Chicago History Museum
Chicago History Museum was founded in 1856 to study and interpret Chicagos history. It is located in Lincoln Park at 1601 North Clark Street at the intersection of North Avenue in the Old Town Triangle neighborhood and it was renamed the Chicago History Museum in September 2006. Much of the collection of the Chicago Historical Society was destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire in 1871, but like the city. Among its many documents which were lost in the fire was a copy of the Emancipation Proclamation, after the fire, the Society began collecting new materials, which were stored in a building owned by J. Young Scammon, a prominent lawyer and member of the society. However, the building and new collection were destroyed by fire in 1874. The Chicago Historical Society built a building on the site of its pre-1871 building at 632 North Dearborn Street. This impressively massive Richardsonian Romanesque building remained a nightclub for years until closing in 2014, in 1920, the Society purchased the large history collection of Charles F.
Gunther with the intention of changing its focus from only a research institution into a public museum. Many of the items in Gunthers collection, in addition to Chicago, were related to Abraham Lincoln and these include Lincolns deathbed and several furniture pieces from the room where he died in Petersen House and clothing he and wife Mary Todd Lincoln allegedly wore the evening of his assassination. In 2010 the museum was inducted into the Chicago Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame, after 36 years in the Henry Ives Cobb structure on North Dearborn Street, the museum and library moved to the current structure in Lincoln Park. The current home of the museum was designed by Graham, Probst & White and constructed in 1932 by the WPA, the 1932 Federal-style structure has been expanded twice. The first addition, clad in limestone, opened in 1972 and was designed by Alfred Shaw and Associates. The second addition, designed by Holabird and Root, was made in 1988, both expansions occurred on the west side of the 1932 structure, leaving intact its original porticoed entrance facing Lincoln Park.
The main entrance and reception hall, was moved to the new western addition facing Clark street, the 1988 extension, in addition to expanded exhibition galleries, contains the museums store and public cafe. The museum explores both Chicago and American history, exhibitions draw primarily on the museums own collection, which numbers approximately 22 million holdings. Chicago, Crossroads of America is a 16, 000-square-foot space that explores the development and its relationship to. Nearly 600 objects document the people and events of the past 200 years, facing Freedom focuses on eight American conflicts over freedom from the 1850s to the 1970s. The Abraham Lincoln alcoves highlight the sixteenth presidents election, his leadership during the Civil War, the adjoining Portrait Gallery features an installation on Chicago during the time of Lincoln. The Sensing Chicago exhibition invites children to use their senses to discover the past, the Lobby displays museum treasures, including a 1978 Chevrolet Monte Carlo lowrider
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments, in the separation of model, they are often contrasted with the executive. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation, legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators, each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a number of legislators present to carry out these activities. Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators. The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties, the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs, the internal organization of a legislature is shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members.
Legislatures vary widely in the amount of power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries, militaries. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures, such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies, legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 seats has 100 members, by extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a seat, as, example, in the phrases safe seat and marginal seat. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence, names for national legislatures include parliament, congress and assembly. A legislature which operates as a unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, and one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house. In federations, the upper house typically represents the component states. This is a case with the legislature of the European Union. Tricameral legislatures are rare, the Massachusetts Governors Council still exists, tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary widely in their size, among national legislatures, Chinas National Peoples Congress is the largest with 2987 members, while Vatican Citys Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7
Media in Chicago
The Chicago metropolitan area commands the third-largest media market in the United States after New York City and Los Angeles and the largest inland market. All of the major U. S. television networks have subsidiaries in Chicago, wGN-TV, which is owned by the Tribune Media Company, is carried as WGN America on cable and satellite nationwide. Sun-Times Media Group is headquartered in Chicago, along with the Tribune Media Company, are some the largest owners of newspapers in the country. Journalists, architects, business tycoons, poets, sports teams, criminals and representations are important means by which the city is known and negotiated. During the years of rapid urbanization between 1890 and 1930, numerous daily newspapers presented the most important and pervasive versions of the city, among the significant innovations of Chicagos newspapers in these years that shaped the idea of the city was the emergence of the local color columnist. Groeninger examines the role of columnists in Chicago newspapers in creating a city of the mind.
