William B. Ogden
William Butler Ogden was an American politician and railroad executive who served as the first Mayor of Chicago. He was referred to as "the Astor of Chicago." Ogden was born on June 1805, in Walton, New York. He was the son of Abigail Ogden; when still a teenager, his father died and Ogden took over the family real estate business. He assisted Charles Butler, his brother-in-law, with business matters related to opening a new building for New York University, attending the law school for a brief period himself, he was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1835. In 1837, he was elected the first mayor of Chicago, serving the customary one year term until 1838. Ogden was a leading promoter and investor in the Illinois and Michigan Canal switched his loyalty to railroads. Throughout his life, Ogden was involved in the building of several railroads. "In 1847, Ogden announced a plan to build a railway out of Chicago. Eastern investors were wary of Chicago's reputation for irrational boosterism, Chicagoans did not want to divert traffic from their profitable canal works.
So Ogden and his partner J. Young Scammon solicited subscriptions from the farmers and small businessmen whose land lay adjacent to the proposed rail. Farmer's wives used the money they earned from selling eggs to buy shares of stock on a monthly payment plan. By 1848, Ogden and Scammon had raised $350,000—enough to begin laying track; the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was profitable from the start and extended out to Wisconsin, bringing grain from the Great Plains into the city. As president of Union Pacific, Ogden extended the reach of Chicago's rail lines to the West coast."In 1853, the Chicago Land Company, of which Ogden was a trustee, purchased land at a bend in the Chicago River and began to cut a channel, formally known as North Branch Canal, but referred to as Ogden's Canal. The resulting island is now known as Goose Island. Ogden designed the first swing bridge over the Chicago River and donated the land for Rush Medical Center. Ogden was a founder of the Chicago Board of Trade.
Ogden served on the board of the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad and lobbied with many others for congressional approval and funding of the transcontinental railroad. After the 1862 Pacific Railroad Act, Ogden was named as the first president of the Union Pacific Railroad. Ogden was a good choice for the first president, but his railroad experience was most not the primary reason he was chosen; when Ogden came to lead the Union Pacific, the railroad wasn't funded and hadn't yet laid a single mile of track—the railroad existed on paper created by an act of Congress. As part of the 1862 Pacific Railroad Act, Congress named several existing railroad companies to complete portions of the project. Several key areas needed to link the East to the West had none, hence the Union Pacific was formed by Congress. Ogden was a fierce supporter of the transcontinental railroad at a time of great unrest for the country and was quoted as saying This project must be carried through by even-handed wise consideration and a patriotic course of policy which shall inspire capitalists of the country with confidence.
Speculation is as fatal to it. Whoever speculates will damn this project; as history now shows Ogden and many others got their wish. In 1860, Ogden switched his loyalty to the Republican Party, which shared his views regarding slavery, although he left the party over a dispute with Abraham Lincoln. Ogden felt. Following his defection from the Republican party, Ogden retired from politics and moved back to his native New York. On October 8, 1871, Ogden lost most of his prized possessions in the Great Chicago Fire, he owned a lumber company in Peshtigo, which burned the same day. He married Marianna Tuttle Arnot on 9 February 1875. Marianna was the daughter of Scottish born Harriet Arnot. In New York, he named his home in Bronx Villa Boscobel. Ogden died at his home in the Bronx on Friday, August 3, 1877; the funeral was held August 6, 1877, with several prominent pallbearers including, Gouverneur Morris III, William A. Booth, Parke Godwin, Oswald Ottendorfer, William C. Sheldon, Martin Zborowski, Andrew H. Green.
He was interred at Bronx. Namesakes of William B. Ogden include a stretch of U. S. Highway 34, called Ogden Avenue in Chicago and its suburbs, Ogden International School of Chicago, located on Walton Street in Chicago, Ogden Slip, a man-made harbor near the mouth of the Chicago River. Ogden Avenue in The Bronx is named after him, as is Ogden, Iowa; the Arnot-Odgen Memorial Hospital, founded by his wife Mariana bears his namesake. William B. Ogden at Find a Grave
Carter Harrison Sr.
Carter Henry Harrison Sr. was an American politician who served as mayor of Chicago, from 1879 until 1887. He served two terms in the United States House of Representatives. Harrison was the first cousin twice removed of President William Henry Harrison. Born near Lexington, Kentucky, to Carter Henry Harrison II and Caroline Russell, he was only a few months old when his father died, he was educated by private tutors, was graduated from Yale College in 1845 as a member of Scroll and Key. Following graduation, he traveled and studied in Europe from 1851 to 1853 before entering Transylvania College in Lexington, where he earned a law degree in 1855, he commenced practice in Chicago. Harrison ran an unsuccessful campaign in 1872 for election to the Forty-third Congress. Beginning in 1874, he served as a member of the board of commissioners of Cook County, he was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Congresses, was a delegate to the 1880 and 1884 Democratic National Conventions.
