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Gouda, South Holland

Gouda is a city and municipality in the west of the Netherlands, between Rotterdam and Utrecht, in the province of South Holland. Gouda has a population of 72,338 and is famous for its Gouda cheese, many grachten, smoking pipes, its 15th-century city hall, its array of historic churches and other buildings makes it a popular day trip destination. In the Middle Ages, a settlement was founded at the location of the current city by the Van der Goude family, who built a fortified castle alongside the banks of the Gouwe River, from which the family and the city took its name; the area marshland, developed over the course of two centuries. By 1225, a canal was linked to the Gouwe and its estuary was transformed into a harbour. City rights were granted in 1272. Around the year 1100, the area where Gouda now is located was swampy and covered with a peat forest, crossed by small creeks such as the Gouwe. Along the shores of this stream near the current market and city hall, peat harvesting began in the 11th and 12th centuries.

In 1139, the name Gouda is first mentioned in a statement from the Bishop of Utrecht. In the 13th century, the Gouwe was connected to the Oude Rijn by means of a canal and its mouth at the Hollandse IJssel was developed into a harbour. Castle Gouda was built to protect this harbour; this shipping route was used for trade between Flanders and France with Holland and the Baltic Sea. In 1272, Floris V, Count of Holland, granted city rights to Gouda, which by had become an important location. City-canals or grachten were dug and served as transport ways through the town. Great fires in 1361 and 1438 destroyed the city. In 1572, the city was occupied by Les Gueux who committed arson and destruction. In 1577 the demolition of Castle Gouda began. In 1551 was founded the oldest still-functioning inn De Zalm, located on Markt 34, near the historic Waag building. In 1574, 1625, 1636, 1673, Gouda suffered from deadly plague epidemics, of which the last one was the most severe: 2995 persons died, constituting 20% of its population.

In the last quarter of the 16th century, Gouda had serious economic problems. It recovered in the first half of the 17th century and prospered between 1665 and 1672, but its economy collapsed again when war broke out in 1672 and the plague decimated the city in 1673 affecting the pipe industry. After 1700, Gouda enjoyed a period of progress and prosperity until 1730. Another recession followed, resulting in a long period of decline that lasted well into the 19th century. Gouda was one of the poorest cities in the country during that period: the terms "Goudaner" and "beggar" were considered synonymous. Starting in 1830, demolition of the city walls began; the last city gate was torn down in 1854. Only from the second half of the 19th century onward did Gouda start to profit from an improved economic condition. New companies, such as Stearine Kaarsenfabriek and Machinale Garenspinnerij, acted as the impetus to its economy. In 1855, the railway Gouda-Utrecht began to operate. In the beginning of the 20th century, large-scale development began, extending the city beyond its moats.

First the new neighbourhoods Korte Akkeren, Kort Haarlem and Kadebuurt were built, followed by Oosterwei, Bloemendaal and Westergouwe after World War II. From 1940 on, back-filling of the city moats and city-canals, the grachten, began: the Nieuwe Haven, Raam and Achter de Vismarkt, but because of protests from city dwellers and revised policies of city planners, Gouda did not continue back-filling moats and city-canals, now considered valuable. In 1944, the railway station was damaged during an Allied bombardment, killing 8 and wounding 10 persons; this bombardment was intended to destroy the railroad connecting The Hague and Rotterdam to Utrecht. After the war, the city started to expand and nearly tripled in size. New neighbourhoods, such as Gouda-Oost and Goverwelle were built. Over the last years there has been a shift from expanding the city towards urban renewal and gentrification. Gouda is world-famous for its Gouda cheese, still traded on its cheese market, held each Thursday. Gouda is known for the fabrication of candles, smoking pipes, stroopwafels.

Gouda used to have a considerable linen industry and a number of beer breweries. The world-famous Gouda cheese is not made in the city itself but in the surrounding region, it derives its name from being traded in Gouda where the city council imposes stringent quality controls. The economy of the city centre is based on tourism and retail, while offices are located at the outskirts of the city. There are over 32,000 jobs in the city in commercial and healthcare services. Old City Hall at the Markt square - built between 1448 and 1450, one of the oldest Gothic city halls in the Netherlands, it now is a national monument. It hosts a small cheese museum. In the 17th century, it was a tourist attraction.

