its height at the beginning of the 19th century, extending all along the Himalayan foothills from Kumaon and Garhwal in the west to Sikkim in the east.
They were made to return much of the occupied territories after their defeat in the Anglo-Nepalese War during the gorkha Sikh war they lost the control over kangra valley. The Gorkha dominion continued to be known as Gorkha Rajya until the beginning of the 20th century; the name'Nepal' referred to Kathmandu valley, the homeland of the Newars. Since the 1930s, the state began using it to refer to the entire country and'Nepal Khaldo' became'Kathmandu Valley'; the name Gorkha Sarkar was changed to Nepal government. The Gorkhali language was renamed as Nepali in 1933; the term Gorkhali in the former national anthem entitled "Shreeman Gambhir" was changed to Nepali in 1951. The government newspaper, launched in 1901, is still known as Gorkhapatra; the Shah dynasty ruled Nepal until 2008. Today, Gorkha District corresponding to the old kingdom, is one of the 77 administrative districts of Nepal. Not to be confused with the inhabitants of the old Gorkha Kingdom only, the Gurkhas
Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about 800 kilometers along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers. Nepal is landlocked by China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea for most goods imported from China. For a small country, Nepal has tremendous geographic diversity, it rises from as low as 59 metres elevation in the tropical Terai—the northern rim of the Gangetic Plain, beyond the perpetual snow line to some 90 peaks over 7,000 metres including Earth's highest 8,848 metres Mount Everest or Sagarmatha. In addition to the continuum from tropical warmth to cold comparable to polar regions, average annual precipitation varies from as little as 160 millimetres in the rainshadow north of the Himalaya to as much as 5,500 millimetres on windward slopes. Along a south-to-north transect, Nepal can be divided into three belts: Terai and Himal.
In the other direction, it is divided into three major river systems, from east to west: Koshi, Gandaki/Narayani and Karnali, all tributaries of the Ganges. The Ganges-Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra watershed coincides with the Nepal-Tibet border, however several Ganges tributaries rise inside Tibet. Terai is a low land region containing some hill ranges; the Terai region begins at the Indian border and includes the southernmost part of the flat, intensively farmed Gangetic Plain called the Outer Terai. By the 19th century and other resources were being exported to India. Industrialization based on agricultural products such as jute began in the 1930s and infrastructure such roadways and electricity were extended across the border before it reached Nepal's pahad; the Outer Terai is culturally more similar to adjacent parts of India's Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than to the Pahad of Nepal. Nepali is taught in schools and spoken in government offices, however the local population uses Maithali and Tharu languages.
The Outer Terai ends at the base of the first range of foothills called the Siwaliks or Churia. This range has a densely forested skirt of coarse alluvium called the bhabhar. Below the bhabhar, less permeable sediments force groundwater to the surface in a zone of springs and marshes. In Persian, terai refers to marshy ground. Before the use of DDT this was dangerously malarial. Nepal's rulers used. Above the bhabhar belt, the Siwaliks rise to about 700 metres with peaks as high as 1,000 metres, steeper on their southern flanks because of faults known as the Main Frontal Thrust; this range is composed of poorly consolidated, coarse sediments that do not retain water or support soil development so there is no agricultural potential and sparse population. In several places beyond the Siwaliks there are dūn valleys called Inner Terai; these valleys have productive soil but were dangerously malarial except to indigenous Tharu people who had genetic resistance. In the mid-1950s DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos and the way was open to settlement from the land-poor hills, to the detriment of the Tharu.
The terai ends and the Pahad begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat Range. Hilly is a mountain region which doesn't contain snow, it is situated south of the Himal, the hilly is betw altitude. This region begins at the Mahabharat Range where a fault system called the Main Boundary Thrust creates an escarpment 1,000 to 1,500 metres high, to a crest between 1,500 and 2,700 metres; these steep southern slopes are nearly uninhabited, thus an effective buffer between languages and culture in the Terai and hilly. Hindu Paharis populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato; the urbanized Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys fall within the Hill region. Newars are an indigenous ethnic group with their own Tibeto-Burman language; the Newar were indigenous to the Kathmandu valley but have spread into Pokhara and other towns alongside urbanized Pahari. Other indigenous janajati ethnic groups -— natively speaking localized Tibeto-Burman languages and dialects -— populate hillsides up to about 2,500 metres.