Harrison married Margarette E. Stearns in 1882, following the death of his first wife in 1876, she was the daughter of Chicago pioneer Marcus C. Stearns. In 1890, Harrison and his daughter took a vacation trip from Chicago to Yellowstone National Park and Alaska, his letters from the trip were first published in the Chicago Tribune and compiled into the book: A Summer's Outing and The Old Man's Story. The night of the Haymarket Riot in 1886, Harrison walked unmolested through the crowd of anarchists and advised the police to leave the demonstrators alone. A large reason for this was because while Harrison came from a Protestant background, he appealed to, worked for ethnic white Catholics and labor unions, his administration was more favorable to trade unions and strikes than previous Chicago mayors as well as other mayors of the time. The riot was sparked by a bomb thrown at police by anarchists. After leaving office, Harrison was owner and editor of the Chicago Times from 1891 to 1893, advocating for labor unions and the many catholic and immigrant communities in Chicago.
He was re-elected in time for the World's Columbian Exposition. His desire was to show the world the true Chicago, he appointed 1st Ward Alderman "Bathhouse" John Coughlin to sit on the reception committee; this was a small part in Harrison's plan to create a centralized Democratic Party machine, consisting of empowered Ward Committeemen and precinct captains that answer to the local Democratic Party. This plan that wouldn't be accomplished until Anton Cermak came to power in Chicago politics. On October 28, 1893, two days before the close of the Exposition, Harrison was murdered in his home by Patrick Eugene Prendergast, a disgruntled office seeker. Harrison was buried in Chicago's Graceland Cemetery. Prendergast was hanged on July 13, 1894. Harrison was Chicago's first five-time elected mayor. Harrison's career and assassination are connected with the World's Columbian Exposition, are discussed at some length as a subplot to the two main stories in The Devil in the White City; the celebration of the close of the Exposition was cancelled and replaced by a large public memorial service for Harrison.
While Harrison died at a time when the elites and Republicans of all kinds disliked him, he never lost his core supporters of labor unions, Catholics and the working class. List of assassinated American politicians Samuel Gompers The Devil in the White City 1879 Chicago mayoral election 1881 Chicago mayoral election 1883 Chicago mayoral election 1885 Chicago mayoral election 1891 Chicago mayoral election 1893 Chicago mayoral election Abbott, W. J.. Carter Henry Harrison: A Memoir. New York. Johnson, Claudius. Carter Henry Harrison I: Political Leader. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov. Works by Carter H. Harrison at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Carter Henry Harrison at Internet Archive United States Congress. "Carter Harrison Sr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Carter Harrison III
Chicago Park District
The Chicago Park District is the oldest and one of the largest park districts in the United States. As of 2016, there are over 600 parks included in the Chicago Park District as well as 27 beaches, several boat harbors, two botanic conservatories, a zoo, 11 museums; the Chicago Park District has more than over 230 field houses, 78 public pools, dozens of sports and recreational facilities, with year-round programming. The district is an independent taxing authority as defined by Illinois State Statute and is considered a separate agency of the City of Chicago; the district's general superintendent and CEO, Michael P. Kelly, was appointed by the mayor of Chicago and confirmed by the board of commissioners in 2011; the district's headquarters are located in the Time-Life Building in the Streeterville neighborhood. The Chicago Park District oversees more than 600 parks with over 8,800 acres of municipal parkland as well as 27 beaches, 78 pools, 11 museums, two world-class conservatories, 16 historic lagoons and 10 bird and wildlife gardens that are found within the city limits.
A number of these are tourist destinations, most notably Lincoln Park, Chicago's largest park which has over 20 million visitors each year, second only to Central Park in New York City. With 10 lakefront harbors located within a number of parks along the lakefront, the Chicago Park District is the nation's largest municipal harbor system. A number of Chicago Park District parks are located in the vicinity of or adjacent to a number of Chicago Public Schools; this design was done in order to make it easier for public school students and faculty to incorporate school assignments or physical activities into the learning experience. Additionally, a number of Chicago Public Library locations are located within Chicago Park District facilities. In the 1860s, Chicago had about 40 small parks, but no central plan, it fell far short when compared to other major cities in the country. Lincoln Park was Chicago's first large park, created in 1860. Dr. John H. Rauch MD, a member of the Chicago Board of Health and a president of the Illinois State Board of Health, played a key role in establishing Lincoln Park by persuading city officials to close several festering cemeteries filled with shallow graves of victims of infectious epidemics.
