Gotham City in Batman vol. 3, #14
(March 2017). Art by Mitch Gerads.
|Created by||Bill Finger
|Notable locations||Ace Chemicals
Gotham City Police Department
|Notable characters||Bruce Wayne
|First appearance||Batman #4
Gotham City (// GOTH-əm), or simply Gotham, is a fictional American city appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, best known as the home of Batman. Gotham City was first identified as Batman's place of residence in Batman #4 (Dec. 1940) and has since been the setting of most stories featuring the character.
The city is depicted as being in close proximity to Metropolis, with the vast majority of DC Comics references placing Gotham City specifically in the state of New Jersey. Cities such as New York City, which borders New Jersey, and Chicago have also influenced the look and feel of Gotham over the years.
Within the DC Extended Universe, the 2016 film Suicide Squad reveals Gotham City to be located in New Jersey. Locations used as inspiration or filming locations for Gotham City in the live-action Batman films and television series have included Chicago, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, New Jersey, and New York City.
- 1 Origin of name
- 2 Geography
- 3 Fictional history
- 4 Atmosphere
- 5 Notable residents
- 6 Gotham City Metropolitan Area
- 6.1 Uptown districts and locations
- 6.2 Midtown districts and locations
- 6.3 Downtown districts and locations
- 6.4 Other notable districts and locations
- 7 In other media
- 8 References
- 9 Sources
- 10 External links
Origin of name
Writer Bill Finger, on the naming of the city and the reason for changing Batman's locale from New York City to a fictional city, said, "Originally I was going to call Gotham City 'Civic City.' Then I tried 'Capital City,' then 'Coast City.' Then I flipped through the New York City phone book and spotted the name 'Gotham Jewelers' and said, 'That's it,' Gotham City. We didn't call it New York because we wanted anybody in any city to identify with it."
"Gotham" was a nickname for New York City that became popular in the nineteenth century; Washington Irving had first attached it to New York in the November 11, 1807 edition of his Salmagundi, a periodical which lampooned New York culture and politics. Irving took the name from the village of Gotham, Nottinghamshire, England, a place inhabited, according to folklore, by fools. The village's name derives from Old English gāt 'goat' and hām 'home', literally "homestead where goats are kept", and is pronounced // GOHT-əm, like the word goat (cf. Chatham, // CHAT-əm, a similar name where the letters th represent a "t" sound followed by a silent "h" rather than a "th" sound). The Joker references this etymology in Detective Comics #880, in which he tells Batman that the word means "a safe place for goats". In contrast, "Gotham" as used for New York has a different pronunciation by analogy to other words spelled with "th" and is pronounced as // GOTH-əm, like the word Goth.
Location in New Jersey
Gotham City, like other cities in the DC Universe, has varied in its portrayals over the decades, but the city's location is traditionally depicted as being in the state of New Jersey. In Amazing World of DC Comics #14 (March 1977), publisher Mark Gruenwald discusses the history of the Justice League and indicates that Gotham City is located in the state of New Jersey.
In the World’s Greatest Super Heroes (August 1978) comic strip, a map is shown placing Gotham City in New Jersey and Metropolis in Delaware. World's Finest Comics #259 (November 1979) also confirms that Gotham is in New Jersey. New Adventures of Superboy #22 (October 1981) and the 1990 Atlas of the DC Universe both show maps of Gotham City in New Jersey and Metropolis in Delaware.
Detective Comics #503 (June 1983) includes several references suggesting Gotham City is in New Jersey. A location on the Jersey Shore is described as "twenty miles north of Gotham", and Robin and Batgirl drive from a "secret New Jersey airfield" to Gotham City and then drive on the "Hudson County Highway"; Hudson County is the name of an actual county in New Jersey.
Batman: Shadow of the Bat, Annual #1 (June 1993) further establishes that Gotham City is in New Jersey. Sal E. Jordan's driver's license in the comic shows his address as "72 Faxcol Dr Gotham City, NJ 12345".
In relation to Metropolis
Gotham City is the home of Batman, just as Metropolis is home to Superman, and the two heroes often work together in both cities. In comic book depictions, the exact distance between Gotham and Metropolis has varied over the years, with the cities usually being within driving distance of each other. The two cities are commonly portrayed as twin cities on opposite sides of the Delaware Bay, with Gotham in New Jersey and Metropolis in Delaware. The Atlas of the DC Universe from the 1990s places Metropolis in Delaware and Gotham City in New Jersey.
During the Bronze Age of Comic Books, the Metro-Narrows Bridge was depicted as the main route connecting the twin cities of Metropolis and Gotham City. It has been described as being the longest suspension bridge in the world.
A map appeared in The New Adventures of Superboy #22 (October 1981), that showed Smallville within driving distance of both Metropolis and Gotham City; Smallville was relocated to Kansas in post-Crisis continuity. A map of the United States in The Secret Files & Origins Guide to the DC Universe 2000 #1 (March 2000) depicts Metropolis and Gotham City as being somewhere in the Tri-state Area alongside Blüdhaven.
In Swamp Thing #53, Alan Moore wrote a fictional history for Gotham City that other writers have also followed. According to Moore's tale, a Norwegian mercenary, Captain Jon Logerquist, founded Gotham City in 1635 and the British later took it over—a story that parallels the founding of New York by the Dutch (as New Amsterdam) and later takeover by the British. During the American Revolutionary War, Gotham City was the site of a major battle (paralleling the Battle of Brooklyn in the American Revolution). This was detailed in Rick Veitch's Swamp Thing #85 featuring Tomahawk. Rumors held it to be the site of various occult rites.
The 2011 comic book series Batman: Gates of Gotham details a history of Gotham City in which Alan Wayne (Bruce Wayne's ancestor), Theodore Cobblepot (Oswald Cobblepot's ancestor), and Edward Elliot (Thomas Elliot's ancestor), are considered the founding fathers of Gotham. In 1881 they constructed three bridges called the Gates of Gotham, each bearing one of their last names. Edward Elliot became increasingly jealous of the Wayne family’s popularity and wealth during this time period, a jealousy that would spread to his great-great grandson, Thomas Elliot or Hush.
The occult origins of Gotham are further delved into by Peter Milligan's 1990 story arc "Dark Knight, Dark City", which reveals that some of the American Founding Fathers are involved in summoning a bat-demon which becomes trapped beneath old "Gotham Town", its dark influence spreading as Gotham City evolves. A similar trend is followed in 2005's Shadowpact #5 by Bill Willingham, which expands upon Gotham's occult heritage by revealing a being who has slept for 40,000 years beneath the land upon which Gotham City was built. Strega, the being's servant, says that the "dark and often cursed character" of the city was influenced by the being who now uses the name "Doctor Gotham."
