Springfield is the capital of the U. S. state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County. The city's population of 116,250 as of the 2010 U. S. Census makes it the state's sixth most populous city, it is the largest city in central Illinois. As of 2013, the city's population was estimated to have increased to 117,006, with just over 211,700 residents living in the Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Sangamon County and the adjacent Menard County. Present-day Springfield was settled by European Americans in the late 1810s, around the time Illinois became a state; the most famous historic resident was Abraham Lincoln, who lived in Springfield from 1837 until 1861, when he went to the White House as President. Major tourist attractions include multiple sites connected with Lincoln including his presidential library and museum, his home, his tomb at Oak Ridge Cemetery; the capital is centrally located within the state. The city lies in a plain near the Sangamon River. Lake Springfield, a large artificial lake owned by the City Water, Light & Power company, supplies the city with recreation and drinking water.
Weather is typical for middle latitude locations, with hot summers and cold winters. Spring and summer weather is like that of most midwestern cities. Tornadoes hit the Springfield area in 1957 and 2006; the city governs the Capital Township. The government of the state of Illinois is based in Springfield. State government entities include the Illinois General Assembly, the Illinois Supreme Court and the Office of the Governor of Illinois. There are three private high schools in Springfield. Public schools in Springfield are operated by District No. 186. Springfield's economy is dominated by government jobs, plus the related lobbyists and firms that deal with the state and county governments and justice system, health care and medicine. Springfield was named "Calhoun", after Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina; the land that Springfield now occupies was settled first by trappers and fur traders who came to the Sangamon River in 1818. The first cabin was built by John Kelly, it was located at what is now the northwest corner of Jefferson Street.
In 1821, Calhoun was designated as the county seat of Sangamon County due to fertile soil and trading opportunities. Settlers from Kentucky and North Carolina came to the developing city. By 1832, Senator Calhoun had fallen out of the favor with the public and the town renamed itself as Springfield after Springfield, Massachusetts. At that time, the New England city was known for industrial innovation, concentrated prosperity, the Springfield Armory. Kaskaskia was the first capital of the Illinois Territory from its organization in 1809, continuing through statehood in 1818, through the first year as a state in 1819. Vandalia was the second state capital of Illinois from 1819 to 1839. Springfield became the third and current capital of Illinois in 1839; the designation was due to the efforts of Abraham Lincoln and his associates. The Potawatomi Trail of Death passed through here in 1838, as the Native Americans were forced west to Indian Territory by the government's Indian Removal policy. Lincoln arrived in the Springfield area when he was a young man in 1831, though he did not live in the city until 1837.
He spent the ensuing six years in New Salem, where he began his legal studies, joined the state militia and was elected to the Illinois General Assembly. In 1837 Lincoln spent the next 24 years as a lawyer and politician. Lincoln delivered his Lyceum address in Springfield, his farewell speech when he left for Washington is a classic in American oratory. Winkle examines the historiography concerning the development of the Second Party System and applies these ideas to the study of Springfield, a strong Whig enclave in a Democratic region, he chiefly studied poll books for presidential years. The rise of the Whig Party took place in 1836 in opposition to the presidential candidacy of Martin Van Buren and was consolidated in 1840. Springfield Whigs tend to validate several expectations of party characteristics as they were native-born, either in New England or Kentucky, professional or agricultural in occupation, devoted to partisan organization. Abraham Lincoln's career reflects the Whigs' political rise, but by the 1840s, Springfield began to be dominated by Democratic politicians.
Waves of new European immigrants changed the city's demographics and became aligned with the Democrats. By the 1860 presidential election, Lincoln was able to win his home city. Winkle examines the impact of migration on political participation in Springfield during the 1850s. Widespread migration in the 19th-century United States produced frequent population turnover within Midwestern communities, which influenced patterns of voter turnout and office-holding. Examination of the manuscript census, poll books, office-holding records reveals the effects of migration on the behavior and voting patterns of 8,000 participants in 10 elections in Springfield. Most voters were short-term residents who participated in only one or two elections during the 1850s. Fewer than 1% of all voters participated in all 10 elections. Instead of producing political instability, rapid turnover enhanced the influence of the more stable residents. Migration was selective by age, occupation and birthplace. Longer-term or persistent voters, as he terms them, tended to be wealthier, more skilled, more native-born, more stable than non-persisters.