This group includes Magar and Kham Magar west of Pokhara, Gurung south of the Annapurnas, Tamang around the periphery of Kathmandu Valley and Rai, Koinch Sunuwar and Limbu further east. Temperate and subtropical fruits are grown as cash crops. Marijuana was grown and processed into Charas until international pressure persuaded the government to outlaw it in 1976. There is increasing reliance on animal husbandry with elevation, using land above 2,000 metres for summer grazing and moving herds to lower elevations in winter. Grain production has not kept pace with population growth at elevations above 1,000 metres where colder temperatures inhibit double cropping. Food deficits drive emigration out of the pahad in search of employment; the Hilly ends where ridges begin rising out of the temperate climate zone into subalpine zone above 3,000 metres. Himal is a mountain region containing snow; the Mountain Region or Parbat begins where high ridges begin rising above 3,000 metres into the subalpi
Manaslu is the eighth highest mountain in the world at 8,163 metres above sea level. It is located in the Mansiri Himal, part of the Nepalese Himalayas, in the west-central part of Nepal, its name, which means "mountain of the spirit", comes from the Sanskrit word manasa, meaning "intellect" or "soul". Manaslu was first climbed on May 9, 1956 by Toshio Imanishi and Gyalzen Norbu, members of a Japanese expedition, it is said that "just as the British consider Everest their mountain, Manaslu has always been a Japanese mountain". Manaslu is located about 64 km east of Annapurna; the mountain's long ridges and valley glaciers offer feasible approaches from all directions, culminate in a peak that towers steeply above its surrounding landscape, is a dominant feature when viewed from afar. The Manaslu region offers a variety of trekking options; the popular Manaslu trekking route of 177 kilometres skirts the Manaslu massif over the pass down to Annapurna. The Nepalese Government only permitted trekking of this circuit in 1991.
The trekking trail follows an ancient salt-trading route along the Burhi Gandak River. En route, 10 peaks over 6,500 metres are visible, including a few over 7,000 metres; the highest point reached along the trek route is the Larkya La at an elevation of 5,106 metres. As of May 2008, the mountain has been climbed 297 times with 53 fatalities; the Manaslu Conservation Area has been established with the primary objective of achieving conservation and sustainable management of the delimited area, which includes Manaslu. Set in the northern Himalayan range in the Gorkha District of Nepal, Manaslu is a serrated "wall of snow and ice hanging in the sky"; the three sides of the mountain fall in steps to terraces down below, which are sparsely inhabited with agricultural operations practiced on the land. Apart from climbing Manaslu, trekking is popular in this mountain region, as part of the Manaslu Circuit, a notable path by trekkers in Nepal; the Manaslu Conservation Area, declared as such in December 1998 under the National Parks and Wild Life Conservation Act, subsumes Manaslu within it.
The area covered under the conservation zone is 1,663 square kilometres and is managed by the National Trust for Nature Conservation of Nepal. The status of "conservation area" applied to the Manaslu area or region was with the basic objective "To conserve and sustainable management of the natural resources and rich cultural heritage and to promote ecotourism to improve livelihood of the local people in the MCA region."Manaslu Himal, as it is popularly known among trekkers, provides views of the snow-covered mountains of the Himalayas and allows close interaction with the different ethnic groups who live in hill villages scattered along the trek route. The trekking route is through mountainous terrain prone to the consequences of monsoon rainfall, land slides and land falls. Hypothermia and altitude sickness, as well as encounters with passing yaks, are common. Trekking to Manaslu is thus a test of endurance; the region, termed the Manaslu Conservation Area, comprises sub-tropical Himalayan foothills to arid Trans-Himalayan high pastures bordering Tibet.