During the American Civil War, it was defended by an ancestor of the Penguin, fighting for the Union Army, Col. Nathan Cobblepot, in the Legendary Battle of Gotham Heights. In Gotham Underground #2 by Frank Tieri, Tobias Whale claims that 19th century Gotham was run by five rival gangs, until the first "masks" appeared, eventually forming a gang of their own. It is not clear whether these were vigilantes or costumed criminals.
In contemporary times, Batman is considered the protector of Gotham, as he is fiercely protective of his home city. While other masked vigilantes also operate in Gotham City, they do so under Batman's approval since he is considered the best and most knowledgable crime-fighter in the city.
Many storylines have added more events to Gotham's history, at the same time greatly affecting the city and its people. Perhaps the greatest in effect was a long set of serial storylines, which started with Ra's al Ghul releasing a debilitating virus called the "Clench" during the Contagion storyline. As that arc concluded, the city was beginning to recover, only to suffer an earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter Scale in the 1998 "Cataclysm" storyline. This resulted in the federal government cutting Gotham off from the rest of the United States in the 1999 storyline "No Man's Land", the city's remaining residents forced to engage in gang warfare, either as active participants or paying for protection from groups ranging from the GCPD to the Penguin, just to stay alive. Eventually, Gotham was rebuilt and returned to the U.S. as part of a campaign mounted by Lex Luthor, who used the positive publicity of his role to make a successful bid for the position of President of the United States.
For a time, the city faces various complications from gang warfare and escalating vigilante actions, due to such events as Spoiler unintentionally triggering a gang war, the return of Jason Todd as the Red Hood, and Bruce Wayne's disappearance during the war against Darkseid. Although Dick Grayson takes on the role of Batman for a time, matters become worse when a complex conspiracy initiated by the Cluemaster results in multiple villains attacking all areas of Batman's life, ruining the reputation of Wayne Enterprises and seeing Commissioner Gordon framed for causing a mass train accident. After destruction caused by the Joker's latest rampage, new villain Mr Bloom sets out to destroy the city so that a new form can 'grow' from it, but Bruce Wayne returns as Batman in time to defeat Bloom and reaffirm his role as Batman.
In terms of atmosphere, Batman writer and editor Dennis O'Neil has said that, figuratively, Batman's Gotham City is akin to "Manhattan below Fourteenth Street at eleven minutes past midnight on the coldest night in November." Batman artist Neal Adams has long believed that Chicago, with its proliferation of mobsters in the 1940s, was the basis for Gotham, commenting, "Chicago has had a reputation for a certain kind of criminality," says Adams, who lives in New York. "Batman is in this kind of corrupt city and trying to turn it back into a better place. One of the things about Chicago is Chicago has alleys (which are virtually nonexistent in New York). Back alleys, that's where Batman fights all the bad guys." The statement "Metropolis is New York in the daytime; Gotham City is New York at night" has been variously attributed to comics creators Frank Miller and John Byrne.
Stone gargoyles are commonly depicted on the buildings of Gotham City, such as the thirteen gargoyles on Wayne Tower. Various artists have depicted Batman perched atop gargoyles while keeping watch over Gotham City.
In designing the award-winning Batman: The Animated Series, creators Bruce Timm and Eric Radomski emulated the Tim Burton films' "otherworldly timelessness," incorporating period features such as black-and-white title cards, police airships (although no such thing existed, Timm has stated that he found it to fit the show's style), and a "vintage" color scheme with film noir flourishes. Police airships have since been incorporated into Batman comic books and are a recurring element in Gotham City.
Gotham City's atmosphere took on a lighter tone in the comics of the 1950s and part of the 1960s, similar to the tone of Batman stories of that era. However, by the early 1970s, particularly with Dennis O'Neil becoming a prominent Batman writer, the tone of the city, along with that of the stories, had become grittier. Significantly, by the 1970s, Gotham's real-life counterpart, New York, had lost much of its 1960s "Fun City" luster and was beset by urban problems including public fear of rising crime, a declining economy, police corruption, and municipal financial mismanagement. In most stories since the 70s, the portrayal of Gotham is that of a dark and foreboding metropolis rife with crime, grime, corruption, and a deep-seated sense of urban decay.
During his run as a writer, Batman scribe Grant Morrison brought about a more optimistic interpretation of Gotham City. As Morrison stated: "If Gotham was so bloody awful, no one normal would live there and there'd be no one to protect from criminals. If Gotham really was an open sewer of crime and corruption, every story set there would serve to demonstrate the complete and utter failure of Batman's mission, which isn't really the message we want to send, is it? You've got Batman and all his allies as well as Commissioner Gordon and the city still exudes a vile miasma of darkness and death? I can't buy that. It's simply not realistic and flies in the face of in-story logic (and you know I like my comics realistic!) so my artists and I have taken a different tack and we want to show the cool, vibrant side of Gotham, the energy and excitement that would draw people to live and visit there."
In the Batman comics, the person cited as an influential figure in promoting the unique architecture of Gotham City during the 19th century was Judge Solomon Wayne, Bruce Wayne's ancestor. His campaign to reform Gotham came to a head when he met a young architect named Cyrus Pinkney. Wayne commissioned Pinkney to design and to build the first "Gotham Style" structures in what became the center of the city's financial district. The "Gotham Style" idea of the writers matches parts of the Gothic Revival in style and timing. In the storyline of Batman: Gothic, the Gotham Cathedral plays a central role for the story as it is built by Mr. Whisper, the story's antagonist.
In a 1992 storyline, a man obsessed with Pinkney's architecture blew up several Gotham buildings in order to reveal the Pinkney structures they had hidden; the editorial purpose behind this was to transform the city depicted in the comics to resemble the designs created by Anton Furst for the 1989 Batman film. Alan Wayne expanded upon his father's ideas and built a bridge to expand the city. Edward Elliot and Theodore Cobblepot also each had a bridge named for them.
Christopher Nolan, who once lived in Chicago, effected a depiction of Gotham that featured distinct Chicago architecture. Batman Begins features a CGI augmented version of Chicago while The Dark Knight more directly features Chicago infrastructure and architecture such as Navy Pier: however, The Dark Knight Rises abandoned Chicago, instead shooting in Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, New York City, Newark, New Jersey, London and Glasgow.