George Ades column of the 1890s in the Daily News, Stories of the Streets and of the Town, presented a view of Chicago from the perspective of migrants from the small towns of the Midwest. Several columns in the newspaper, The Whip, offered images of Bronzeville in the 1920s that both reflected and helped shape the experience of African-Americans on the South Side of Chicago. The columnists who wrote about life in the city were the most distinctive and powerful newspaper voices in shaping the idea of Chicago. Two major daily newspapers are published in Chicago, The Chicago Tribune, the former has the larger circulation. There are a number of regional and special-interest newspapers such as the Daily Herald, SouthtownStar, the Chicago Defender, RedEye, Third Coast Press, network owned-and-operated stations are highlighted in bold. In addition to websites that are associated with print publications, a body of publications that only exist online have come into existence in recent years. They include, Beachwood Reporter Chicago Daily Observer Chicagoist ChicagoNow ChicagoSide Sports DNAInfo Chicago Do312 Gapers Block Huffington Post Chicago Patch
Demographics of Chicago
During its first century as a city, Chicago grew at a rate that ranked among the fastest growing in the world. Within the span of forty years, the population grew from slightly under 30,000 to over 1 million by 1890. By the close of the 19th century, Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world, within fifty years of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the population had tripled to over 3 million. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,695,598 people and 1,194,337 households residing within the city limits of Chicago, more than half the population of the state of Illinois lives in the Chicago metropolitan area. The 2000 United States Census had shown the population density of the city itself was 12,750.3 people per square mile, there were 1,152,868 housing units at an average density of 5,075.8 per square mile. The median income for a household in the city was $38,625 in 2000, males had a median income of $35,907 versus $30,536 for females. Below the poverty line were 19. 6% of the population and 16. 6% of the families, the racial makeup of the city in 2010 was 32% black,45.
3% white, 5% Asian, and 3% from two or more races. The ethnic makeup of the population is 28% Hispanic and 72% belong to non Hispanic background. In 2000,21. 7% of the population was foreign born, the 2007 community survey for the U. S. Census showed little variation. Chicago has the fifth highest foreign-born population in the United States, Chicago is home to 30,000 natives of Iran. The White and Hispanic communities extend radially outward from the center of the city, Chicago has a large Irish American population, with many still residing on the South Side. The early years of Chicago coincided with the significant rise in Irish immigration in the 1830s and 1840s, some Irish already lived in Chicago when it was incorporated as a city in 1837. In the next few years Irish numbers grew rapidly, particularly after the arrival of refugees from the Great Famine, by 1850 Irish immigrants accounted for about one-fifth of the citys population. Many of the politicians are descendants of this group, including previous mayor Richard M.
Daley. The Irish gained entry to Chicagos Fire and Police Departments and have kept family traditions of participation in these units, the Irish laid the foundations for many of the citys Roman Catholic churches and hospitals. The Irish are still active in the citys politics. Germans have constituted a portion of ethnic whites in Chicago since the beginning of the citys history. When the Great Plains opened up for settlement in the 1830s and 1840s and those with skills in demand could — and often did — stay
Chicago City Hall
Chicago City Hall is the official seat of government of the City of Chicago in Illinois, United States. Adjacent to the Richard J. Daley Center and the James R, the buildings east side is devoted to the various offices of Cook County. Situated on a city block bounded by Randolph, LaSalle and Clark streets, the building was officially dedicated on February 27,1911. Chicago City Halls entrance features four relief panels sculpted in granite by John Flanagan, each of the panels represents one of four principal concerns of city government, schools and water supply. As visitors enter the building, they are greeted with elaborate marble stairways, the first major renovation project undertaken was in 1967 as major city departments, originally located outside Chicago City Hall, were moved in. Although the rooftop is not normally accessible to the public, it is accessible from 33 taller buildings in the area. The Garden consists of 20,000 plants of more than 150 species, including shrubs, the green roof design team was headed by the Chicago area firm Conservation Design Forum in conjunction with noted green architect William McDonough.
