SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gosport

Gosport is a town in Hampshire on the south coast of the United Kingdom. At the 2011 Census, its population was 82,622, it is situated on a peninsula on the western side of Portsmouth Harbour, opposite the city of Portsmouth, to which it is linked by the Gosport Ferry. Gosport lies south-east of Fareham, to which it is linked by a Bus Rapid Transit route and the A32; until the last quarter of the 20th century, Gosport was a major naval town associated with the defence and supply infrastructure of Her Majesty's Naval Base Portsmouth. As such over the years extensive fortifications were created; the town is still home to HMS Sultan and a Naval Armament Supply Facility, as well as a Helicopter Repair base. The Town area of the Borough, including Newtown, consists of the town centre, Stoke Road shopping area, Walpole Park, Royal Clarence Yard and three modern marinas: Royal Clarence, Gosport Marina and Haslar Marina; as part of the Renaissance of Portsmouth Harbour Millennium project, a large sundial, known as the Millennium Timespace, was installed on the harbour front in 2000.

Gosport is believed to derive its name from "goose". An alternative etymology of "gorse" is not supported by the regional name for the plant, "furze". A third theory, claiming a derivation from "God's Port" is believed to be a 19th-century invention; the Rowner area of the peninsula was settled by the Anglo-Saxons, is mentioned in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle as Rughenor. Both Rowner and Alverstoke, the name coming from the point where the River Alver entered the Solent at Stokes Bay, were included in the Domesday Book. Rowner was the earliest known settlement of the peninsula, with many Mesolithic finds and a hunting camp being found, tumuli on the peninsula investigated. Bronze Age items found in a 1960s construction in HMS Sultan included a hoard of axe heads and torcs. A three-celled dwelling unearthed during construction of the Rowner naval Estate in the 1970s points to a settled landscape. Next to the River Alver which passes the southern and western edge of Rowner is a Norman motte and bailey, the first fortification of the peninsula, giving a vantage point over the Solent, Stokes Bay, Lee-on-the-Solent and the Isle of Wight.

The former Rowner naval married quarters estate, now demolished, HMS Sultan were built on a former military airfield, known first as RAF Gosport and as HMS Siskin, which gives its name to the local infant and junior schools. The barracks at Browndown were used in the ITV series Bad Lads' Army; the district is run by the Gosport Borough Council. Following the 2018 Borough Council elections, the political structure of the Council is as follows: Until the last quarter of the 20th century, Gosport was a major naval town associated with the defence and supply infrastructure of Her Majesty's Naval Base Portsmouth; as such over the years extensive fortifications were created. The first fortifications were in 1678 during the reign on Charles II; these consisted of two forts, Fort James and Fort Charles, a series of bastions and double ditches to encircle the town, known as the Gosport Lines. During the Georgian period in 1751 and 1752 they were rebuilt and extended. Further additions were made in response to the French invasion threat of 1779.

By 1860, the Gosport Lines had 58 guns. No.1 Bastion, for example, had mounted 14 guns in brick lined emplacements firing over the parapet. The 1859 Royal Commission on the Defences of the United Kingdom proposed the completion of a line of forts to protect the outer approach to Gosport town, making the earlier defences redundant. However, they were retained to constrain any expansion of the town towards the new line of forts. From the 1890s road widening meant some parts of the ramparts and gates were demolished. Further sections were demolished in the 1960s. Today, the little are protected ancient monuments; the town is still home to HMS Sultan and a Naval Armament Supply Facility as well as a Helicopter Repair base. Most of the former naval and military installations have closed since the Second World War, leaving empty sites and buildings. In response to this, museums have opened, many of the fortifications and installations have been opened to the public as tourism and heritage sites. One of the more recent additions is the Diving Museum at No 2 Battery at Stokes Bay, bidding to become the National Diving Museum for the British Isles.

Several sites have been redeveloped to provide housing, including the New Barracks, the Royal Clarence Victualling Yard and Royal Hospital Haslar. Forton Barracks is now St Vincent College. There has been extensive redevelopment of the harbour area as a marina. In November 1850, two ships of the Ottoman Navy, Mirat-ı Zafer and Sirag-i Bahri Birik, anchored off the Hardway near Gosport; the visit lasted several months and during this time some of

Ani Couni Chaouani

Ani Couni Chaouani is a traditional Native American hymn and song originating from the Arapaho tribes living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming in the United States. Although the vast majority of Native Americans have a tendency to appropriate the hymn, the hymn is believed to have originated from the Iroquois Nation of the Northeast. However, a researcher associated with Radio-Canada discovered in 2017 that the hymn had originated from the centre of the United States, more from the Arapaho tribes in Colorado and Wyoming; the hymn is considered to be a lullaby. It is sung on a plaintive tone, with dancers to the hymn crying and thinking about their condition of dependence; this Native American hymn is similar to the Lord's Prayer and Hail Mary in Christianity, the Shahada and Salat in Islam. According to the Fourteenth annual report of the Bureau of ethnology to the secretary of the Smithsonian institution, the hymn is transcribed in suit with the following notes from the original tribal version in Arapaho: Arapahos Iroquois Native Americans in the United States Powel, J. W..