Arkham Asylum: Living Hell mentions the "Sprang Act", which forbids Gothamite businesses from advertising on rooftops. It was passed after minor villain Humpty Dumpty over-wound the mainspring of the city hall clock, causing the hour hand to jump off and knock one of the billboards down, causing a chain reaction.
A common theme in stories set in Gotham is the rampant and recurring corruption within the city's civil authorities and infrastructure, most notably within the Gotham City Police Department. During stories set early in Batman's career (most notably Batman: Year One), Commissioner Gillian B. Loeb was depicted as accepting bribes from many people. However, Batman found evidence for conspiracy charges, forcing Loeb to resign his position. Later stories depicted subsequent commissioners as also being corruptible, or open to various forms of influence. In other stories, Batman has had to take on crooked cops, either acting in collusion with supervillains, working for the mob, or on their own. Later stories, featuring James Gordon as the new Commissioner, show the two characters often uniting to purge corruption from the force. Gordon was the commissioner for about 9 to 10 years of continuity, then retired, handing the police force over to his replacement, Commissioner Akins. Recent stories have returned Gordon to the position of Commissioner, unfortunately to find corruption taking a greater hold since his departure.
Corruption escalates during Batman Eternal when Gordon is framed for causing a major train accident and a new commissioner is appointed with ties to the old gangs, but Batman and his allies are eventually able to replace him with their ally Jason Bard, only for Bard to resign when he is revealed to have been working with Hush to destroy Batman. During Bruce Wayne's temporary 'retirement' after he was left with amnesia following his last battle with the Joker, the police department even created their own Batman using various donated technology, with Gordon acting as the GCPD's official Batman, but he returned to his old role in the department after the true Batman returned. In the 1966 television series, Batman, the Gotham City police force was not a focus of the stories.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Unified Crime Family
- Black Mask - During the events of "Batman: War Games", Roman "Black Mask" Sionis gains control over all gangs in Gotham City and works with The Society to kill Batman. After his criminal operations are systematically crippled by the Red Hood, he is eventually killed by Catwoman and a power vacuum leads to a series of gang wars. Jeremiah Arkham takeover the Black Mask persona after Sionis' death and reunifies the Gotham gangs.
- Great White - Warren "the Great White Shark" White becomes the successor to Black Mask's crime empire, successfully running all crime in Gotham from inside Arkham Asylum.
- Crime Families
- Falcone Crime Family (Italian) - Run by Carmine "the Roman" Falcone, who maintained a stranglehold over all of Gotham City's crime before the rise of 'masks.' After he is murdered by Two-Face, his daughter, Sofia Gigante, takes control. Upon her death and the murder of many other family members, the family loses its grasp on the city. After an extended absence, Falcone's son, Mario, reclaimed some of the family's former power.
- Sullivan Crime Family (Irish) - Run by Mickey "the Mink" Sullivan, the family was considered subordinate to the Falcone family. After a failed attempt to kill Two-Face, they were killed in a hotel by Holiday.
- Ibanescu Crime Family (Romanian) - Run by Dragos "the Romanian" Ibanescu, the family was involved in animal fights, human trafficking and prostitution. They operate in the East End.
- Maroni Crime Family (Italian) - Run by Luigi "Big Lou" Maroni until his death, from which the family was inherited by Lou's son, Salvatore "the Italian" Maroni. The latter Maroni was responsible for scarring Harvey Dent, and murdered while in prison.
- Dimitrov Crime Family (Russian) - Run by Yuri "the Russian" Dimitrov, the family is continually at war with the Maroni Crime Family.[volume & issue needed]
- Moxon Crime Family (British) - Run by a distant friend of the Wayne family, Lew Moxon, who held a vast empire until his tragic death.
- Odessa Crime Family (Ukrainian) - Run by Vasily and Alexandra Kosov, the family was taken over by Tobias Whale.
- Riley Crime Family (Irish) - Run by Peyton Riley's father, Sean Riley until his death.
- Sabatino Crime Family (Italian) - Run by Johnny Sabatino, who married Peyton Riley to cement peace between the Irish and Italian mobs. Their loveless marriage erupted into violence when he tried to kill her. Peyton allied with Scarface to kill Johnny, but all were apparently killed during the struggle.
- Yakuza - Run by Akahara until his death in a shoot-out in War Games.
- All-Americans - One of the first gangs in Gotham since the late 1800s.
- Free Men - One of the first gangs in Gotham since the late 1800s.
- Wound Ravens (Irish) - One of the first gangs in Gotham since the late 1800s.
- East-Siders (Italian) - One of the first gangs in Gotham since the late 1800s.
- Jewish Sons of David (Israeli) - One of the first gangs in Gotham since the late 1800s.
- League of Assassins (Arabic) - Run by Ra's "the Demon's Head" al Ghul, this eco-terrorist organization is made up of the most dangerous assassins in the world, orchestrating the method to give the world a perfect environmental balance through injustice, without hesitation or fear of death.
- Joker's Gang - Run by the Joker, this gang is involved in various schemes and heists. They have a nihilistic outlook and appear insane, dressing up as clowns and circus people to associate themselves with the Joker.
- Scarecrow's Gang - Run by Dr. Jonathan "the Scarecrow" Crane, this gang is augmented by the Scarecrow's "fear toxin" to look ethereal and demonic, warping the perceptions of their victims and ranging from a common criminal to a vast gallery of monstrous and misleading hallucinations.
- Riddler's Gang - Run by Edward "the Riddler" Nashton, this gang are known to leave riddles and puzzles leading to a deathtrap at their crime scenes.
- Penguin's Gang - Run by Oswald "the Penguin" Cobblepot, this gang was once the premier power in Gotham until it was ousted by Intergang but was restored by Batman. The Penguin is currently fighting for dominance over Two-Face's gang.
- Two-Face's Gang - Run by Harvey "Two-Face" Dent, the dominance over this gang is currently being fought over by the Penguin.
- Bane's Gang - Run by the King Snake's son, Bane, this gang earn the right to obtain and be supplied with Bane's Venom drug to make them look tougher.
- False Facers - Run by Roman "the Black Mask" Sionis, this gang wears a mask of their own choosing to conceal their features. Black Mask was never able to reform the gang after they were all seemingly killed during a bank robbery by Killer Croc, the gang itself has been ever since disbanded.
- Intergang - Run by Darkseid through Bruno "the Ugly" Mannheim, the gang employs Johnny Stitches to take control over the Gotham City underworld. They successfully take down Penguin's gang and buy out Tobias Whale to gain full control.
