Arthur Kampf was a German history painter. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting, he studied under Peter Janssen, among others, at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf from 1879 to 1881. After completing his education he became a professor at the Kunstakademie and taught there until 1889, when he moved to Berlin. There he continued to teach at the local Kunstakademie. From 1915 to 1924 he was president of the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Berlin, he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Arts, gave drawing lessons, notably to Prince August Wilhelm, son of Wilhelm II. Kampf joined the Nazi Party. In 1939's "Great German Art Exhibition" at the Haus der Kunst in Munich, he was represented by numerous works. In 1939 he received the Adlerschild des Deutschen Reiches with the inscription "To the German painter". In 1944, Kampf was one of 24 artists, authors, composers and singers added to the "Special list" of the Gottbegnadeten list, meaning he was considered indispensable. Kunst im 3.
Reich. Dokumente der Unterwerfung. Catalog of the Frankfurter Kunstvereins, 1974. Berthold Hinz: Die Malerei im deutschen Faschismus. Kunst und Konterrevolution. Hanser, Munich 1974, ISBN 3-446-11938-8. Hermann Hinkel: Zur Funktion des Bildes im deutschen Faschismus. Anabas, Steinbach 1975, ISBN 3-87038-033-0. Reinhard Müller-Mehlis: Die Kunst im Dritten Reich. Heyne, Munich 1976, ISBN 3-453-41173-0. Otto Zirk, "Kampf, Arthur von", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 11, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 90–91 Media related to Arthur Kampf at Wikimedia Commons Entry for Arthur Kampf in the Union List of Artist Names Literature by and about Arthur Kampf in the German National Library catalogue Short biography of Arthur Kampf
Friedrich Kayßler was a German theatre and film actor. He appeared in 56 films between 1913 and 1945. Kayßler was born in Neurode in the Prussian Silesia Province, he attended the gymnasium in Breslau, where he became a close friend of Christian Morgenstern and Fritz Beblo. Graduating in 1893 Kayßler studied philosophy at the universities of Breslau and Munich and began his theatre career at the Deutsches Theater in Berlin under manager Otto Brahm working at municipal theatres in Görlitz and Halle. At the Deutsches Theater, Kayßler had made friends with director Max Reinhardt, whose Schall und Rauch Kabarett ensemble in Berlin he joined in 1901, he followed Reinhardt, when he became manager of the Deutsches Theater in 1905, where Kayßler performed in Kleist's The Prince of Homburg, Goethe's Faust and Ibsen's Peer Gynt. He succeeded Reinhardt as manager of the Berlin Volksbühne from 1918 until 1923, he first appeared as a film actor in the silent movie Welche sterben, wenn sie lieben in 1913 and wrote several poems and dramas.
In March 1944 his son Christian, a popular film actor, was killed in an allied bombing raid. Kayßler was named as one of the Third Reich's most important artists in the Gottbegnadeten list of September 1944, he was killed during the Battle of Berlin. Simplicius Sagen aus Mijnhejm Schauspielernotizen Jan der Wunderbare Zwischen Tal und Berg der Welle Stunden in Jahren Friedrich Kayßler on IMDb Friedrich Kayßler at AllMovie Works by Friedrich Kayßler at Open Library Photographs and literature
Heinrich Wilhelm "Heinz" Rühmann was a German film actor who appeared in over 100 films between 1926 and 1993. He is one of the most famous and popular German actors of the 20th century, is considered a German film legend. Rühmann is best known for his comedic "Average Guys" in film comedies such as Three from the Filling Station and The Punch Bowl. During his years, he was a respected character actor in films such as The Captain from Köpenick and It Happened in Broad Daylight, his only English-speaking movie was Ship of Fools in 1964. Rühmann was born in Essen as the son of a restaurateur, he started his acting career during the early 1920s and appeared in numerous theatres in Germany during the following years. His role in the 1930 movie Die, he remained popular as a comedic actor throughout the 1930s and early 1940s. He remained in Germany and continued to work during the Nazi period, as did his friend and colleague, Hans Albers. During the Nazi era, he directed four. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, Rühmann did not speak about German politics, but instead kept himself as neutral as possible.
He never stated a word against or towards the Nazis in the press, although he had been a supporter of democracy. In 1938, he divorced his Jewish wife Maria Bernheim, who married a Swedish actor, before World War II broke out, travelled to Stockholm, as a result, survived the Holocaust; the divorce caused Rühmann to be accused of wanting to secure his career. After 1945, Bernheim defended her ex-husband against accusations of opportunism, his second wife, Hertha Feiler, whom he married shortly after, had a Jewish grandfather, a fact that caused Rühmann problems with the Nazi cultural authorities. Rühmann retained his reputation as an apolitical star during the entire Nazi era. During the war years, Rühmann let himself be co-opted by the Third Reich, his role as lead actor in the comedy Quax the Crash Pilot was supposed to distract the populace from the war. In 1941, under the direction of Reichsfilmkammer president Carl Froelich, Rühmann played the title role in Der Gasmann, about a gas-meter reader, suspected of foreign espionage.