Rauch next formulated a central plan for parks across the entire city, noting that they were "the lungs of the city", pointing out that Chicago's parks were inferior to those in New York's Central Park, Baltimore's Druid Park, Philadelphia's Fairmount Park. His influence was key in setting up Chicago's modern park system; the current Chicago Park District was created in 1934 by the Illinois Legislature under the Park Consolidation Act. By provisions of that act, the Chicago Park District consolidated and superseded the then-existing 22 separate park districts in Chicago, the largest three of which were the Lincoln Park, West Park, South Park Districts, all of, established in 1869. In the late 1960s, the district lent its support for a Special Olympics for developmental challenged children; the Park District co-sponsored the first Special Olympics at Soldier Field 1968. In the past several years, the Park District has initiated a program of renovating and beautifying existing parks and playgrounds, as well as initiating the building of a number of new parks, including Ping Tom Memorial Park, Ellis Park, DuSable Park Maggie Daley Park and others.
The Chicago Park District has expanded programming in neighborhood parks throughout the city, created a lakefront concert venue on Northerly Island on the site of the former Meigs Field airport. In 2014, the district won the National Gold Medal Award for Excellence in Recreation. Park District land hosts 11 museums in locations around the city, they are: Adler PlanetariumArt Institute of Chicago Chicago History Museum DuSable Museum of African American History The Field Museum John G. Shedd Aquarium National Museum of Mexican Art National Museum of Puerto Rican Arts and Culture Museum of Science and Industry Museum of Contemporary Art Peggy Notebaert Nature MuseumIn addition, the district's parks host the free admission Lincoln Park zoological park; the Garfield Park Conservatory, the Lincoln Park Conservatory. Chicago Lifeguard Service Friends of the Parks Parkways Foundation Chicago Park District
Jane Margaret Byrne was an American politician who served as the 50th Mayor of Chicago from April 16, 1979, until April 29, 1983. Byrne won the Chicago mayoral election on April 3, 1979, becoming the first female mayor of Chicago, the second largest city in the United States at the time, she was the first woman to be elected mayor of a major city in the United States. Prior to her tenure as mayor, Byrne served as Chicago's commissioner of consumer sales from 1969 until 1977, the only woman to be a part of Mayor Richard J. Daley's cabinet. Byrne was born Jane Margaret Burke on May 24, 1933, at John B. Murphy Hospital in the Lake View neighborhood on the north side of Chicago, Illinois, to Katherine Marie Burke, a housewife, Edward Patrick Burke, vice president of Inland Steel. Raised on the city's north side, Byrne graduated from Saint Scholastica High School and attended St. Mary of the Woods for her freshman year of college. Byrne transferred to Barat College, where she graduated with a bachelor's degree in chemistry and biology in 1965.
Byrne entered politics to volunteer in John F. Kennedy's campaign for president in 1960. During that campaign she first met Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley. After meeting Daley, he appointed her to several positions beginning in 1964 with a job in a city anti-poverty programIn June 1965, she was promoted and worked with the Chicago Committee of Urban Opportunity. In 1968, Byrne was appointed head of the City of Chicago's consumer affairs department. In 1972, Byrne served as a delegate to the 1968 Democratic National Convention and chairperson of the DNC resolutions committee in 1973. Byrne was appointed co-chairperson of the Cook County Democratic Central Committee by Daley, despite her rejection by the majority of Democratic leaders, in 1975; the committee ousted Byrne shortly after Daley's death in late 1976. Shortly thereafter, Byrne accused the newly appointed mayor Michael Bilandic of being unfair to citizens of the city by placing a 12% increase on cab fare, which Byrne felt was the result of a "backroom deal".
Byrne was fired from her post of head of consumer affairs by Bilandic shortly after he was made aware of her charges against him in April 1977. Months after her firing as head of the consumer affairs department, Byrne challenged Bilandic in the 1979 Democratic mayoral primary. Announcing her mayoral campaign in August 1977, Byrne partnered with Chicago journalist and political consultant Don Rose, who served as her campaign manager. At first, political observers believed her to have little chance of winning. A memorandum inside the Bilandic campaign said it should portray her as, "a shrill, vindictive person—and nothing makes a woman look worse." However, the Chicago Blizzard of 1979 in January paralyzed the city and caused Bilandic to be seen as an ineffective leader. Jesse Jackson endorsed Byrne. Many Republican voters voted in the Democratic primary–the real contest in this overwhelmingly Democratic city–to beat Bilandic. Infuriated voters in the North Side and Northwest Side retaliated against Bilandic for the Democratic Party's slating of only South Side candidates for the mayor and treasurer.