Andreas Norlén

Per Olof Andreas Norlén is a Swedish Moderate Party politician who has served as Speaker of the Riksdag since September 2018. He has been a Member of the Riksdag for Östergötland County since October 2006. Norlén has been a member of the Committee on the Constitution, 2014–2018 as chair of the committee. Norlén was elected the Speaker of the Riksdag on 24 September 2018, following the first sitting of the Riksdag since the elections. After the centre-left Löfven Cabinet lost a vote of no confidence, Norlén began the task of nominating candidates for Löfven's successor as Prime Minister, according to the Swedish Instrument of Government; the lengthy work of finding a prime minister that could be tolerated by the Riksdag was concluded on 18 January 2019 when Stefan Löfven was appointed for a second term. Italy Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Riksdagen: Andreas Norlén

Swiss Army Man

Swiss Army Man is a 2016 American comedy-drama adventure film written and directed by Daniel Kwan and Daniel Scheinert, starring Paul Dano, Daniel Radcliffe, Mary Elizabeth Winstead. The film had its world premiere at the 2016 Sundance Film Festival on January 22, began a theatrical limited release on June 24, 2016, before opening wide on July 1; the film was positively received by critics. Dano plays Hank Thompson, a man, attempting suicide after being lost on an island, when he sees a corpse, portrayed by Radcliffe, wash ashore, he develops a type of friendship with the dead body and discovers that he can manipulate the cadaver like a Swiss Army knife. Hank Thompson, a man marooned on an island, is on the verge of hanging himself, but sees a corpse wash up on the beach, he tries to resuscitate it. As the tide begins to wash the corpse away, Hank watches as its farts propel itself around on the water. Hank mounts the corpse and rides it across the ocean like a jet ski, landing on a mainland shore but far from civilization.

That night, the two of them hide in a cave from a rainstorm, after the runoff pours into the corpse's mouth, Hank realizes the next morning that the corpse has yet another power: it can be used like a well for a infinite source of drinkable water. The corpse begins a slow transition into speaking and acquires a grasp of the English language, adopting the name Manny. Hank and Manny continue their quest. Manny has forgotten everything about his former life, Hank tries to teach him various concepts about life, but Manny's childlike and shameless interpretations of these concepts conflict with what Hank considers acceptable behavior. Over the course of their journey, Hank teaches Manny the joys of eating out, going to movies, partying, using crudely-constructed props and sets made from plants and garbage they find. Using these, Hank leads Manny to believe that Manny is in love with a woman named Sarah, who rides the bus alone every day. Manny falls in love with Sarah, it is this love that motivates him to try to find civilization with Hank.

In reality, Hank is much in love with Sarah, having seen her riding the bus every day but never talking to her due to his own shyness. He has a photo of her that he took secretly while on the bus set as the wallpaper on his phone and follows her on social media; as he looks through photos, it is revealed that Sarah is married and has a child. Hank impersonates Sarah to help Manny learn how to talk to women, but they end up connecting and kiss, they have a falling out. Feeling betrayed over Hank's hypocrisy and self-restraint, Manny states he wishes to be dead again. At this time, Hank experiences strange mental flashes of surreal images recalling his journey and suggests that one of Manny's powers is to affect his mind. Despite the tension between them, when Hank is attacked by a bear, Manny moves under his own power for the first time, crawling after his injured friend and igniting one of his farts from their campfire to scare the bear away. Hank loses consciousness and wakes up to Manny carrying him to Sarah's house, despite Hank's protests.

While Sarah is in the house, Manny talks to Crissie. Expecting her to be impressed, he demonstrates several of his powers, inadvertently frightening her with his compass-erection, which Hank slaps down. Sarah is alerted by her daughter's crying and calls the police at the sight of Hank and Manny's once-again inanimate corpse. Hank is soon patched up, but the cops discover the photos of Sarah on his phone and become suspicious. Hank's father appears, mistaking Manny's corpse for Hank when asked by the paramedics to confirm his identity. After being interviewed by the local television news and deliriously professing on air his gratitude for Manny and his magical powers, Hank runs away with Manny's body. Hank's pursuers discover the structures he built which in actuality seem to be quite close to Sarah's house, as if he had been there some time instead of journeying through the forest; the police, her husband, her daughter, a reporter, a camera man, Hank's father all follow him to the beach. Cornered, Hank lets out a long fart.

Shortly after, to everyone's shock, in Crissie and Hank's father's case, Manny begins violently farting until he floats back into the ocean and skims away, propelled by his own flatulence, he and Hank sharing one last smile. Paul Dano as Hank Thompson Daniel Radcliffe as Manny Mary Elizabeth Winstead as Sarah Johnson Timothy Eulich as Preston Marika Casteel as Reporter Richard Gross as Hank's Dad Antonia Ribero as Crissie Aaron Marshall as Police Officer Andy Hull as Cameraman Shane Carruth as Coroner In June 2015, Paul Dano, Daniel Radcliffe and Mary Elizabeth Winstead joined the cast of the film, with Daniel Kwan and Daniel Scheinert set to direct from a screenplay written by the two. Principal photography began on July 14, 2015, ended on August 7, 2015. Filming took place over the course of 22 days throughout California, including in San Pedro and Humboldt County for underwater work and wide vistas, respectively. Daniel Radcliffe said that music from the film was played on set: "Robert composed music before the shoot started which never happens in film.