Officeholders were particularly
The Illinois Senate is the upper chamber of the Illinois General Assembly, the legislative branch of the government of the State of Illinois in the United States. The body was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818; the Illinois Senate is made up of 59 senators elected from individual legislative districts determined by population. S. census each senator represents 217,468 people. Under the Illinois Constitution of 1970, senators are divided into three groups, each group having a two-year term at a different part of the decade between censuses, with the rest of the decade being taken up by two four-year terms; this ensures that the Senate reflects changes made when the General Assembly redistricts itself after each census. Depending on the election year one-third, two-thirds, or all Senate seats may be contested. In contrast, the Illinois House of Representatives is made up of 118 members with its entire membership elected to two-year terms. House districts are formed by dividing each Senate district in half, with each senator having two "associated" representatives.
The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Illinois. Its first official working day is the second Wednesday of January each year, its primary duties are to pass bills into law, approve the state budget, confirm appointments to state departments and agencies, act on federal constitutional amendments and propose constitutional amendments for Illinois. It has the power to override gubernatorial vetoes through a three-fifths majority vote; the Illinois Senate tries impeachments made by the House of Representatives, can convict impeached officers by a two-thirds vote. Voting in the Illinois Senate is done by members pushing one of three buttons. Unlike most states, the Illinois Senate allows members to present, it takes 30 affirmative votes to pass legislation during final action. The number of negative votes does not matter. Therefore, voting present has the same effect on the tally as voting no. President of the Senate: John Cullerton Majority Leader: Kimberly A. Lightford Assistant Majority Leaders: David Koehler Terry Link Iris Martinez Don Harmon Antonio Munoz Majority Caucus Chair: Mattie Hunter Majority Caucus Whips: Jacqueline Collins Linda Holmes Martin Sandoval Minority Leader: Bill Brady Deputy Minority Leader: Dave Syverson Assistant Minority Leaders: Jason Barickman Michael Connelly Sue Rezin Chapin Rose Minority Caucus Chair: Dale Righter Minority Caucus Whips: Jim Oberweis Jill Tracy Secretary of the Senate: Tim Anderson Assistant Secretary of the Senate: Scott Kaiser Sergeant-at-Arms: Joe Dominguez Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms: Dirk R. Eilers In 1924, Florence Fifer Bohrer became the body's first female member and Adelbert H. Roberts became its first African American member.
In 1977, Earlean Collins became the first African American woman to serve in the Illinois Senate. Barack Obama the President of the United States, served in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Ɨ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate during session. ƗƗ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate after being elected, but prior to inauguration day of the General Assembly to which they were elected. Illinois General Assembly – Senate official government website Illinois Senate Republicans official party website Illinois Senate Democrats official party website Legislature of Illinois at Project Vote Smart Illinois campaign financing at FollowTheMoney.org Illinois Senate at Ballotpedia
Illinois House of Representatives
The Illinois House of Representatives is the lower house of the Illinois General Assembly, the bicameral legislature of the U. S. state of Illinois. The body was created by the first Illinois Constitution adopted in 1818; the House consists of 118 representatives elected from individual legislative districts for two-year terms with no limits. S. census each representative represents 108,734 people. The state legislature has the power to make laws and impeach judges. Lawmakers must be at least 21 years of age and a resident of the district in which they serve for at least two years. U. S. President Abraham Lincoln, who oversaw the American Civil War and the end of slavery in the United States, got his start in politics in the Illinois House of Representatives; the Illinois General Assembly was created by the first Illinois Constitution adopted in 1818. The candidates for office split into political parties in the 1830s as the Democratic and Whig parties, until the Whig candidates reorganized as Republicans in the 1850s.
Abraham Lincoln began his political career in the Illinois House of Representatives as a member of the Whig party in 1834. He served there until 1842. Although Republicans held the majority of seats in the Illinois House after 1860, in the next election it returned to the Democrats; the Democratic Party-led legislature worked to frame a new state constitution, rejected by voters After the 1862 election, the Democratic-led Illinois House of Representatives passed resolutions denouncing the federal government's conduct of the war and urging an immediate armistice and peace convention, leading the Republican governor to suspend the legislature for the first time in the state's history. In 1864, Republicans swept the state legislature and at the time of Lincoln's assassination at Ford's Theater, Illinois stood as a solidly Republican state. From 1870 to 1980, Illinois' lower house had several unique features: The House comprised 177 members. Elections were conducted using cumulative voting. Though not constitutionally mandated, the two parties had an informal agreement that they would only run two candidates per district.