These four factors combined to give Byrne a 51% to 49% victory over Bilandic in the primary. Positioning herself as a reformer, Byrne won the main election with 82% of the vote, still the largest margin in a Chicago mayoral election. Byrne made inclusive moves as mayor, such as hiring the first African-American and female school superintendent Ruth B. Love, she was the first mayor to recognize the gay community. In her first three months in office, she faced strikes by labor unions as the city’s transit workers, public school teachers and firefighters all went on strike, she banned handgun possession for guns unregistered or purchased after the enactment of an ordinance instituting a two-year re-registration program. Byrne used special events, such as ChicagoFest, to revitalize Navy Pier and the downtown Chicago Theatre. Byrne and the Cook County Democratic Party endorsed Senator Edward Kennedy for president in 1980, but incumbent President Jimmy Carter won the Illinois Democratic Primary and carried Cook County and the city of Chicago.
Byrne and the Cook County Democratic Party's candidate for Cook County States' Attorney, 14th Ward Alderman Edward M. Burke, lost in the Democratic Primary to Richard M. Daley, the son of her late mentor. Other events in her mayoralty include Pope John Paul II's debut papal visit that October and the finding of Soviet Ukrainian escapee Walter Polovchak the following year-1980-and his announcement of his desire to stay in America permanently and not go back to the USSR with his parents. On November 11, 1981, Dan Goodwin, who had climbed the Sears Tower the previous spring, battled for his life on the side of the John Hancock Center. William Blair, Chicago's fire commissioner, had ordered the Chicago Fire Department to stop Goodwin by directing a full-power fire hose at him and by using fire axes to break window glass in Goodwin's path. Mayor Byrne ordered the fire department to stand down. Through a smashed out 38th floor window, she told Goodwin, hanging from the building's side a floor below, that though she did not agree with his climbing of the John Hancock Center, she opposed the fire department knocking him to the ground below.
Byrne allowed Goodwin to continue to the top. In 1982, she supported the Cook County Democratic Party's replacement of its chairman, County Board Pres
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Chicago Police Department
The Chicago Police Department is the law enforcement agency of the U. S. city of Chicago, under the jurisdiction of the City Council. It is the second-largest municipal police department in the United States, behind the New York City Police Department, it has 13,500 officers and over 1,925 other employees. Tracing its roots back to the year of 1835, the Chicago Police Department is one of the oldest modern police forces in the world; the United States Department of Justice has criticized the department for its poor training, lack of oversight and routine use of excessive force. The Superintendent of Police leads the Chicago Police Department. With the assistance of the First Deputy Superintendent, the Superintendent manages four bureaus, each commanded by a bureau chief; the mayor appointed former Bureau of Patrol Chief Eddie T. Johnson as Superintendent on March 28, 2016, he was preceded by Garry F. McCarthy, former director of the Newark, New Jersey, Police Department, as superintendent. McCarthy was the highest paid city employee with an annual salary of $260,004.
McCarthy resigned at the request of Mayor Emanuel on December 1, 2015 over the city's high murder rate and his department's handling of the shooting of Laquan McDonald. Prior to McCarthy's appointment, Jody P. Weis had served as superintendent of police since February 2008. At the time, Weis was the second Chicago police superintendent hired from outside of the city, he replaced Philip J. Cline, who retired on August 3, 2007. Weis' contract expired on March 1, 2011. Mayor Richard M. Daley appointed Terry Hillard, on an interim basis; the current First Deputy Superintendent is Anthony Riccio, appointed by Mayor Rahm Emanuel. As of March 2019, the five bureaus of the department are: Bureau of Patrol: Bureau Chief Fred Waller Bureau of Detectives: Bureau Chief Melissa A. Staples Bureau of Organized Crime: Bureau Chief Noel Sanchez Bureau of Organizational Development: Bureau Chief Barbara West Bureau of Technical Services: Bureau Chief Jonathan H. LewinEach of these five bureau chiefs report directly to the First Deputy Superintendent of Police.
The Bureau of Internal Affairs, which falls under the Office of the Superintendent, is commanded by Bureau Chief Keith A. Calloway. There are 22 police districts, consolidated from 25 in 2012, each led by a commander who oversees his or her district. Commanders report to the three area deputy chiefs. In 1960, the municipal government created a five-member police board charged with nominating a superintendent to be the chief authority over police officers and adopting rules and regulations governing the police system, submitting budget requests to the city council, hearing and deciding disciplinary cases involving police officers. Criminologist O. W. Wilson was brought on as Superintendent of Police, served until 1967 when he retired. Investigative functions are under the Bureau of Detectives; the Bureau of Detectives is Headed by the Chief of Detectives. The Detective Division includes the three Area Detective Divisions; the Deputy Chief of the Special Investigations Unit oversees the Central Investigations Division, the Forensic Services Division which includes the Mobile Crime Lab of Forensic Investigators, ET-North and ET-South—which are the two Evidence Technician Units, the Youth Investigations Division.