We could hear the music on set for certain scenes." The film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 22, 2016. Shortly after, A24 acquired U. S rights to the film, acquired global rights to the film, partnering with distributors who had acquired global rights; the film was scheduled to be re

Pontiac Grand Safari

The Pontiac Grand Safari was Pontiac's top-of-the-line full-size station wagon offered from 1971 to 1978. The Grand Safari used the grille and interior trim of the Bonneville and Grand Ville passenger car series, most examples were trimmed with woodgrain paneling on the sides and tailgate; the 1971 to 1976 models were the largest Pontiacs built. The 1971-76 GM full-size bodies, at 64.3-inch front shoulder room and 63.4-inch rear shoulder room set a record for interior width that would not be matched by any car until the full-size GM rear-wheel drive models of the early to mid-1990s. The Grand Safari wagons, as did other GM full-sized wagons during these years, used a unique rear suspension with multi-leaf springs instead of the coil springs used on other full-sized Pontiacs, other full-sized GM cars; the Grand Safari wagons featured a new'Clamshell' tailgate design, marketed as the Glide-away Tailgate, where the rear power-operated glass slid up into the roof as the tailgate, slid into a recess under the cargo floor.

The power tailgate, the first in station wagon history supplanted the manual tailgate, which required marked effort to lift from storage. The power system was operated by switches on the instrument panel or a key switch on the rear quarter panel; the Clamshell system and complex, made it easier to load and unload the long wagons in tight spaces. But it remained unique to GM, would be subsequently eliminated when GM reduced the length of their wagons by about a foot in 1977, the overriding concern became increased fuel economy; the 1971-76 Grand Safaris, shared their 127.0 in wheelbase with the Buick and Oldsmobile C-body cars but were designated as B-bodies. At 231.3 in in length the 1974-76 Grand Safaris are the longest Pontiacs built. And at 5,112 lb shipping weight, or about 5,300 lb curb weight, the three-seat 1974 Grand Safari wagons are the heaviest Pontiacs built; these wagons ran with V8 engines of either 455 cubic inches. The 1977 Grand Safari was downsized with wheelbase cut to 115.9-inch inches, length to less than 216-inch and weight to just over 4,000-pound pounds.

These wagons thus could run with smaller engines, either a standard 301-cubic-inch or optional 403-cubic-inch V8. Replacing the Glide-Away Tailgate was a three-way tailgate not unlike that used on Ford and Chrysler station wagons. In 1979, the Grand Safari's name was changed to Bonneville Safari. A Grand Safari is the main vehicle in The Amazing World of Gumball, used by the Wattersons. Encyclopedia of American Cars by Publications International, ISBN 0-7853-6275-4 Standard Catalog of Pontiac 1926-1995 by Krause Publications, ISBN 0-87341-369-5

Ocean acidification in the Great Barrier Reef

Ocean acidification threatens the Great Barrier Reef by reducing the viability and strength of coral reefs. The Great Barrier Reef, considered one of the seven natural wonders of the world and a biodiversity hotspot, is located in Australia. Similar to other coral reefs, it is experiencing degradation due to ocean acidification. Ocean acidification results from a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide, taken up by the ocean; this process can increase sea surface temperature, decrease aragonite, lower the pH of the ocean. Calcifying organisms are under risk, due to the resulting lack of aragonite in the water and the decreasing pH; this decreased health of coral reefs the Great Barrier Reef, can result in reduced biodiversity. Organisms can become stressed due to ocean acidification and the disappearance of healthy coral reefs, such as the Great Barrier Reef, is a loss of habitat for several taxa. Atmospheric carbon dioxide has risen from 280 to 409 ppm since the industrial revolution; this increase in carbon dioxide has led to a 0.1 decrease in pH, it could decrease by 0.5 by 2100.