With an abundance of flowering plants on the rooftop, beekeepers harvest approximately 200 pounds of honey each year from hives installed on the rooftop, tours of the green roof are by special arrangement only. Chicago City Hall Green Roof won merit design award of the American Society of Landscape Architecture competition in 2002, Chicago Landmarks, City Hall-County Building Cook County ASLA Merit Award 2002, Chicago City Hall Green Roof
Cook County Sheriff's Office
The Cook County Sheriffs Office is the principal law enforcement agency that serves Cook County, Illinois. It is the second largest sheriffs department in the United States and it is headed by the Sheriff of Cook County, currently Thomas Dart. All Cook County Sheriffs Deputies are Sworn and Illinois Certified Peace Officers with full power of arrest. Cook County has additional police departments that are not the responsibility of the sheriff and these include the Cook County Forest Preserve District Police and Cook County Hospital Police. The Cook County Sheriffs Office is carved into several divisions, approximately 109,000 people live in unincorporated communities within Cook County among the countys 5.3 million total population. The Cook County Sheriffs Police Academy trains police recruits within the department as well as those from suburban agencies, the Cook County Sheriffs Department of Corrections is one of the largest single-site pre-trial holding facilities in the world. Deputy Sheriffs assigned to Department of Corrections are responsible for the security of more than 9,000 detainees, in addition, the boot camp features an eight-month-long post-detention supervision program where participants must return to the boot camp on a daily basis to continue educational programming.
The Central Warrant Unit is responsible for the apprehension of fugitives wanted on warrants for offenses ranging from contempt of court for failure to pay support to escape. This unit works closely with the United States Marshals Great Lakes Task Force and is responsible for extradition of offenders from outside the Cook County area. This unit is responsible for investigative services within corrections and court facilities and is featured in the MSNBC television series The Squeeze. The Department of Womens Justice Services administers gender responsive drug treatment programs for female offenders, the Jail Diversion and Crime Prevention Division was designed to make the Cook County Sheriff’s Office more useful and accessible to residents. It operates many vital preventive and educational programs that municipalities, programs include DUI and distracted driving prevention, graffiti removal, New Path speakers series, and the SMART program. The Office Of Professional Review investigates allegations of misconduct within the sheriffs office, the Court Services Division provides security for all courtrooms and other government officials as well as prisoners being tried.
Cook County is home to one of the largest unified court systems in the world, notable Officer Deputy Joe Fiorentino Cook County Crime Stoppers Law Enforcement Award and Ellis Island Medal of Honor. Rank insignia for commanders and assistant chiefs are gold eagles worn on the collars of the shirt, rank insignia for lieutenants are gold bars worn on the collars of the shirt and the shoulders of the jacket. Rank insignia for sergeants are gold chevrons worn on the collars of the shirt, tenured officers will have gold hash-marks or stars on the lower left side of their long-sleeved shirts and jackets. Each mark represents five years of service, a star represents twenty years of service. Since the establishment of the Cook County Sheriff Office,15 officers have died in the line of duty, Cook County States Attorney Circuit Court of Cook County List of law enforcement agencies in Illinois Official website
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service, is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution, Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, where Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general. The USPS as of February 2015 has 617,254 active employees, the USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world. The USPS is legally obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price, the USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked U. S. The USPS lost $5.5 billion in fiscal year 2014 and $5.1 billion in 2015, in the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service. These early attempts were of small scale and usually involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, for example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672.
A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service, the patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later, Neale appointed Andrew Hamilton, Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster. The first postal service in America commenced in February 1692, rates of postage were fixed and authorized, and measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed laws, and a very imperfect post office system was established. Neales patent expired in 1710, when Parliament extended the English postal system to the colonies, the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies, most of the mail went back and forth to counting houses and government offices in London.
The Revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, new laws, political intelligence, and military orders circulated with a new urgency, and a postal system was necessary. Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at very low cost, overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774-1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, and created a new postal system. The United States Post Office was created on July 26,1775, the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress To establish post offices, the 1792 law provided for a greatly expanded postal network, and served editors by charging newspapers an extremely low rate. The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, and provided the country with low-cost access to information on public affairs. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St.
Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger, Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west of the Mississippi
Mayor of Chicago
The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive of Chicago, the third-largest city in the United States. During meetings of the City Council, the Mayor serves as the officer of the City Council. The Mayor submits proposals and recommendations to the City Council of his own accord, the mayor appoints the Commissioner of the Chicago Fire Department and Superintendent of the Chicago Police Department. He or she appoints the heads of city departments, the largest of which are the Water Management Department. The Chicago City Clerk and City Treasurer are elected separately, as are the 50 aldermen who form the City Council, the mayor is empowered, however, to fill vacancies in any of these 52 elected offices by appointment. In turn, the City Council elects one of its own to fill a mayoral vacancy, the Mayor of Chicago is elected by popular vote every four years, on the last Tuesday in February. A run-off election, in the event that no candidate more than fifty percent of the vote, is held on the first Tuesday in April.
The election is held on a non-partisan basis, Chicago is the largest city in the United States not to limit the term of service for its mayor. In the absence of the Mayor during meetings of the City Council, the President Pro Tempore of the City Council, unlike the Mayor, the President Pro Tempore can vote on all legislative matters. The first mayor was William Butler Ogden, two sets of father and son have been elected Mayor of Chicago, Carter Harrison, Sr. and Carter Harrison, Jr. as well as Richard J. Daley and Richard M. Daley. Carter Harrison, Jr. was the first mayor to have been born within city limits, the first and only woman to hold the office was Jane Byrne. The first black mayor was Harold Washington, as an interim mayor, David Duvall Orr had the shortest mayoral term. Richard M. Daley was originally elected in 1989 and re-elected for the time in 2007. In September 2010, Daley announced that he would not seek reelection for a term as mayor. On December 26,2010, Daley became Chicagos longest-serving mayor, Rahm Emanuel is the current mayor, having won the 2011 election with 55% of the vote to 25% for his closest opponent, Gery Chico.
Emanuel was sworn in on May 16,2011, in an April 7,2015 run-off election Emanuel won re-election with 55.7 percent to challenger Jesus Chuy Garcias 44.3 percent. By charter, Chicago has a system, in which most of the power is vested in the city council. In practice, the mayor of Chicago has long been one of the most powerful municipal chief executives in the nation, unlike mayors in most other weak-mayor systems, he or she has the power to draw up the budget
Chicago City Council
The Chicago City Council is the legislative branch of the government of the City of Chicago in Illinois. It consists of 50 aldermen elected from 50 wards to serve four-year terms, the Chicago City Council is gaveled into session regularly to consider ordinances and resolutions whose subject matter includes traffic code changes, utilities and many other issues. The presiding officer of the Chicago City Council is the Mayor of Chicago, the secretary is the City Clerk of Chicago. Both positions are elected offices. The Chicago City Council Chambers are located in Chicago City Hall, located in the building are the downtown offices of the individual aldermen and staff. Chicago has been divided into wards since 1837, beginning with 6 wards, until 1923, each ward elected two members to the city council. In 1923, the system exists today was adopted with 50 wards. In accordance with Illinois state law, ward borders must be shifted after every federal census and this law is intended to give the population of the ward equal representation based by the size of the population of Chicago.
