Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a prominent German polymath and one of the most important logicians and natural philosophers of the Enlightenment. As a representative of the seventeenth-century tradition of rationalism, Leibniz's most prominent accomplishment was conceiving the ideas of differential and integral calculus, independently of Isaac Newton's contemporaneous developments. Mathematical works have favored Leibniz's notation as the conventional expression of calculus, it was only in the 20th century that Leibniz's law of continuity and transcendental law of homogeneity found mathematical implementation. He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators. While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal's calculator, he was the first to describe a pinwheel calculator in 1685 and invented the Leibniz wheel, used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator, he refined the binary number system, the foundation of all digital computers.
In philosophy, Leibniz is most noted for his optimism, i.e. his conclusion that our universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that God could have created, an idea, lampooned by others such as Voltaire. Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza, was one of the three great 17th-century advocates of rationalism; the work of Leibniz anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy assimilates elements of the scholastic tradition, notably that conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or prior definitions rather than to empirical evidence. Leibniz made major contributions to physics and technology, anticipated notions that surfaced much in philosophy, probability theory, medicine, psychology and computer science, he wrote works on philosophy, law, theology and philology. Leibniz contributed to the field of library science. While serving as overseer of the Wolfenbüttel library in Germany, he devised a cataloging system that would serve as a guide for many of Europe's largest libraries.
Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, in unpublished manuscripts. He wrote in several languages, but in Latin and German as well as English and Dutch. There is no complete gathering of the writings of Leibniz translated into English. Gottfried Leibniz was born on 1 July 1646, toward the end of the Thirty Years' War, in Leipzig, Saxony, to Friedrich Leibniz and Catharina Schmuck. Friedrich noted in his family journal: 21. Juny am Sontag 1646 Ist mein Sohn Gottfried Wilhelm, post sextam vespertinam 1/4 uff 7 uhr abents zur welt gebohren, im Wassermann. In English: On Sunday 21 June 1646, my son Gottfried Wilhelm was born into the world a quarter before seven in the evening, in Aquarius. Leibniz was baptized on 3 July of that year at Leipzig, his father died when he was six years old, from that point on he was raised by his mother. Leibniz's father had been a Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Leipzig, the boy inherited his father's personal library.
He was given free access to it from the age of seven. While Leibniz's schoolwork was confined to the study of a small canon of authorities, his father's library enabled him to study a wide variety of advanced philosophical and theological works—ones that he would not have otherwise been able to read until his college years. Access to his father's library written in Latin led to his proficiency in the Latin language, which he achieved by the age of 12, he composed 300 hexameters of Latin verse, in a single morning, for a special event at school at the age of 13. In April 1661 he enrolled in his father's former university at age 14, completed his bachelor's degree in Philosophy in December 1662, he defended his Disputatio Metaphysica de Principio Individui, which addressed the principle of individuation, on 9 June 1663. Leibniz earned his master's degree in Philosophy on 7 February 1664, he published and defended a dissertation Specimen Quaestionum Philosophicarum ex Jure collectarum, arguing for both a theoretical and a pedagogical relationship between philosophy and law, in December 1664.
After one year of legal studies, he was awarded his bachelor's degree in Law on 28 September 1665. His dissertation was titled De conditionibus. In early 1666, at age 19, Leibniz wrote his first book, De Arte Combinatoria, the first part of, his habilitation thesis in Philosophy, which he defended in March 1666, his next goal was to earn his license and Doctorate in Law, which required three years of study. In 1666, the University of Leipzig turned down Leibniz's doctoral application and refused to grant him a Doctorate in Law, most due to his relative youth. Leibniz subsequently left Leipzig. Leibniz enrolled in the University of Altdorf and submitted a thesis, which he had been working on earlier in Leipzig; the title of his thesis was Disputatio Inauguralis de Casibus Perplexis in Jure. Leibniz earned his license to practice law and his Doctorate in Law in November 1666, he next declined the offer of an academic appointment at Alt
Midtown is a neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri, it is located 3 miles west of the city riverfront at the intersection of Grand and Lindell Boulevards. It is home to the campus of the Grand Center Arts District; the Midtown Historic District of St. Louis was placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior in 1979. A remarkable collection of eclectic structures built between 1874 and 1930 range from Midtown's oldest building, a classic Second Empire style townhouse at 3534 Washington Ave. built during the first phase of Midtown development to flamboyant early Twentieth Century commercial buildings like the Art Deco Continental-Life Building, 3615 Olive Street and the "Siamese Byzantine" Fox Theatre, 527 N. Grand Blvd. Buildings in the district were designed by notable architects including Henry Hobson Richardson and Young, William B. Ittner, Preston J. Bradshaw, C. Howard Crane, Brad Cloepfil and Tadao Ando. From a distance the Midtown skyline asserts a strong node like St. Louis's "second downtown".