- The Mutants - Run by the mysterious Mutant Leader, this gang surfaced sometime after Batman's retirement in the 1986 comic book The Dark Knight Returns. Their brutal methods, advanced weaponry, and vast numbers make them too big of a threat for the GCPD to handle on their own. When Batman came out of retirement and defeated the Mutant Leader, the gang was disbanded and divided into splintered groups.
Other DC characters have also been depicted to be living in Gotham, such as mercenary Tommy Monaghan and renowned demonologist Jason Blood. Within modern DC Universe continuity, Batman is not the first hero in Gotham. Stories featuring Alan Scott, the Golden Age Green Lantern, set before and during World War II depict Scott living in Gotham, and later depictions show him running his Gotham Broadcasting Corporation.
Apart from Gotham's superhero residents, the residents of the city feature in a back-up series in Detective Comics called Tales of Gotham City and in two limited series called Gotham Nights. Additionally, the Gotham City Police Department is the focus of the series Gotham Central, as well as the mini-series Gordon's Law, Bullock's Law, and GCPD.
Mayors of Gotham City
Several mayors of Gotham have appeared in the comic book series that collectively form the Batman Family of titles.
Gotham City Police Department
Gotham City Metropolitan Area
Gotham City Metropolitan area lies on an archipelago and is a major economic center within the United States of the DC Universe. Its important industries include manufacturing; shipping; finance; fine arts, represented by its numerous museums, galleries, and jewelers; and the production of giant novelty props. In addition to its commercial seaport, it also supports a naval shipyard.
Uptown districts and locations
Uptown is a region of the Gotham City metropolitan area. It is located in the smallest island north of Gotham City Midtown and Downtown. It is surrounded by four rivers: North River, East River, Queens River and River Merchant.
East End District
The East End is an underdeveloped part of Gotham laden with poverty, crime, prostitution, and the circulation of illegal drugs and weapons. Catwoman takes an active interest in protecting this area.
- Crime Alley is a small side street located in the East End. Formerly known as "Park Row", Crime Alley is a dangerous, crime-infested area. This is where Joe Chill killed Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne in front of their young son Bruce after the family had visited a movie theater (opera in some versions). In addition, this is the location where Batman first met Jason Todd when the youth attempted to steal the tires from the Batmobile. Crime Alley is also where Dr. Leslie Thompkins maintains her clinic.
- Wayne Memorial is a memorial site in Crime Alley dedicated to Thomas and Martha Wayne. Although essentially a collection of roses placed over the spot where the Waynes fell, the site is maintained by Batman.
- Park Row Theater is a once-fashionable run-down movie theater in Crime Alley that, over the years, became infamous for being the last location Thomas and Martha Wayne visited before they lost their lives in a mugging in front of their son. The theatre quickly lost business and ran into bankruptcy, joining the rest of the district in corruption and urban decay.
- The Bowery is described as Gotham's worst neighborhood. Bordered by Crime Alley to the north, the neighborhood is home to Crown Point, a smaller inner-district ridden with crime, homelessness, and prostitution.
- Falcone Penthouse was the headquarters of the Falcone crime family before Two-Face killed Carmine Falcone himself. This was also the place where Batman first encountered Catwoman and Two-Face, all of this in Batman: The Long Halloween.
- The Cauldron is an area of Gotham known to be used as the headquarters of the Sullivan and Riley crime families. It is also home to some of the most prestigious hitmen in the city.
- Daggett Enterprises is a economical and pharmaceutical construction company opposing Wayne Enterprises that specializes in various industrial aspects, epidemical research and real estate development.
- Special Crimes Unit (SCU) is a police station that serves to accommodate police officers and other members of staff that are charged with overseeing the enforcement of law within the East End. To this end, the station is also home to the Bat-Signal and built to contain offices and accommodation for personnel and vehicles, along with locker rooms, temporary holding cells and interview/interrogation rooms. In The Dark Knight Trilogy, it is known as the Major Crimes Unit (MCU).
- Distribution Center is a hideout used by Bane slightly south of the SCU.
- Robert H. Kane Memorial Bridge is a colossal bridge constructed by the step-brothers Nicholas and Bradley Anders that connects the East End to Kane County.
- Robbinsville is a curved district on the East End's southern peninsula named after DC comics artist Frank Robbins.
- Cape Carmine is a cape at the end of Robbinsville that has always been under the occupation of organized crime.
South Channel Island District
Otisburg is the district in Gotham that runs straight through the northern segment of the island and connects to Gotham County on the mainland.
- Stagg Enterprises is a multinational science company in Otisburg that specializes in various nation-wide industrial aspects and new, innovative methods in the fields of engineering, chemistry and genetics.
- Monarch Playing Cards is a playing card company next door to Ace Chemicals that the Red Hood gang attempted to rob before being gunned down using the Ace building as a shortcut.
- Knightsdome Sporting Complex is a sporting complex in the north-western section of Otisburg that hosts many of the city's major sporting teams and events.
- OMAC Base is the hideout of OMAC and his Brother Eye located underneath Knightsdome Sporting Complex.
- Ace Chemicals is a chemical company in the western area of Otisburg where one of its former engineers attempted to smuggle the Red Hood gang through so they can rob the Monarch Playing Cards company next door, but was stopped and tripped by Batman into one of the chemical vats, resulting his transformation into the Joker. In the 1989 Tim Burton film, the company is "Axis Chemicals".
- The Stacked Deck is a seedy nightclub where the most notorious criminals hang out.
- Amusement Mile is an amusement park in the northern cape of Otisburg lined Ferris wheels, roller coasters and other attractions typical to a theme park.
- GothCorp is an economical and pharmaceutical company rivaled by Wayne Enterprises. Its CEO is Ferris Boyle, who is responsible for the transformation of one of his employees, Victor Fries, into the supervillain Mr. Freeze.
- S.T.A.R. Labs is in an multinational research company in that specializes in weaponry through its Gotham branch.
- Westward Bridge is the bridge that extends over the Gotham River to the west, connecting the Burnley district to Arkham Island. The bridge is named after Adam West and Burt Ward who played batman and robin in the 1966 batman TV series.
Midtown districts and locations
Midtown is a region of the Gotham City metropolitan area. It is located in the island center of Gotham City. It is surrounded by four rivers: North is the River Monchant, South is the Gotham River, East is the East River and West is Queens River. Notable locations include: Gotham Tower, Wayne Tower, Gotham Pier and the Prewitt Building.