Starting from Arughat and extending into the Larkhe La pass, the area covers six climatic zones: the tropical and sub-tropical zone, elevation varies from 1,000–2,000 metres. The zones coalesce with the variation of the altitude from about 600 metres in the tropical zone to the 8,156 metres summit of Manaslu in the arctic zone. Manaslu is known in the Tibetan language as "Kutan l", in which "tang" means the Tibetan word for a flat place, it is a large peak with an elevation of 8,156 metres. In view of its favourable topography of long ridges and glacial valleys, Manaslu offers several routes to mountaineers. Important peaks surrounding Manaslu include Ngadi Chuli and Baudha. A glacial saddle known as Larkya La, with an elevation of 5,106 metres, lies north of Manaslu; the peak is bounded on the east by the Ganesh Himal and the Buri Gandaki River gorge, on the west by the deep fissures of the Marysyangdi Khola with its Annapurna range of hills, to the south is the Gorkha town at the foot of the hill, an aerial distance of 48 kilometres to the peak.
There are six established trek routes to the peak, on the mountain the south face is the most difficult for climbing. The permanent snow line is reckoned above 5,000 metres elevation. Precipitation in the area is both from snowfall and rainfall; the temperatures in the area vary with the climatic zone: in the subtropical zone, the average summer and winter temperatures vary in the range of 31–34 °C and 8–13 °C respectively. The arctic zone falls within the permanent snow line. There are other
Paduka is India's oldest, most quintessential footwear. It is little more than a sole with a post and knob, engaged between the big and second toe, it exists in a variety of materials throughout India. They might be made in the shape of actual feet, or of fish, for example, are made of wood and silver, they are sometimes elaborately decorated. The more elaborate shoes could be part of a bride's trousseau, but could be given as religious offerings or be themselves the object of veneration. Although simple wooden padukas could be worn by common people, padukas of fine teak and sandalwood, inlaid with ivory or wire, were a mark of the wearer's high status. Today paduka as footwear is worn by mendicants and saints of Hinduism and Jainism, its significance in Hinduism is linked to the epic Ramayana. "Paduka" can refer to the footprints of deities and saints that are venerated. Paduka means the footprints of divine figures such as Vishnu and Shiva and other religious icons that are worshipped in this symbolic form in houses and in temples built for this purpose.
One such temple is the Vishnupad Mandir in India. Buddha footprints are worshipped under the Bodhi Tree in Bodh Gaya, it is the royal symbol in Malaysia. The Sanskrit word pāduka is derivative of pāda "foot"; this terminology was coined to define India's ancient archetypal footwear. The word pada is cited in the ancient Hindu scripture - Rigveda, as representing the universe namely the Prithvi, Vayu and the element of the realm beyond the sky. In the Hindu epic Ramayana, King Dasaratha who had a curse on him, sent his son Rama for 14 years of exile, at the behest of his wife Kaikeyi as she wanted her son Bharata to be crowned as the king. Rama, his consort Sita and brother Laksmana went into a forest to spend their period of exile, but Bharata did not want to have the kingdom. He, met Rama, living in the forest and beseeched him to return to Ayodhya; when Rama told Bharata that he will return only after completing his fourteen years in the forest, Bharata requested for Rama's paduka to serve as his proxy, to be crowned in Ayodhya Raj Singhasan of Kosala country and to serve as an object of veneration for Rama's followers.
Bharata carried Rama's golden sandals with great reverence by placing them on his head as a mark of his obedience to his elder brother. Bharata ruled Kosala as Rama's proxy in the name of "Ram's Padukas"; the footwear is a sandal, which has a wooden sole with a post and a stub to provide grip to the foot between the big and second toes. It is known as karrow and karom and used in the Indian subcontinent by mendicants and common man for special occasions. Made in the shape of the foot prints, with two narrow and curved stilts, the design is specific to ensure that the principle of non-violence - practised by the saintly followers of Hindu and Jain religions - is not violated by accidental trampling on insects and vegetation; the heard prayer on the lips of a Brahmin wearing such a paduka is:"Forgive me Mother Earth the sin of injury, the violence I do, by placing my feet upon you this morning."Padukas made of ivory were in popular use among royalty and saints. These are, made from ivory of dead elephants or extracted from live domesticated elephants.