When carbon dioxide meets seawater it forms carbonic acid, which dissociates into hydrogen and carbonate and lowers the pH of the ocean. Sea surface temperature, ocean acidity, dissolved inorganic carbon are positively correlated with atmospheric carbon dioxide. Ocean acidification can cause hypercapnia and increase stress in marine organisms, thereby leading to decreasing biodiversity. Coral reefs themselves can be negatively affected by ocean acidification, as calcification rates decrease as acidity increases. Aragonite is impacted by the process of ocean acidification, because it is a form of calcium carbonate, it is essential in coral viability and health, because it is found in coral skeletons and is more soluble than calcite. Increasing carbon dioxide levels can reduce coral growth rates from 9 to 56%. Other calcifying organisms, such as bivalves and gastropods, experience negative effects due to ocean acidification as well; as a biodiversity hotspot, the many taxa of the Great Barrier Reef are threatened by ocean acidification.

Rare and endemic species are in greater danger due to ocean acidification, because they rely upon the Great Barrier Reef more extensively. Additionally, the risk of coral reefs collapsing due to acidification poses a threat to biodiversity; the stress of ocean acidification could negatively affect biological processes, such as photosynthesis or reproduction, allow organisms to become vulnerable to disease. Coral is a calcifying organism, putting it at high risk for decay and slow growth rates as ocean acidification increases. Aragonite, which impacts the ability of coral to take up CaCO3, decreases. Levels of aragonite have decreased by 16% since industrialization, could be lower in some portions of the Great Barrier Reef because the current allows northern corals to take up more aragonite than the southern corals. Aragonite is predicted to reduce by 0.1 by 2100. Since 1990, calcification rates of Porites, a common large reef-building coral in the Great Barrier Reef, have decreased by 14.2% annually.

Aragonite levels across the Great Barrier Reef. Levels of aragonite are affected by calcification and production, which can vary from reef to reef. If atmospheric carbon dioxide reaches 560 ppm, most ocean surface waters will be adversely undersaturated with respect to aragonite and the pH will have reduced by about 0.24 units – from 8.2 today to just over 7.9. At this point only a few parts of the Pacific will have levels of aragonite saturation adequate for coral growth. Additionally, if atmospheric carbon dioxide reaches 800 ppm, the ocean surface water pH decrease will be 0.4 units and total dissolved carbonate ion concentration will have decreased by at least 60%. At this point it is certain that all reefs of the world will be in erosional states. Increasing the pH and replicating pre-industrialization ocean chemistry conditions in the Great Barrier Reef, led to an increase in coral growth rates by 7%. Ocean acidification can lead to increased sea surface temperature. An increase of about 1 or 2 °C can cause the collapse of the relationship between coral and zooxanthellae leading to bleaching.

Average sea surface temperature in the Great Barrier Reef is predicted to increase between 1 and 3 °C by 2100. This breakdown of the relationship between the coral and the zooxanthellae occurs when Photosystem II is damaged, either due to a reaction with the D1 protein or a lack of carbon dioxide fixation. Ocean acidification threatens coral reproduction throughout all aspects of the process. Gametogenesis may be indirectly affected by coral bleaching. Additionally, the stress that acidification puts on coral can harm the viability of the sperm released. Larvae can be affected by this process. Other species of calcifying larvae have shown reduced growth rates under ocean acidification scenarios. Biofilm, a bioindicator for oceanic conditions, underwent reduced growth rate and altered composition in acidification affecting larval settlement on the biofilm itself; the Great Barrier Reef is a biodiversity hotspot, but it is threatened by ocean acidification and its resulting increased temperature and reduced levels of aragonite.

Elasmobranchs in the Great Barrier Reef are vulnerable to ocean acidification due to their relianc

1945 Leeds City Council election

The Leeds municipal elections were held on Thursday 1 November 1945. Although a third of the council would ordinarily be up for election, the suspension of elections during World War II meant the council had last held elections in 1938, with the amount of vacancies and co-options throughout near to two-thirds of the council needed electing. Labour repeated their earlier national performance and won sweeping victories across the country, with Leeds no exception, picking up 40 of the 48 seats contested and stealing control of the council from the Conservatives; the Conservatives only managed eight defences, which were confined to their bastions of Far Headingley, Hyde Park and Roundhay, although running Labour exceptionally close in Blenheim. The minor parties failed to escape the Labour tide, as the Liberals lost both their representatives and the Communists their sole councillor in Woodhouse - formally Labour, but expelled for alleged Communist sympathies; as well as the 21 gains Labour made that night, the gentlemen's agreement - signed between Labour and the Conservatives in 1930 to allocate aldermen in proportion to their councillors - further rewarded Labour with an extra five aldermen at Tory expense in recognition of those gains.

As a result, Labour emerged with an overall majority of 42 on a turnout of 43.3%. The result had the following consequences for the total number of seats on the council after the elections