The Narrows is an island in the middle of the Gotham River, situated between Midtown District and Downtown Gotham City. The Narrows was introduced in the 2005 Christopher Nolan films Batman Begins and The Dark Knight; it was carried over into the comics and other media projects.
- Arkham Asylum serves as a psychiatric hospital for the Gotham City area, housing patients who are criminally insane. Arkham's high-profile patients are often from Batman's rogues gallery. In the animated Batman: Gotham Knight (2008), which takes place between, The Narrows was converted into an expansion of Arkham Asylum.
- Gotham Academy, as of DC Rebirth continuity, is a prestigious private boarding school that many of Gotham City's elite have attended. Previous incarnations of institutes with the name "Gotham Academy" includes The Batman and Young Justice television series, where it was the school of Dick Grayson, Artemis Crock, Barbara Gordon and others.
Robinson Park District
Robinson Park is the city's main park. During "No Man's Land", Poison Ivy claimed this area as her own.
Downtown districts and locations
Downtown is a region of the Gotham City metropolitan area. It is located in the largest island south of Gotham City Midtown and Uptown; it borders the Atlantic Ocean. Notable locations include: Gotham's own World Financial Center, Statue of Justice, Wall Street, William Street, and the Gotham City Centers.
Blackgate Isle District
- Blackgate Penitentiary is Gotham City's main prison, located on Blackgate Isle.
- Statue of Justice is a monument situated offshore of the city. The figure appears to have a blindfold over her eyes and a sword and scale in her outstretched hands. This is likely a nod to Lady Justice or the Statue of Liberty.
Burnley is the district that runs at center of Gotham.
- Gotham University is one of the city's oldest and most prestigious universities, giving rise to many of the nation's brilliant minds and thinkers. Among these former college students were the Batman adversaries Harleen "Harley Quinn" Quinzel, who studied psychology there via a gymnastics scholarship, and Jonathan "the Scarecrow" Crane, who once taught psychology there until he was fired for experimenting a fear-inducing toxin on his students. Founded in 1898, the university became a highlight in academic education, resulting in it possessing its own bank and a museum with a priceless art collection. Though its primary sport is American Football, the college also hosts high end Gymnastics and Golf teams.
- Von Gruenwald Enterprises is an economical and biological defense company in Burnley that specializes in various industrial aspects and advanced pharmaceutical research and development.
- WGTU Radio is a television station supported by Gotham University based on the real station in Traverse City, Michigan.
- Gotham Mercy General Hospital is Gotham's primary public hospital.
- Giordano Botanical Gardens is a reservation garden in Burnley that Poison Ivy sometimes uses as a hideout.
- Burnley Freight Yards is a chief location for importing and exporting material to and from the city that is most likely used by the Falcone Crime Family.
- Gotham Arms Apartment is an apartment complex located in the southern area of Burnley that use to display a sign with a design or symbol by which to identify an inn or tavern. For example, the "Gotham Arms" was identified by a Gotham Coat of Arms hung above the tavern's doorway to easily distinguish it from the city's other residential establishments.
- Old Gotham Subway is an underground series of abandoned subway tunnels located underneath Burnley.
The Diamond District is a district of Gotham that is home to the city's wealthiest citizens.
- Wayne Enterprises Headquarters is a conglomerate and green company. Located in the Diamond District, the company is involved in various industries.[volume & issue needed]
- The Iceberg Lounge is a nightclub owned and operated by the Penguin. He uses the club as the legitimate front for his criminal operations.
- Robbins Enterprises is an insurance company that specializes in various software research and development.
- The Gotham Gazette is one of the major newspapers in Gotham City. In the Silver Age comics, the editor-in-chief of Metropolis newspaper The Daily Planet, Perry White, had once worked for the Gazette early in his career.
China Basin District
The "Chinatown" district that is home to a solid and traditional Chinese community. Known for its restaurants and oriental markets, Chinatown residents seem to consider themselves a self-contained community and neither ask for nor feel that they require assistance from "outsiders". The district's main street could be accessed through an ornate golden gateway on Gate Street.
- Vincefinkel Bridge is a bridge that connects Chinatown to the mainland out west. Originally known as the Brown Bridge before the No Man's Land incident, the Vincefinkel Bridge stretches across the Gotham River.
Old Gotham District
Old Gotham is the district more well known for the location of Oracle's Clock Tower and the GCPD headquarters.
- GCPD Headquarters is the primary headquarters for the Gotham City Police Department. The building itself had been a target for attacks from vandals, delinquents and supervillains alike, however, the building is always restored, rebuilt and refurnished to continue upholding the law and maintaining justice in a city filled with corruption.
- The Clocktower is a clock building which at one time contained the secret headquarters of Barbara Gordon, for her activities as Oracle.
- Gotham City Hall is the city's public institution where its city officials reside.
- Cathedral Square is the location of Gotham's main cathedral. The Cathedral was once intended to be the spiritual center of the city, with stone gargoyles and tolling bells watching over Gotham from its towers; designed conceptually to keep evil at bay, the Cathedral once dwarfed the surrounding buildings of the city.
- Riverfront Center is a bottled shopping center located in the northern area of Old Gotham, overlooking Miller Harbor.
South Hinkley District
South Hinkley, also known as Lower Gotham or Sandy Hook, is a borough located on a small island borough in Downtown Gotham City. Surrounded by two rivers, one creek, and an ocean. South Hinkley is architecturally modeled after Lower Manhattan.[Unreliable fringe source?][better source needed]
Other notable districts and locations
Bristol County districts and locations
Both Bristol County and The Palisades are communities on the outskirts of Gotham City limits.
- Wayne Manor is the mansion estate of Bruce Wayne and is most commonly depicted as being "across the river" and just outside of Gotham City proper. The Batcave is located beneath Wayne Manor. It is also known as Wayne Mansion and Stately Wayne Manor.
In other media
1989 Batman Anthology
For Batman (1989), the look of Gotham was designed by production designer Anton Furst, who won an Oscar for his work on the film. Wayne Manor's exteriors utilized Knebworth House, a Gothicised Tudor, while its interiors were Hatfield House in Hatfield. The Axis Chemical Works, where Jack Napier (Jack Nicholson) plunges into the chemical sludge, was filmed at a disused power station in Acton Lane, West London. The exploding exterior was Little Barford Power Station, a couple of miles south of St Neots in Cambridgeshire. Tim Burton's sequel, Batman Returns (1992), filmed city scenes entirely on soundstages. Production designer Bo Welch, who took over from Furst, based his designs on Furst's concepts.