Thus, in most districts, only four candidates were running for three seats, guaranteeing not only that there would be a single loser, but that each party would have significant representation—a minimum of one-third of the seats —in the House. In most cases outside Chicago, this system assured that the district's minority party would win a seat; the Cutback Amendment was proposed to abolish this system. Since its passage in 1980, representatives have been elected from 118 single-member districts formed by dividing the 59 Senate districts in half; each representative is "associated" with a senator. Since the adoption of the Cutback Amendment, there have been proposals by some major political figures in Illinois to bring back multi-member districts. A task force led by former governor Jim Edgar and former federal judge Abner Mikva issued a report in 2001 calling for the revival of cumulative voting, in part because it appears that such a system increases the representation of racial minorities in elected office.
The Chicago Tribune editorialized in 1995 that the multi-member districts elected with cumulative voting produced better legislators. Others have argued that the now-abandoned system provided for greater "stability" in the lower house; the Democratic Party won a majority of House seats in 1982. Except for a brief two-year period of Republican control from 1995 to 1997, the Democrats have held the majority since then; the first two African-American legislators in Illinois were John W. E. Thomas, first elected in 1876, George French Ecton, elected in 1886. In 1922, Lottie Holman O'Neill became the first woman elected to the Illinois House of Representatives. In 1958, Floy Clements became the first African American woman to serve as state Representative. In 1982, Joseph Berrios became the first Hispanic American state representative. Theresa Mah became the first Asian American to serve in the Illinois House when she was sworn into office January 10, 2017; the Illinois House of Representatives meets at the Illinois State Capitol in Illinois.
It is required to convene on the second Wednesday of January each year. Along with the Illinois Senate and governor, it is vested with the power to make laws, come up with a state budget, act on federal constitutional amendments, propose constitutional amendments to the state constitution; the Illinois House of Representatives holds the power to impeach executive and judicial officials. A person must be a U. S. citizen and two-year resident of an electoral district of at least 21 years of age to serve in the Illinois House of Representatives. Members of the House cannot hold other public offices or receive appointments by the governor while in office; the current Speaker of the Illinois House of Representatives is Michael Madigan, who represents the 22nd district. The Democratic Party of Illinois holds a majority of seats in the House. Under the Illinois Constitution, the office of minority leader is recognized for the purpose of making certain appointments. Jim Durkin, representing the 82nd district holds the post.
Clerk of the House: John W. Hollman Chief Doorkeeper: Lee A. Crawford Parliamentarian: Justin Cox Assistant Clerk of the House: Bradley S. Bolin As of January 2019, the 101st Ge
James R. Thompson Center
The James R. Thompson Center is located at 100 W. Randolph Street in the Loop district of Chicago and houses offices of the Illinois state government; the building serves as a secondary capitol for the State of Illinois in the most populated city and county of the state. The building opened in May 1985 as the State of Illinois Center, it was renamed in 1993 to honor former Illinois Republican Governor James R. Thompson; the property takes up the entire block bound by Randolph, Clark and LaSalle Streets, one of the 35 full-size city blocks within Chicago's Loop. In front of the Thompson Center is Monument With Standing Beast, by Jean Dubuffet. On February 13, 2018, Chicago Police Commander Paul Bauer was shot and killed by Shomari Legghette, while Bauer was in pursuit of the suspect down a stairwell of the Thompson Center; the Thompson Center was designed by Helmut Jahn of Murphy/Jahn now called JAHN Architects. It opened to mixed reviews by critics, ranging from "outrageous" to "wonderful"; the color of the street-level panels were compared to tomato soup.
The 17-story, all-glass exterior curves and slopes facing a plaza on the southeast corner of the property. The design looks forward with advanced architectural tectonics and back to recapture the grandeur of large public spaces. Visitors to the Thompson Center's interior can see all 17 floors layered partway around the building's immense skylit atrium; the open-plan offices on each floor are supposed to carry the message of "an open government in action."Originally, the design called for curved, insulated glass panels, but these were found to be prohibitively expensive. Flat, insulated glass was dismissed by Jahn. Single-paned, curved glass panels were used, resulted in the need for a more expensive air conditioning system, which remains costly to operate, is insufficient on hot days; the building is bitterly cold in the winter. The marble floor of the atrium developed unsightly water stains, an issue which has since been resolved; the Clark/Lake'L' station, the second busiest in the system, is housed between the Thompson Center and the 203 N. LaSalle building across the street.