In 1944, the premiere of Die Feuerzangenbowle was forbidden by the Nazi film censor for "disrespect for authority". Through his good relationships with the regime, however, Rühmann was able to screen the film in public, he brought the film to the Führerhauptquartier Wolfsschanze for a private screening for Hermann Göring and others. Afterward, Göring was able to get the ban on the film lifted by Adolf Hitler. A nostalgic comedy of mistaken identities, the film was the most popular film of his career and became a cult hit among college students; as a "state actor", the highest title for an actor during the Nazi era, Rühmann was not drafted into the Wehrmacht. He did have to take the basic training to become a military pilot, but for the Third Reich, Rühmann was more valuable as an actor and he was spared having to take part in the war effort. In August 1944, Joseph Goebbels put Rühmann on the Gottbegnadeten list of indispensable actors. Rühmann was a favorite actor of Holocaust diarist Anne Frank, who pasted his picture on the wall of her room in her family's hiding place during the war, where it can still be seen today.
The enormous range of Rühmann's popularity during the Nazi era is illustrated by the fact that he was a favorite actor of Adolf Hitler and his propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels. Rühmann had a difficult time resuming his career after the war, but by the mid-1950s, the former comedian had established himself again as a star, only this time as Germany's leading character actor. In 1956, Rühmann starred in the title role of the internationally acclaimed picture Der Hauptmann von Köpenick, the true story of a Prussian cobbler, Wilhelm Voigt, who dressed up as an army officer and took over the town hall in Köpenick. In the days of the German Empire, the army had an exalted status and Voigt embarrassed the army officers and civil servants who obeyed him without question. Rühmann was the leading man in the 1960 film version of The Adventures of the Good Soldier Schweik, after the novel by Czech author Jaroslav Hašek, he played the role of Father Brown in three German films during the 1960s. In 1965, Rühmann was brought to Hollywood by producer Stanley Kramer for a supporting role as a German Jew in his all-star movie Ship of Fools.
His wife Hertha Feiler died in 1970 and Rühmann married his third wife Hertha Droemer in 1974. In his years, he worked as a recitator for German television, his last film was Faraway, So Close! by Wim Wenders, in which he played an old fatherly chauffeur named Konrad. Rühmann died in October aged 92 years, he was buried in Bavaria. His popularity with German audiences continues: In 1995, he was posthumously awarded the Goldene Kamera as the "Greatest German Actor of the Century". 1938: Venice Film Festival: Medal for his acting in Der Mustergatte 1940: Appointed Staatsschauspieler by the Third Reich 1940: Honorary Membership in the Danish Flight Club 1957: Golden Gate Award for Der Hauptmann von Köpenick 1957: Kunstpreis der Stadt Berlin 1957: Filmband in Gold as Best Leading Actor for Der Hauptmann von Köpenick 1959: Ernst-Lubitsch-Preis 1961: Preis der deutschen Filmkritik 1961: Filmband in Gold as Best Leading Actor for Das schwarze Schaf 1962, 1963, 1
Johan Marius Nicolaas Heesters professionally known as Johannes Heesters, was a Dutch actor of stage and film as well as a vocalist of numerous recordings and performer on the concert stage with a career dating back to the 1920s. Active exclusively in the German-speaking world from the mid-1930s, he was a controversial figure for his actions during the Second World War and his success in Nazi Germany. Heesters worked as an actor until his death and was one of the oldest performing entertainers in history. Heesters was born in Amersfoort, the youngest of four sons, his father Jacobus Heesters was a salesman and his mother Geertruida Jacoba van den Heuvel, a homemaker. Heesters was fluent in German from a early age having lived for several years in the household of a German great uncle from Bavaria. Heesters began vocal training. Heesters specialized in Viennese operetta early in his career, made his Viennese stage debut in 1934 in Carl Millöcker's Der Bettelstudent. Aged 31, Heesters permanently moved to Germany with his wife and daughters in 1935.