Chicago is unusual among major United States cities in the number of wards and it has been noted that the current ward system promotes diverse ethnic and cultural representation on the city council. Chicago City Council Chambers has long been the center of corruption in Chicago. The first conviction of Chicago aldermen and Cook County Commissioners for accepting bribes to rig a crooked contract occurred in 1869, between 1972 and 1999,26 current or former Chicago aldermen were convicted for official corruption. Between 1973 and 2012,31 aldermen were convicted of corruption, approximately 100 aldermen served in that period, which is a conviction rate of about one-third. Chicago City Council committees violated the Illinois Open Meetings Act and their own rules by meeting and taking actions without a quorum at least four times over the same four-month span, less than half of the Councils 28 committees met more than six times in 1986. The budget for Council committees was $5.3 million in 1986, over half of elected Chicago aldermen took illegal campaign contributions totalling $282,000 in 2013.
The council, in conjunction with the Mayor of Chicago, hears recommendations from the Commission on Chicago Landmarks, Chicagos aldermen are generally given exceptional deference, called aldermanic privilege, to control city decisions and services within their ward. Aldermanic privilege includes zoning, permits, property-tax reductions, city contracts and patronage jobs, the system has been described as 50 aldermen serving essentially as mayors of 50 wards. The Journal of the Proceedings of the City Council of the City of Chicago is the publication of the acts of the City Council. The Municipal Code of Chicago is the codification of Chicagos local ordinances of a general, between May 18,2011 and August,2012, the first 100 days of the first term of Mayor Rahm Emanuel,2,845 ordinances and orders were introduced to the Council
Chicago Housing Authority Police Department
It existed from October 30,1989, to October 29,1999. The CHAPD was envisioned by Vince Lane, who had served as Chairman, during a television interview, Lane recalled how as a child he marveled at how well kept public housing was and remembered being envious of the conveniences residents enjoyed. Ensuring that his plan came to fruition did not come without obstacles, since public housing was spread throughout various neighborhoods and local suburbs, the CHAPD was endowed with a broader jurisdiction. Previously the federal government paid the City of Chicago 13 million dollars a year for extra patrols to provide protection for the residents of the CHA. The city posted CPD units within the building at 365 W. Oak Street for and 4848 S, State Street for almost twenty years prior to the coming of housing’s own police. CHAPDs first station was located at 4947 S, federal Street in CPDs 2nd District, which was known as the Deuce. There was a line of leaders who served as chief from the departments beginnings in March 1989 until October 1999, as the Department grew.
Gary Gunther was named as CHAPDs first Chief of Police and was a retiree from the Illinois State Police and he was quickly followed by Madren Anderson, who was a District Commander for CPDs 2nd District, and Ira Harris. Both Gunthers and Andersons reigns ended before the first class of police hit the street, Harris served as chief until October 1991 and it was on his watch that CHAPD lost their only officer in the line of duty. Harris was succeeded by Hosea Crossley, who served from October 1991 to February 1994, although Hosey was respected and favored by his subordinates, he was in constant conflict with the Local Advisory Council over officer safety issues. Joe P. Mayo, Commander of CPDs Youth Division, served as Interim Chief from February 1994 to April 1994, Murray, a major with the Illinois State Police, took leave to become head of the CHAPD, was chief from April 1994 to November 1996. Murray established the Internal Investigations Unit and Youth Division within the CHAPD with Mayos assistance and he expanded the C. O. P. S program by working with key leaders in the CHA which made a difference in improving community policing. A. R. E.
The Midnight Basketball league and softball teams, community events for residents and his tenure provided the most safety and harmony among residents. The Chicago Housing administration credited him for cleaning up the image of the CHAPD, there was always politics creating fires to be put out. CPD Patrolman, Gang Crimes and PHS Tactical Team member Matthew Brandon served as Deputy, Brandon had previously worked with many of the personnel he would lead as chief and added to the CHAPDs aggressive edge in its war on gang violence. On December 1,1996, LeRoy OShield left his post as Commander of CPDs Austin District to become the eighth Chief of Police for the CHAPD and that definitely was not the case. LeRoy OShield and Harvey Radney were the last two to be appointed as Chief under the direction of the Mayor and control of CHA by the City of Chicago. They did little to lead the department but found ways to work with the opposition to defame