Orange, Blue, Pink and Brown Line trains stop at the center. Three tunnels of the Chicago Pedway enter the building's food-court concourse, connecting from to 203 North LaSalle Street, the Chicago Title and Trust Company and Chicago City Hall; the sculpture at the front entrance by French artist Jean Dubuffet sets the tone for this building that houses a tremendous art collection. The collection includes nineteen specially commissioned artworks funded by the State of Illinois Art-in-Architecture Program; the building has over 150 of the state's 600 works collected under the Percent for Art program. Under this program 0.5% of the money designated for construction of state-funded public buildings is used for the purchase of art. The Illinois Artisan's shop is housed inside the building; when he first came to office, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich proposed selling the building to assuage the state budget. The proposal was criticized. Lawmakers at first agreed to the plan, but a $200 million mortgage was agreed to instead, payable over 10 years.
The plan was declared unconstitutional by Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan in June 2004. The plan was set aside, although it had cost the state $532,000 in legal fees. In 2015, again in 2017, Governor Bruce Rauner proposed selling the property, a legislative committee to explore his request was announced by Democratic House Speaker Michael Madigan in February 2017. Chicago district office of the Governor of Illinois Illinois Court of Claims Illinois House Republican Staff Illinois State Board of Education The Thompson Center has been a filming location in several motion pictures, including 2000's The Watcher and 1990's The Kid Who Loved Christmas, The climax of 1986's Running Scared was filmed there; the location was the location of the Sherman House Hotel operated by Ernie Byfield. The hotel was demolished in 1973 and the site was used as a parking lot until the Thompson Center was constructed. Chicago architecture Commerce, Culture, & State Offices Under Glass Commerce, Culture, & State Offices Under Glass James R. Thompson Center New York Times Travel Guide Chicago James R. Thompson Center Emporis.com page Google Maps page
Jesse White (politician)
Jesse Clark White is an American athlete and politician from the State of Illinois. A member of the Democratic Party, he has served as the 37th Secretary of State of Illinois since 1999, he is the first African American to hold this position. He served as the Cook County Recorder of Deeds from 1993 to 1999 and in the Illinois House of Representatives from 1975 to 1993. On August 17, 2015, White announced that he would not seek reelection to a sixth term in 2018. Two years in August, White reversed his decision and announced his candidacy for a sixth term. White was born in Illinois, he attended Alabama State University, where he played baseball and basketball, he graduated with a bachelor's degree in 1957. He served in the 101st Airborne Division and 75th Ranger Regiment of the United States Army from 1957–1959. In May 1995, White was inducted into the Southwestern Athletic Conference Hall of Fame, he was an all-city baseball and basketball player at Chicago's Waller High School and was inducted into the Chicago Public League Basketball Coaches Association Hall of Fame in June 1995.
In 1999, he was inducted into the Alabama State University Sports Hall of Fame. In 1959, White founded the Jesse White Tumbling Team to serve as a positive alternative for children residing in the Chicago area. Since its inception, more than 10,700 young men and women have performed with the team. White served as a paratrooper in the United States Army’s 101st Airborne Division and as a member of the Illinois National Guard, he played minor league professional baseball with the Chicago Cubs organization, followed by a 33-year career with the Chicago Public Schools system as a teacher and administrator. White became a political protégé of longtime Cook County Board President and 42nd Ward Democratic Committeeman George Dunne. White was served for 16 years, he was elected Recorder of Deeds of Cook County, Illinois, in 1992 and re-elected in 1996. White was elected Secretary of State of Illinois in 1998, was re-elected in 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, 2018. In recent years he has served as Democratic Committeeman of Chicago's 27th Ward.