Fourteenth annual report of the Bureau of ethnology to the secretary of the Smithsonian institution. Washington: Government printing office. P. 977

Crime in Phoenix

Crime in Phoenix has been declining since the 1990s. By the 1960s crime was becoming a significant problem in Phoenix, by the 1970s crime continued to increase in the city at a faster rate than anywhere else in the country, it was during this time frame when an incident occurred in Phoenix which would have national implications. On March 16, 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested and charged with the rape of an 18-year-old woman with mild intellectual disabilities; the subsequent Supreme Court ruling on June 13, 1966, in the matter of Miranda v. Arizona, has led to practice in the United States of issuing a Miranda Warning to all suspected criminals. By the mid 1970s, Phoenix was close to or at the top of the list for cities with the highest crime rate; the mayor during the mid-70s, Mayor Graham, introduced policies which raised Phoenix from near the bottom of the statistics regarding police officers per capita, to where it resided in the middle of the rankings. He implemented other changes, including establishing a juvenile department within the police force.

With Phoenix's rapid growth, it drew the attention of con men and racketeers, with one of the prime areas of activity being land fraud. The practice became so widespread; these land frauds led to one of the more infamous murders in the history of the valley, when Arizona Republic writer Don Bolles was murdered by a car bomb at the Clarendon Hotel in 1976. It was believed that his investigative reporting on organized crime and land fraud in Phoenix made him a target. Bolles' last words referred to Phoenix land and cattle magnate Kemper Marley, regarded to have ordered Bolles' murder, as well as John Harvey Adamson, who pleaded guilty to second-degree murder in 1977 in return for testimony against contractors Max Dunlap and James Robison; the trial gained national attention since Bolles was the only reporter from a major U. S. newspaper to be murdered on U. S. soil due to his coverage of a story, led to reporters from all over the country descending on Phoenix to cover his murder. Dunlap was convicted of first degree murder in the case in 1990 and remained in prison, until his death on July 21, 2009, while Robison was acquitted, but pleaded guilty to charges of soliciting violence against Adamson.

Street gangs and the drug trade had turned into public safety issues by the 1980s. Despite continued improvements in the size of the police force and other anti-crime measures, the crime rate in Phoenix continued to grow, albeit at a lower growth rate than other southwestern cities. After seeing a peak in the early and mid 1990s, the city has seen a general decrease in both the violent and property crime rates. 1993 saw the creation of "Tent City," by Sheriff Joe Arpaio, using inmate labor, to alleviate overcrowding in the Maricopa County Jail system, the fourth-largest in the country. The violent crime rate peaked in 1993 at 1,146 crimes per 100,000 people, while the property crime rate peaked a few years earlier, in 1989, at 9,966 crimes per 100,000. In the most recent numbers from the FBI, those rates stand at 637 and 4,091, respectively; when compared to the other cities on the 10 most populated list, this ranks Phoenix 5th and 6th, respectively. Since their peak in 2003, murders have dropped from 241 to 123 in 2012.

Assaults have dropped from 7,800 in 1993 to 5,260 in 2012. In the 20 years since 1993, there have only been five years in which the violent crime rate has not declined; the year 2012 was an anomaly to the general downward trend in violent crime in Phoenix, with the rates for every single violent crime, except rape, showing an increase. The murder rate increased by 15.4% and aggravated assaults jumped by 27%, while rapes were down by 2%. However, the property crime rate returned to the downward trend begun in the 1990s, after a slight uptick in the previous two years. Vehicle thefts, which have been perceived as a major issue in the Valley of the Sun for decades, saw a continuation of a downward trend begun over a decade ago. In 2001 Phoenix ranked first in the nation in vehicle thefts, with over 22,000 cars stolen that year; that continued in 2002, when car thefts rose to over 25,000, a rate of over 1,825 thefts per 100,000 people. It has declined every year since and last year stood at just over 480, a drop of 75% in the decade.

According to the "Hot Spots" report put out by the National Insurance Crime Bureau, The Phoenix MSA has dropped to 70th in the nation in terms of car thefts in 2012. As the first decade of the new century came to a close, Arizona had become the gateway to the U. S. for drug trafficking. By 2009, seizures in Arizona amounted for half of all Marijuana captured along the U. S.-Mexican border. Another crime issue related to the drug trade are kidnappings. In the late 2000s, Phoenix earned the title "Kidnapping capital of the USA"; the majority of the kidnapped are believed to be victims of human smuggling, or related to illegal drug trade, while the kidnappers are believed to be part of Mexican drug cartels the Sinaloa cartel. In August and September 2015, the Phoenix freeway shootings led to a number of cars being shot at on Interstate 10 in the city