When Joel Schumacher took over directing the Batman film series from Tim Burton, Barbara Ling handled the production design for both of Schumacher's films Batman Forever (1995) and 1997's Batman & Robin Ling's vision of Gotham City was a luminous and outlandish evocation of Modern expressionism and Constructivism. Its futuristic-like concepts (to a certain extent, akin to the 1982 film Blade Runner) appeared to be sort of a cross between Manhattan and the "Neo-Tokyo" of Akira. Ling admitted her influences for the Gotham City design came from "neon-ridden Tokyo and the Machine Age. Gotham is like a World's Fair on ecstasy." When Batman is pursuing Two-Face in Batman Forever, the chase ends at Lady Gotham, the fictional equivalent of the Statue of Liberty. During Mr. Freeze’s attempt to freeze Gotham in the film Batman & Robin, the targeting screen for his giant laser locates it somewhere on the New England shoreline, possibly as far north as Maine. The soundtrack for Batman & Robin features a song named after the city and sung by R. Kelly, later included on international editions of his 1998 double album R.
The Dark Knight Trilogy
Christopher Nolan has stated that Chicago is the basis of his portrayal of Gotham, and the majority of both Batman Begins (2005) and The Dark Knight (2008) were filmed there. However, the city itself seems to take many cues from New York City: police cars use a paint job that was used by the NYPD in the 1990s, and the same is applicable to garbage trucks, and the Gotham Post seems to have the same font heading as The New York Post.
In Batman Begins, the art deco Chicago Board of Trade Building was used for the film's Wayne Tower, which in the film, was also as the hub of Gotham's water and elevated railway systems. Garrick Theatre stood in as Gotham's opera house. 35 East Wacker was used as the Gotham courthouse. Mentmore Towers in Buckinghamshire was used to portray Wayne Manor. Nolan desired that Gotham appeared as a large, modern city that nonetheless reflected a variety of architecture styles and periods, as well as different socioeconomic strata. The production's approach depicted Gotham as an exaggeration of New York, with elements taken from Chicago, the elevated freeways and monorails of Tokyo, and the "walled city of Kalhoon" [sic] in Hong Kong, which was the basis for the slum in the film known as The Narrows.
In The Dark Knight, Wayne Enterprises, previously depicted as the Chicago Board of Trade Building, was now the Richard J. Daley Center. As Wayne Manor was being reconstructed during the events of The Dark Knight, a digitally enhanced Hfront 71 was used as Bruce Wayne's penthouse. 330 North Wabash was used as Gotham City Hall and houses Mayor Garcia's office and Harvey Dent's office. The climax of the movie on the Prewitt Building uses the then-under-construction Trump Tower. Other Chicago landmarks seen in The Dark Knight include the Marina City towers, Willis Tower, Navy Pier, the Randolph Street Metra Station, and 111 East Wacker Drive. It is revealed that downtown Gotham, or much of the city, is on an island, similar to New York City's Manhattan Island, as suggested by the Gotham Island Ferry. However, while Gordon is discussing evacuation plans with the Mayor, land routes to the east are mentioned. In conversation with Harvey Dent, Bruce Wayne indicates that the Palisades of the Wayne Manor estate are within the city limits. In terms of population, Lucius Fox says that the city houses "30 million people". The film indicates that the city's area code is 735, which in real life is an unused code. Compared to the previous film, less CGI was used in Gotham's skyline.
For The Dark Knight Rises (2012), the production utilized Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, New York City, Newark, New Jersey, London and Glasgow for shots of Gotham City.  Locations in Pittsburgh included the Mellon Institute and Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, and Heinz Field, which is used as Gotham City's football stadium. A scene where John Blake confronts two construction workers at the "Broucek Cement Company" was filmed at the Frank Bryan Cement Plant in South Pittsburgh. In Manhattan, One Liberty Plaza replaced the Richard J. Daley Center as the location for the headquarters of Wayne Enterprises. The JP Morgan Building at 23 Wall Street represents the exterior of the Gotham City Stock Exchange, the area of Park Avenue around 84th Street is used for the scene in which rich citizens are dragged from their homes, and Batman surveys the city from atop the Queensboro Bridge. In Newark, Military Park Station, on the Newark Light Rail, between Orange Street and Penn Station, is used as the subway tunnel through which Catwoman lures Batman into Bane's trap, and Newark City Hall was used as the Red Cross shelter inhabited by Bane's guerrilla army. An address by the president refers to Gotham City as "America's greatest city," combined with a map seen briefly onscreen, confirms that Gotham (which looks more like Manhattan than Chicago, the city that stood in for Gotham in the previous two films) is an analogue to New York City within the movie's universe. A state trooper on the last remaining intact bridge into the city is shown to be part of the "Gotham State Police," suggesting that Gotham City is in the fictional US state of Gotham.
DC Extended Universe
Within the DC Extended Universe, Gotham City is located in Gotham County, New Jersey. In Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, paperwork mentions that the city is in "Gotham County", and Amanda Waller's files on Deadshot and Harley Quinn in Suicide Squad reveal Gotham City to be located in the state of New Jersey.
Zack Snyder confirmed that Metropolis and Gotham City are in close geographical proximity to each other, with Gotham City being located on the edge of the New Jersey, separated from the federal district of Metropolis by Delaware Bay. In Justice League it is revealed there is an underground tunnel connecting the two, constructed as part of the abandoned 'Metropolis Project' in 1929 to connect the two cities. There are multiple islands located in the bay also, with one of them being named Braxton Island. Senator Debbie Stabenow makes a cameo appearance in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice as the state's governor.
The Boston Globe compared the close proximity of Gotham and Metropolis to Jersey City, New Jersey and Manhattan, New York. A television spot for Turkish Airlines premiering during the 2016 Super Bowl featured Bruce Wayne (played by the film's star, Ben Affleck) promoting Gotham as a tourist destination.
The 1960s live-action Batman television series never specified Gotham's location. The related theatrical movie showed Batman to be flying over suburban Los Angeles, the Hollywood Hills, palm trees, a harbor, a beach and a view of the Los Angeles City Hall.
Gotham City is featured in Batman: The Animated Series. In the episode "Joker's Favor", a driver's license lists a Gotham area resident's hometown as "Gotham Estates, NY". In the episode "Avatar", when Bruce Wayne leaves for England, a map shows Gotham City, at the joining of Long Island and the Hudson River. The episode "Fire from Olympus" shows a character's address in a police file indicating that Gotham City is located in New York state. The episode "The Mechanic", however, implies that Gotham resides in a state of the same name; a prison workshop is shown stamping license plates that read "Gotham: The Dark Deco State" (as a reference to the artistic style of the series). The episode "Harlequinade" states that Gotham City has a population of approximately 10 million people.