His signature role was Count Danilo Danilovitch in Franz Lehár's Die Lustige Witwe. His version of Count Danilo's entrance song, "Da geh' ich ins Maxim", was well known. During his time in Germany, he performed for Adolf Hitler and visited the Dachau concentration camp, which made him a controversial figure for many Dutch. Joseph Goebbels placed Heesters on the Gottbegnadeten list as an artist considered crucial to Nazi culture. Heesters funded the German war machine by donating money to the weapons industry; this helped to make Heesters a controversial figure in the late 1970s. Heesters always denied these accusations despite reliable evidence. Heesters befriended SS-officers. Hitler is known to have been an avid admirer of his acting skills. At the same time, he was idolized by the Swingboy subculture, who admired his pale face and combed long black hair and tried to copy his attire, his style contrasted. Heesters met Hitler several times in the role of Count Danilo. Throughout the war Heesters continued to perform for German soldiers in barracks.
According to German author Volker Kühn, Heesters performed for the SS at the Dachau concentration camp. Kühn cites as evidence the testimony of a Dachau inmate, Viktor Matejka, who worked for the SS and told Kühn he pulled the curtain when Heesters performed in 1941. According to German writer Jürgen Trimborn however, the interview with Matejka may not be reliable as it occurred some fifty years after the performance was said to have taken place. In December 2009, Heesters lost his libel suit against Kühn. While acknowledging having visited the camp, he denied having performed as entertainment for the SS troops. In its ruling, the German court did not find whether Kühn's allegations were true, but rather that too much time had passed for an accurate determination of fact to be made. Heesters worked extensively for UFA until the end of the Second World War and made the transition from the Nazi-controlled cultural scene to post-war Germany and Austria, appearing again in a number of films; these included Die the 1957 version of Viktor und Viktoria.
He stopped making movies around 1960 to concentrate on stage and television appearances and on producing records. In years Heesters spoke fondly of Hitler as a person, but condemned his political stance. In the 1990s, he and his wife toured Germany and Austria with Curth Flatow's play Ein gesegnetes Alter, televised in 1996. On 5 December 2003, he celebrated his 100th birthday with a television special Eine Legende wird 100 on the ARD television channel, he received the title "Kammersänger". In December 2004, aged 101, Heesters appeared in Stuttgart at the Komödie im Marquardt theatre in a show commissioned on the occasion of his 100th birthday, Heesters – eine musikalische Hommage. In 2005 aged 102 he was featured as a soloist in a major concert tour with the Deutsches Filmorchester Babelsberg under the direction of Scott Lawton. On 5 December 2006, Heesters celebrated his 103rd birthday with a concert at the Wiener Konzerthaus. On 5 December 2007 he celebrated his 104th birthday with a concert at the Admiralspalast, in February 2008 he performed in his home country for the first time in four decades amidst protests against his Nazi associations.
Heesters apologised for calling Adolf Hitler a "good chap" on the popular German TV show Wetten, dass..? on Saturday, 13 December 2008, aged 105. He stated that he had asked for forgiveness. German media suggested. Heesters played smaller roles in his last years, as he began to lose his eyesight due to macular degeneration and could not perform on stage for long periods of times. Unable to read a teleprompter, he had to memorize his lines before a show, he played in the 2011 short film Ten as Simon Petrus and made his last stage appearance on 31 October 2011 in Munich. My secret to a long, healthy life is passion. Heesters had two daughters by his first wife Louisa Ghijs, whom he married in 1930. After her death in 1985, he remarried in 1992, his younger daughter Nicole Heesters is a well-known actress in the German-speaking world, as is his granddaughter Saskia Fischer. In December 2010, the 107-year-old Heesters
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939, he was involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler was raised near Linz, he moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda, he denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.
By July 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France, his first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.
Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe, his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, shortly after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, Hitler declared war on the United States, bringing it directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army. Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen or undesirable.
Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history. Hitler's father Alois; the baptismal register did not show the name of his father, Alois bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father. Alois assumed the surname "Hitler" spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler; the name is based on "one who lives in a hut". Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois.
No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire, he was christened as "Adolphus Hitler". He was the fourth of six children born to his third wife, Klara Pölzl. Three of Hitler's siblings—Gustav and Otto—died in infancy. Living in the household were Alois's children from his second marriage: Alois Jr. and Angela. When Hitler was three, the family moved to Germany. There he acquired the distinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather than Austrian German, which marked his speech throughout his life; the family returned to Austria and settled in Leonding in 1894, in June 1895 Alois retired to Hafeld, near Lambach, where he farmed and kept bees. Hitler attended Volksschule (a state-owned primary schoo
Hanns Johst was a German poet and playwright, directly aligned with Nazi philosophy, as a member of the approved writers’ organisations in the Third Reich. The statement “When I hear the word culture, I reach for my gun”, variously misattributed to Himmler, Goebbels and Göring, was in fact a corrupted version of a line in his play Schlageter. Hanns Johst was born in Seehausen as the son of an elementary school teacher, he grew up in Leipzig. As a juvenile he planned to become a missionary; when he was 17 years old he worked as an auxiliary in a Bethel Institution. In 1910 he earned his Abitur in Leipzig and started studying medicine and philosophy and—later—history of art, he volunteered for the army in 1914. In 1918 he settled down in Allmannshausen at the Starnberger See, his early work is influenced by Expressionism. Examples include Der König, he turned to a naturalist philosophy in plays such as Wechsler und Händler and Thomas Paine. Bertolt Brecht's first play Baal was written in response to Johst's play Der Einsame, a dramatization of the life of playwright Christian Dietrich Grabbe.