The Counter terrorism and Intelligence Division includes the Deployment Operations Center Section, the Intelligence Section, the Airport Law Enforcement Section, the Public Transportation Section, the Bomb and Arson Section. The Organized Crime Division includes the Narcotics Section, Gang Investigations Section, Gang Enforcement Section, Vice Control Section, the Asset Forfeiture Unit; the Chief of Detectives heads the Detective Division. Two Deputy Chiefs assist the Chief of Detectives while one Deputy Chief assists the Chief of OCD; the city is covered by three Detective Division Areas, each led by a Commander. The Bureau of Patrol includes the twenty-two districts. Included in the Bureau of Patrol are the Special Functions Group, the Marine & Helicopter Units, Mounted Units, SWAT, the Traffic Section, Canine Units. Following the disbanding of the Special Operations Section in 2007 after much negative publicity and controversies, the Special Functions Group was formed to absorb the specialized units that were not associated with the controversial plain-clothes unit known informally as SOS.
A full-time SWAT team, organized in 2005, includes 70 members. The dignitary protection unit, based at O'Hare International Airport, is the only unit that uses two-wheeled motorcycles; the Mounted Unit maintains 32 gelded horses at the South Shore Cultural Center. The marine unit maintains nine boats. Chicago's five-pointed star-shaped badge changes to reflect the different ranks of officers; the stars of most Chicago Police officers are with broad points. Command ranks have gold-colored stars with sharp points. A ring surrounding the full-color city seal in the star's center changes color for each rank within these two classifications. Like most American police forces, the officer's rank is written in an arc above the center element; the Chicago Police Department's shoulder sleeve insignia, worn on the top of the left sleeve, is unusual in two regards. Its shape is octagonal instead of
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four presidents belonged to the party while in office, it emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonian democracy, pulling together former members of the National Republican and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had some links to the upscale traditions of the long-defunct Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s, it formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. It became a formal party within his second term, receded influence after 1854. In particular terms, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing, it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal.
Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not related to the British Whig party. Historian Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide: The Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana in 1848, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey in 1852 and the last nominee, former President Millard Fillmore from New York in 1856. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates and Taylor, elected president and both died in office. John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrison's death in 1841, but was expelled from the party that year. Millard Fillmore, who became President after Taylor's death in 1850, was the last Whig President; the party fell apart because of internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories.
With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the nomination for a full term of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election—instead, the party nominated General Scott. Most Whig Party leaders quit politics or changed parties; the Northern voter base gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, by which time the Whig Party had become defunct having endorsed Millard Fillmore's candidacy; some former Whigs became Democrats. The Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades, played a major role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction; the name "Whig" repeated the term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution.
It indicated hostility to the king. Despite the identical name it did not directly derive from the British Whig Party; the American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as "a dangerous man on horseback"—like a king—with a "reactionary opposition" to the forces of social and moral modernization. The Democratic-Republicans who formed the Whig Party, led by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, drew on a Jeffersonian tradition of compromise, balance in government and territorial expansion combined with national unity and support for a Federal transportation network and domestic manufacturing. Casting their enemy as "King Andrew", they sought to identify themselves as modern-day opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, the American people preferred partisan opposition to popular political agreement; as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back.
In 1831, Henry Clay started planning a new party. He defended national rather than sectional interests. Clay's plan for distributing the proceeds from the sale of lands in the public domain among the states was intended to serve the nation by providing the states with funds for building roads and canals, which would stimulate growth and knit the sections together. However, his Jacksonian opponents distrusted the federal government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvements and they again frustrated Clay's plan. Jacksonians promoted opposition to the National Bank and internal improvements and support of egalitarian democracy, state power and hard money; the Tariff of Abominations of 1828 had outraged Southern feelings—the South's leaders held that the high duties on foreign imports gave an advantage to the North. Clay's own high tariff schedule of 1832 further disturbed them as did his stubborn defense of high duties as necessary to his American System. However, Clay moved to pass the Compromise of 1833, which met Southern complaints by a gradual reduction of the rates on imports to a maximum of twenty percent.
Controlling the Senate for a while, Whigs passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the people as represented by Congress. The Whig Party began to take shape in 1833. Clay had run as a National Republican against J