The TV series Gotham films in New York City, and according to executive producer Danny Cannon, its atmosphere is inspired by the look of the city itself in the 1970s films of Sidney Lumet and William Friedkin. Clues to this include and signs showing phone numbers bearing the area code 212. Donal Logue, who portrays Harvey Bullock in the series Gotham, described different aspects of that series' design of Gotham City as exhibiting different sensibilities, explaining, "For me, you can step into things that almost feel like the roaring 20s, and then there's this other really kind of heavy Blade Runner vibe floating around. There are elements of it that are completely contemporary and there are pieces of it that are very old-fashioned...There were a couple of examples of modern technology, but maybe an antiquated version of it, that gave me a little bit of sense that it's certainly not the 50s and the 60s...But it's not high tech and it's not futuristic, by any means."
In the TV series Smallville, Gotham City is mentioned by the character Linda Lake in the episode "Hydro", who jokes she can see Gotham from her view. It is also mentioned in "Reunion", where one of Oliver Queen's friends mentions having to get back to Gotham.
In the CW series Supergirl, Gotham is mentioned by a civilian after Superman saves him and his family from John Corben, telling his wife and son they should move back to the city. Gotham and its vigilantes are referenced by Supergirl during a battle with Master Jailer. It is also mentioned in Arrow, where in the same episode Oliver mentions Bruce Wayne by name.
DC Animated Universe
During the events of the direct-to-video film, Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero (1998), a computer screen displaying Barbara Gordon's personal information refers to her location as "Gotham City, NY", and also displays her area code as being 212 - a Manhattan area code.
Batman Beyond (1999-2001) envisions a Gotham City in 2039, referred to as "Neo-Gotham". The 2008 direct-to-DVD film Batman: Gotham Knight shows Gotham as a large city with many skyscrapers and a bustling population.
Gotham City appears in several video games, including Batman Begins, DC Universe Online, and Mortal Kombat vs. DC Universe. The city makes another appearance in a video game with Injustice: Gods Among Us, where the player can fight in front of and inside of Wayne Manor, on top of a building and in an alley as well. Gotham also appears in Lego Dimensions, and it is a playable stage once again in Injustice 2, where the player can fight in front of Empire Theater and inside the prop room.
Batman: Arkham Universe
Batman: Arkham Asylum (2009) opens with Batman driving Joker from Gotham City to Arkham Asylum. Joker also threatens to detonate bombs across Gotham. In Batman: Arkham City (2011), the slums of Old Gotham City (the northern island) were converted into Arkham City. Inside the prison walls, this part of Gotham contains various landmarks throughout the story, like Penguin's Iceberg Lounge, the Ace Chemical Plant, the Sionis Steel Mill, the Old Gotham City Police Department building, and the Monarch Theatre with the Wayne murder scene in Crime Alley. Most of these locations have major events in the story. In Batman: Arkham Origins (2013), an earlier, younger version of the city can be seen than that of other games in the Batman: Arkham series. In addition to the northern island, this installment in the series lets players explore a new southern island, connected to the former by the Pioneer's Bridge. The setting of Batman: Arkham Knight (2015), Central Gotham City, is five-times larger than Old Gotham.
- Amazing World of DC Comics #14, March 1977. DC Comics.
- World's Finest Comics #259, October–November 1979. DC Comics.
- Detective Comics #503 June 1983. DC Comics.
- Atlas of the DC Universe, 1990. DC Comics.
- Batman: Shadow of the Bat Annual #1, June 1993. DC Comics.
- Montgomery, Paul (May 18, 2011). "The Secret Geography of the DC Universe: A Really Big Map"
- Safire, William (July 30, 1995). "ON LANGUAGE; Jersey's Vanishing 'New'". The New York Times.
- "Film locations for ''Batman Begins''". Movie-locations.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- Otto, Jeff (2006-06-05). "Interview: Christopher Nolan". IGN. Retrieved 2006-11-06.
- "Review: 'Suicide Squad'". Asbury Park Press. 2016-08-05.
- ""Suicide Squad": The Biggest Revelations From The Latest DC Film". comicbookresources.com. 2016-08-07.
- Steranko, Jim (1970). The Steranko History of Comics. Reading, Pa.: Supergraphics. p. 44. ISBN 0-517-50188-0.
- Burrows, Edwin G. and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. (Oxford University Press, 1999), 417.
- "Gotham". World Wide Words. 1999-02-06. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
- Caroline Lowbridge (January 1, 2014). "The real Gotham: The village behind the Batman stories". BBC News. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Harper, Douglas (2001). "Gotham". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- Scott Snyder (w), Jock (a). "My Dark Architect" Detective Comics 880 (September 2011), DC Comics
- "Gotham | Define Gotham at Dictionary.com". Random House Dictionary. dictionary.com. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- World’s Greatest Super Heroes, August 1978. DC Comics.
- World's Finest Comics #259, October–November 1979
- New Adventures of Superboy #14, October 1981. DC Comics.
- Montgomery, Paul (May 18, 2011). "The Secret Geography of the DC Universe: A Really Big Map". iFanboy.
- DC Comics Presents #18, February 1980
- New Adventures of Superboy #22, October 1981
- Action Comics #451, September 1975. DC Comics.
- The Man of Steel #1, October 1986. DC Comics.
- Secret Files & Origins Guide to the DC Universe 2000 #1 (March 2000)
- Burgas, Greg (April 13, 2010). "Dark Knight, Dark City". Comic Book Resources.
- Batman vol. 2 #2, December 2011. DC Comics.
- O'Neil, Dennis. Afterword. Batman: Knightfall, A Novel. New York: Bantam Books. 1994. 344.
- "Dark Knight's kind of town: Gotham City". MSNBC/Associated Press. 2008-07-20.
- Bopik, Barry (2008-03-29). "The Big Apple: "Metropolis is New York by day; Gotham and Metropolis is New York". Retrieved 2013-03-28.
- Bruce Timm and Eric Radomski, audio commentary for "On Leather Wings", Batman: The Animated Series, Warner Bros, Volume One box set DVD.
- Detective Comics #395 (January 1970), Batman #224 (August 1970), et al.