In 1928 Johst joined Alfred Rosenberg's "Kampfbund für deutsche Kultur" designed to combat Jewish influence in German culture. In 1932 he joined the Nazi party, explaining his agreement with Hitler's ideology in the essay "Standpunkt und Fortschritt" in 1933; when the Nazis achieved power in 1933, Johst wrote the play Schlageter, an expression of Nazi ideology, performed on Hitler's 44th birthday, 20 April 1933, to celebrate his victory. It was a heroic biography of the proto-Nazi martyr Albert Leo Schlageter; the famous line "When I hear the word culture, I reach for my gun" associated with Nazi leaders, derives from this play. The actual line in the play is, however different: "Wenn ich Kultur höre... entsichere ich meine Browning!" "When I hear'Culture'... I release the safety catch on my Browning!". It is spoken by another character in conversation with the young Schlageter. In the scene Schlageter and his wartime comrade Friedrich Thiemann are studying for a college examination, but start debating whether it is worthwhile doing so when the nation is not free.
Thiemann argues. SCHLAGETER: Good old Fritz! No paradise will entice you out of your barbed wire entanglement! THIEMANN: That's for damned sure! Barbed wire is barbed wire! I know what I'm up against.... No rose without a thorn!... And the last thing I'll stand for is ideas to get the better of me! I know that rubbish from'18... fraternity, equality... freedom... beauty and dignity! You got, and you're right in the middle of a parley and they say: Hands up! You're disarmed... you republican voting swine!—No, let'em keep their good distance with their whole ideological kettle of fish... I shoot with live ammunition! When I hear the word culture... I release the safety on my Browning!" SCHLAGETER: What a thing to say! THIEMANN: It hits the mark! You can be sure of that. SCHLAGETER: You've got a hair trigger; the line is misattributed, sometimes to Hermann Göring and sometimes to Heinrich Himmler. In December 2007, historian David Starkey misattributed it to Joseph Goebbels in comments criticizing Queen Elizabeth II for being "poorly educated and philistine".
It has been adapted by, for example Stephen Hawking as "When I hear of Schrödinger's cat, I reach for my pistol" and by filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard in his 1963 film Le Mépris, when a producer says to Fritz Lang: "Whenever I hear the word culture, I bring out my checkbook." Lang evokes the original line when he answers "Some years ago—some horrible years ago—the Nazis used to take out a pistol instead of a checkbook." Songwriter Clint Conley of Mission of Burma titled a song he wrote in 1981 "That's When I Reach for My Revolver". In 1933, Johst signed the Gelöbnis treuester Gefolgschaft, a declaration of loyalty to Hitler by pro-Nazi writers. Succeeding Hans-Friedrich Blunck in 1935, Johst became the President of the Reichsschrifttumskammer and of the Deutsche Akademie für Dichtung, powerful organisations for German writers. In the same year the last prominent Jewish writers, e.g. Martin Buber, were expelled from the Reichsschrifttumskammer. By this time these organisations restricted membership to writers whose work was either explicitly pro-Nazi or at least approved of by the Nazis as non-degenerate.
Johst achieved other positions of importance within the Nazi state, he was named in the Gottbegnadeten list of September 1944 as one of the Reich's most important artists. During the war he held various positions within the SS; the harder this war is becoming and the longer it takes, the more do we experience the clear certainty of the true value of culture. The intellectual and spiritual forces reveal their solace, their splendor, their grace; the outward life is getting simpler and harder, burdened with the sacrifice of our time, but the inner life gets new and rich confirmation. Nothing can endanger this inner richness, on the contrary the more cruelly the outward world attacks spirit and soul, the more redeeming does the marvel of art prove to be." After the war, Johst was interned by the Allies. In 1949, he was imprisoned for three and a half years. On his release he was unable to re-establish his career as a writer, being banned from writing for ten years, he was only able to publish poems, under the pseudonym "Odemar Oderich"