Most of Midtown's surviving historic structures have been adapted for new uses. A once dilapidated movie palace, Powell Hall, 718 N. Grand Blvd. is the sumptuous, Neo-classical acoustically vibrant home of the St. Louis Symphony and another is a thriving live performance venue. Buildings designed for worship are performing arts centers; the Continental-Life Building and the University Club Building that housed offices are now apartment buildings. Single family residences have been converted into elegant professional offices. Former clubhouse buildings serve as art centers: The St. Louis Club Building, 3663 Lindell Blvd. is now the Saint Louis University Museum of Art and The Knights of Columbus Building, 3547 Olive Street, is the Centene Center for the Arts, housing the St. Louis Arts and Education Council and numerous arts agencies; as Midtown revived, new art museums including the Pulitzer Arts Foundation and the Contemporary Art Museum Saint Louis and were built in 2001 and 2003 and the 1998 Dana Brown Communications Center, home of KETC has become a focal point for public broadcasting and new media.
The only American Civil War battle in St. Louis, the Camp Jackson Affair, took place on May 10, 1861 when Union military forces clashed with civilians after capturing the Confederate Missouri Volunteer Militia commanded by General Daniel M. Frost; the Militia had been dispatched to St. Louis by Missouri Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson to seize the St. Louis Arsenal, secure 40,000 rifles and muskets for the Confederacy, it camped outside St. Louis at Lindell's Grove, renamed "Camp Jackson" by the militiamen; the site of Camp Jackson is on the campus of St. Louis University commemorated by a historical marker near the university's Busch Student Center. United States Army Captain General, Nathaniel Lyon marched from the Arsenal on the St. Louis riverfront to the rural site of Camp Jackson with a mixed force of 6,000 Regular Army troops and Home Guard volunteers. Frost surrendered to Lyon without a fight. However, after capturing Camp Jackson, Union Forces clashed with civilian bystanders resulting in the deaths of at least 28 people including Captain Constantin Blandowski, the first Union officer killed in the Civil War.
Residential and commercial development of Midtown followed the Civil War as St. Louis expanded west in the 1870s. By the 1920s Midtown was a bustling district akin to New York City’s Times Square. Midtown deteriorated after World War II. However, in the 1970s, Father Paul C. Reinert, President of Saint Louis University inspired the urban renewal effort to rehabilitate the neighborhood and make use of its surviving buildings that continues in the Twenty First Century. In 2010 Midtown's racial makeup was 61.9% White, 25.8% Black, 0.2% American Indian, 9.2% Asian, 2.0% Two or More Races, 0.9% Some Other Race. 2.8 % of the people were of Latino origin. Grand Center Saint Louis University Architecture of St. Louis Neighborhoods of St. Louis National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis "National Register of Historic Places - Nomination Form". Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2008-05-30. "The St. Louis Arts and Education Council"
Vsevolod Nestayko was a modern Ukrainian children's writer. In Ukraine he is considered the country's best-known and best loved Ukrainian children’s literature writer. During World War I Nestayko's parents were on opposite sides of the front, his father was a Sich Riflemen and a member of the Ukrainian Galician Army. In 1933 his father was killed by the NKVD. To escape the Holodomor famine Nestayko and his mother moved to Kyiv to her sister. Nestayko lived and worked since in Kyiv. In 1947 he started and in 1952 Nestayko graduated from the Faculty of Philology of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, he worked in the magazine "Dnipro", "Periwinkle" and "Youth". And from 1956 to 1987 Nestayko was the editor in charge of children's literature magazine "Rainbow". Nestayko's first book “Shurka & Shurko” was published in 1956. From till his death circa 30 of his stories, fairy tales and plays were published, his books have been translated into twenty languages throughout the world, including English, French, Russian, Bengali, Romanian and Slovak.
The adaptation of Nestayko's Toreadors from Vasyukivka won a Grand-prix at the International Festival in Munich and the main prize in Sydney. The Fraud ”F” adaptation was awarded at the All-Soviet Union Film Festival in Kyiv and at the Gabrovo Film Festival. Nestayko's works are included in school curricula in Ukraine. In 2010 Viktor Yushchenko awarded him an order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise of fifth class. On January 30, 2015, Google celebrated his 85th birthday with a Google Doodle