First elected to Secretary of State of Illinois in 1998, White was re-elected in 2002 by winning all 102 counties and garnering more than 2.3 million votes, the largest vote total by any candidate for Illinois statewide office in a quarter of a century. In 2006, White was re-elected to a third term. White was elected to a fourth term in the leading vote-getter in the entire state. White has been an advocate on traffic safety issues. In 2007, he initiated teen driver safety legislation giving Illinois one of the top-ranked graduated driver licensing programs in the country. In the first full year of the new law, teen fatal crashes in Illinois dropped by over 40 percent. White has worked to crack down on DUI, he partnered with Mothers Against Drunk Driving on key DUI legislation. Effective January 1, 2009, the new law requires all first-time DUI offenders who wish to obtain driving relief to install a breath alcohol ignition interlock device on their vehicles. MADD called this one of the most important pieces of DUI legislation passed in Illinois in several years.
Since taking office White has worked to improve the CDL licensing process. In his first year in office, White initiated a comprehensive highway safety package to tighten up the rules and regulations of the CDL licensing process. Most White implemented a key policy change beginning May 1, 2008 in which out-of-state Commercial driver's license holders moving to Illinois must take and pass the written and road tests before they are issued an Illinois CDL. Illinois was the first state in the nation to require these tests for licensed CDL holders moving from another state; the policy change has received praise from law trucking industry representatives. White has improved customer services through streamlined operations and the innovative use of technology; this has resulted in shorter than wait times at driver licensing facilities as more customers take advantage of new, technology-based transactions that the office has developed to better serve the public. In 2006, Internet transactions accounted for over $41 million.
In 2008, these transactions accounted for over $73 million. White continues to be an advocate for tissue donation, he initiated legislation creating the First Person Consent Organ/Tissue Donor Registry, which makes a person's decision to donate binding. Since 2006, more than 5 million people have signed up for the registry. In 1999, White inherited an office under a cloud of corruption from George H. Ryan. White pledged to restore integrity and eliminate all forms of institutionalized corruption and wrongdoing; some key efforts included: establishing a code of conduct for employees. S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois, as Inspector General and strengthened the Inspector General's office; the Secretary of State's office administers library grants throughout the state. In 2010, White re-directed federal funds from the Illinois State Library so that local libraries throughout Illinois could maintain a revenue flow from the state despite the state's fiscal crisis. In January 2009, White gained national attention for his decision to not certify Roland Burris's nomination to the United States Senate following corruption charges against former
Supreme Court of Illinois
The Supreme Court of Illinois is the state supreme court, the highest court of the state of Illinois. The court's authority is granted in Article VI of the current Illinois Constitution, which provides for seven justices elected from the five appellate judicial districts of the state: three justices from the First District and one from each of the other four districts; each justice is elected for a term of ten years and the chief justice is elected by the court from its members for a three-year term. The court has final appellate jurisdiction, it has mandatory jurisdiction in capital cases and cases where the constitutionality of laws has been called into question, discretionary jurisdiction from the Illinois Appellate Court. Along with the state legislature, the court promulgates rules for all state courts, its members have the authority to elevate trial judges to the appellate court on a temporary basis. The court administers professional discipline through the Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Committee and it governs initial licensing through the Illinois Board of Admissions to the Bar.
The official reporter of the Illinois Supreme Court is Illinois Reports. The Illinois Supreme Court is separated into 5 districts, with one Justice elected from each except the 1st, which elects three Justices, they are separated by county lines. Cook While the justices of many states' supreme courts are expected to relocate to the state capital for the duration of their terms of office, the justices of the Illinois Supreme Court continue to reside in their home districts and have chambers in their respective appellate districts; the justices travel to Springfield to deliberate. Accordingly, the Illinois Supreme Courthouse includes temporary apartments for the justices' use while in Springfield. Thomas R. Fitzgerald Philip J. Rarick Judiciary of Illinois List of Supreme Court Justices from Supreme Court's website Scammon, J. Young. Illinois Reports v. 1. Chicago: Gale & Burley. Gilman, Charles. Illinois Reports v. 10. Chicago: Callaghan & Co. Peck, E.. Illinois Reports v. 16. Chicago: D. B. Cooke & Co.
Peck, E.. Illinois Reports v. 16. St. Louis: W. J. Gilbert. Peck, E.. Illinois Reports v. 19. Chicago: D. B. Cooke & Co. Ewell, Marshall D. Illinois Reports v. 33. Freeman, Norman L.. Illinois Reports v. 44. Callaghan & Co. Illinois Supreme Court website A Chronicle of the Illinois Supreme Court Illinois State Judiciary Chief Justices of the Illinois Supreme Court Illinois Supreme Court Historic Preservation Commission