Elephants are not killed for the purpose of making such sandals because Hindu religious ethos does not permit such cruel acts. Padukas are worn by common people, but people of high status in the society wear padukas made out of fine teak and sandalwood and inlaid with ivory or wire. It is made in the shape of a fish, as a symbol of fertility. Other forms of padukas worn on special occasions are: Silver Paduka incised with silver or of wood covered with silver plates and sometimes adorned with bells to sound upon walking. A unique pair of wooden padukas has toe knobs inlaid with ivory lotus flowers and is minutely painted. At each step, a trigger mechanism in the sole signals the lotus to open from bud to blossom, it is made in the shape of an hourglass or with carved toes. An eighteenth-century footwear used as ritual wear made of "wood with bed of sharp iron spikes" has been found, it is inferred that it was meant to be used to inflict pain to the wearer to demonstrate his conviction in religious forbearance of pain.
Paduka is gifted as part of a bride's dowry. They are worshipped and given as votive offerings by the faithful believers. In a festival associated with the Hindu god Vithoba, pilgrims travel to his Pandharpur temple from Alandi and Dehu towns that are associated with poet-saints Dnyaneshwar and Tukaram carrying the Padukas of the saints in a silver palkhi; the popular religious belief is that of the contact with the Salabhanjika yakshini's foot. It is said that when the Yakshini encircles a dormant tree with her leg around it, it starts to blossom and bear fruit. Shalabhanjika yakshi is an embellishment in the form of an architectural bracket in many Hindu temples. Another notable feature of veneration is of the goddess of prosperity. On Deepavali festival day, Lakshmi is devotionally ushered into the house by symbolic representation with a series of her foot prints drawn in paint or kolam and lighted all along with oil lamps, from the main door of the house into the private sanctum in the house
Gandaki Pradesh is one of the seven federal provinces established by the current constitution of Nepal, promulgated on 20 September 2015. Pokhara is the province's capital city, it borders the Tibet of China to the north, Province No. 3 to the east, Karnali Pradesh to the west, Province No. 5 and Uttar Pradesh of India to the south. The total area of the province is 21,504 km². According to the latest census, the population of the province was 2,403,757; the newly elected Provincial Assembly adopted Gandaki Pradesh as the permanent name by replacing its initial name Province no. 4 for in July 2018. The Gandaki Pradesh got its name from River Gandaki. All of the districts of Gandaki Pradesh are irrigated by one of the branches of Gandaki River. Gandaki Pradesh is formed by combining former two Zones of Nepal, they are Gandaki and Dhaulagiri, Nawalpur region of former Nawalparasi District of Lumbini Zone; the name, Gandaki Pradesh is related to Gandaki River Civilization. The province has an area of 21,773 km2, about 14.66% of the total area of Nepal.
The state is extends between 27°-20' N ~ 29°-20' N latitude and 82° 52' E ~ 85°-12' E longitude. In terms of terrain, the province is spread over the Himalayan and Terai region of Nepal; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Pokhara High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Baburam Kunwar, Prithvi Subba Gurung and Purushottam Bhandari. The province has 60 provincial assembly constituencies and 18 federal House of Representative constituencies. Gandaki Pradesh has a unicameral legislature, like that of the other provinces in Nepal; the tenure of provincial assembly is of five years. The Provincial Assembly of Gandaki is temporarily housed at the Town Development Training Centre in Pokhara. Gandaki province is divided into 11 districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer.
The districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include one metropolitan city and 26 municipalities. There are 58 rural municipalities in the province. Baglung District Gorkha District Kaski District Lamjung District Manang District Mustang District Myagdi District Nawalpur District Parbat District Syangja District Tanahun District The province has a population of 2,403,016, just about 9.06% of the total population of Nepal. The population density is about 110 persons per square kilometre; the province has a population growth rate of -0.33%. The sex ratio is 89 males for 100 females, with a total of 948,028 males and 1,144,124 females recorded in 2011; the urban population of the region is 1,452,186 and the rural population is 943,652. About 50.1% of the population in the province are independent population. According to the 2011 Nepal census there are total 88 languages spoken in Gandaki Pradesh. Nepali, Tharu, Kumal, Ghale, Thakali etc are main languages, spoken by communities in Gankldaki Pradesh.
Spoken language is Nepali, spoken by 68.885 percent people of Gandaki Pradesh. Magar is secondly most spoken language with percentage of 9.025 and Gurung is third spoken language with percentage of 7.855. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Orders of magnitude (area)
This page is a progressive and labelled list of the SI area orders of magnitude, with certain examples appended to some list objects. Orders of magnitude