- Graeme McMillan (2009-07-01). "Grant Morrison Tells All About Batman and Robin". Io9.com. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
- Travel. "Helsinki: a cruiser's guide". Telegraph. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- Grant, Alan (w), Breyfogle, Norm (a). "The Destroyer Part One: A Tale of Two Cities" Batman 474 (February 1992), DC Comics
- Grant, Alan (w), Sprouse, Chris, Anton Furst (p), Patterson, Bruce (i). "The Destroyer Part Two: Solomon" Legends of the Dark Knight 27 (February 1992), DC Comics
- Grant, Alan (w), Aparo, Jim (p), DeCarlo, Mike (i). "The Destroyer Part Three" Detective Comics 641 (February 1992), DC Comics
- "Juicy Plot Details Revealed as The Dark Knight Rises Moves to Pittsburgh". Reelz Channel. June 12, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- Vancheri, Barbara (August 21, 2011). "Fans glimpse final round of 'Dark Knight' filming". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Wigler, Josh (February 15, 2012). "'Dark Knight Rises' Meets... Donald Trump?". MTV. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
- "Gridlock in Gotham: 'Dark Knight' filming in Newark likely to cause massive traffic delays this week", The Star-Ledger, November 2, 2011, retrieved November 5, 2011
- "'The Dark Knight Rises' to film in Newark", New York Post, November 3, 2011, retrieved November 5, 2011
- Di Ionno, Mark (November 5, 2011). "Di Ionno: Trying to unmask Newark's secret identity as a Batman film location". The Star-Ledger.
- Slott, Dan (2003). Arkham Asylum: Living Hell. DC Comics Inc. p. 64. ISBN 1-4012-0193-8.
- Batman: Battle for the Cowl #1. DC Comics.
- Batman: Face the Face. DC Comics.
- Loeb, Jeph (w), Sale, Tim (a). Batman: The Long Halloween. DC Comics.
- Loeb, Jeph (w), Sale, Tim (a). Batman: Dark Victory. DC Comics.
- Batman: The Long Halloween (w)Jeph Loeb (a)Tim Sale
- Gotham Underground #1. DC Comics.
- Detective Comics #844. DC Comics.
- Gotham Underground #9. DC Comics.
- Ennis, Garth (w). John McCrea (a). "A Rage in Arkham". Hitman. April 1996. DC Comics.
- Detective Comics #784-786. DC Comics.
- Palmiotti, Jimmy; Gray, Justin (w); Moritat (a). All Star Western Vol. 1: Guns and Gotham (November 6, 2012). DC Comics. (Reprints issues 1 - 6).
- Detective Comics #488-490, 492, 494, 495, 504, 507. DC Comics.
- Batman: No Man's Land # 1. DC Comics.
- Detective Comics #33, November 1939. DC Comics.
- Detective Comics #168. DC Comics.
- "Snow". Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight #192-196. DC Comics.
- Detective Comics #629. DC Comics.
- Detective Comics #683. DC Comics.
- World's Finest Comics #80, January–February 1956. DC Comics.
- Detective Comics #28. DC Comics.
- Daly, Steve (1992-06-19). "Sets Appeal: Designing 'Batman Returns'". Ew.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Film locations for ''Batman''". Movie-locations.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Film locations for ''Batman Returns''". Movie-locations.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- McCarthy, Todd (1992-06-14). "Review: "Batman Returns"". Variety.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
Lensed seemingly entirely indoors or on covered sets, pic is a magnificently atmospheric elaboration on German expressionism. Its look has been freshly imagined by production designer Bo Welch, based on the Oscar-winning concepts of the late Anton Furst in the first installment. Welch's Gotham City looms ominously over all individuals, and every set-from Penguin's aquarium-like lair and Shreck's lavish offices to Bruce Wayne's vaguely "Citizen Kane"-like mansion and simple back alleys-is brilliantly executed to maximum evocative effect
- "Film locations for ''Batman Forever''". Movie-locations.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "''Batman Forever'' - Gotham". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- In collaboration with production designer Barbara Ling and her crew, Schumacher has kept the series' dark and monumental look (the legacy of Frank Miller's graphic novel "Batman: The Dark Knight Returns") and, as advertised, lightened the project's overall tone. Archived June 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Film locations for ''Batman & Robin''". Movie-locations.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "''Batman & Robin'' - Gotham City". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Barbara Ling's no-holds-barred production design makes Gotham look more surreal than ever". Shoestring.org. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "``Batman & Robin's'' look is luminous and marvelously outlandish throughout. Barbara Ling's production design is outstanding, a stunning evocation of modern Expressionism". Members.aol.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- Batman & Robin DVD extras
- Departing from former "Batman" director Tim Burton's gothic approach to New York, Schumacher and production designer Barbara Ling compulsively layer the background with a futuristic city design that seems to aim for "Blade Runner" by way of "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles".
- Barbara Ling, Bigger, Bolder, Brighter: The Production Design of Batman & Robin. 2005. Warner Home Video
- "Film locations for ''The Dark Knight''". Movie-locations.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "The Dark Knight Rises film locations". Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- "It's Capes, Cowls, and Scowls in Our 'Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice' Gallery".
- "‘Batman v Superman’ is dark and chaotic" by Ty Burr, Boston Globe, March 24, 2016
- "Gotham: The Legend Reborn Preview Special: Behind The Shadows (Part 3)". Fox Broadcasting Company. Retrieved August 30, 2014.
- Hankins, Brent (2014-02-18). "Interview: Donal Logue talks conflict and character development in 'Gotham.'". Nerd Repository. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
- Brady, Matthew and Williams, Dwight. Daily Planet Guide to Gotham City. Honesdale, Pennsylvania: West End Games under license from DC Comics, 2000.
- Brown, Eliot. "Gotham City Skyline". Secret Files & Origins Guide to the DC Universe 2000. New York: DC Comics, 2000.
- Grant, Alan. "The Last Arkham". Batman: Shadow of the Bat #1. New York: DC Comics, 1992.
- Loeb, Jeph. Batman: The Long Halloween. New York: DC Comics, 1997.
- Miller, Frank. Batman: Year One. New York: DC Comics, 1988.
- Morrison, Grant. Arkham Asylum. New York: DC Comics, 1990.
- O'Neil, Dennis. "Destroyer". Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight #27. New York: DC Comics, 1992.
- Bat Locations, a detailed list of locations used for the 1960s Batman show.
- Gotham City History and Notable Locations from the Batman 1960s TV show, a list of locations that appeared in the 1960s Batman show.
- Feature: Gotham City, A Visual History