Mayor of Los Angeles
The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles is the official head and chief executive officer of Los Angeles, United States. The officeholder is limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the Constitution of California, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan. Eric Garcetti has been the city's 42nd and current mayor since 2013. California does not impose statewide term limits on school board members, but such limits can still be imposed on the local level. Los Angeles has a strong mayor–council form of government, giving the mayor the position of chief executive of the city; the mayor is given the authority to appoint general managers and commissioners, remove officials from city posts, is required to propose a budget each year. Most of the mayor's appointments and proposals are subject to approval by the Los Angeles City Council, but the mayor has the power of veto or approval of City Council legislation; the organization of the mayor's office changes with administration, but is always governed by a chief of staff, deputy chief of staff, director of communications, several deputy mayors.
Each mayor organizes his office into different offices containing the Los Angeles Housing Team, Los Angeles Business Team, International Trade Office, Mayor's Volunteer Corps, Office of Immigrant Affairs, among other divisions. The mayor has an office in the Los Angeles City Hall and resides at the Mayor's Mansion, Getty House, located in Windsor Square; as of 2017, the mayor received a salary of $248,141. The mayor is elected in citywide election. Elections follow a two-round system; the first round of the election is called the primary election. The candidate receiving a majority of the vote in the primary is elected outright. If no candidate receives a majority, the top two candidates advance to a runoff election, called the general election; the City Charter allows for write-in candidates for the primary election, but not for the runoff in the general election. The mayor is elected with a limit of two consecutive terms; the office of Mayor is nonpartisan by state law, although most mayoral candidates identify a party preference.
Elections for mayor were held in odd-numbered years from 1909 until 2013. In October 2014, the Los Angeles City Council recommended consolidating city elections with gubernatorial and presidential elections in even-numbered years in an effort to increase turnout. On March 3, 2015, voters passed a charter amendment to extend the term of the mayor elected in 2017 to five-and-a-half years. From 2022 and onward, mayoral elections will be consolidated with the statewide gubernatorial elections held every four years; the most recent election was held in March 2017. Incumbent mayor Eric Garcetti was re-elected for a second term. In the case of an office vacancy, the City Council has a choice to appoint a new mayor or to hold a special election; the replacement, if appointed, will serve until the next scheduled primary for a city general election. If any portion remains on the term, a special election will be held to elect a candidate to serve the remainder of the term; the mayor is subject to recall by registered voters if at least 15 percent of eligible voters sign a recall petition within 120 days of the first day of circulation.
If the petition is successful, a special election is held asking whether the incumbent should be removed and who among a list of candidates should replace the incumbent. If the recall is successful, the replacement candidate with the majority of votes succeeds the ousted incumbent. If no replacement candidate receives a majority of the votes, a special runoff election is held between the top two candidates; as of April 2019, 42 individuals have served as mayor of Los Angeles since its incorporation as a city in the state of California. Six individuals served non-consecutive terms, the first of which began in 1854 and the last of which ended in 1921; those who served non-consecutive terms are only counted once in the official count of mayoralties. Stephen Clark Foster was appointed as Mayor of Los Angeles in 1848 prior to California statehood and official incorporation of the city; the longest term was that of Tom Bradley, who served for 20 years over five terms prior to the establishment of successive term limits.
The shortest term, not counting city council presidents serving as acting mayor, was that of William Stephens, appointed to serve for less than two weeks after Arthur Cyprian Harper resigned from office. Two mayors died in office: Henry Mellus and Frederick A. MacDougall. Three Hispanics have served as mayor since incorporation: Antonio F. Coronel, Cristobal Aguilar, Antonio Villaraigosa. Many other Hispanics served as mayor prior to California joining the United States including Manuel Requena, who briefly served as acting mayor post-statehood in his role as city council president. Tom Bradley is the only African American to have served as mayor, but was the city's longest-serving mayor. Two French Canadians have served as mayor, including Damien Marchesseault, who served for three distinct periods, Prudent Beaudry; this list includes three Presidents of the City Council who served as Acting Mayor due to a vacancy in the office of the mayor but who were not appointed as mayor. The Council Presidents are not included in the count of mayors.
† Council presidents who temporarily served as acting mayor in case of a vacancy but were not appointed to the position are not included in the count of mayors. As of April 2019, three former Mayors of Los Angeles were alive, the oldest being Richard J. Riordan; the most recent mayor to die was Thomas Bradley, on September 29, 1998. History of Los Angeles T
2004 United States presidential election
The 2004 United States presidential election was the 55th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004. Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush defeated Democratic nominee John Kerry, a United States Senator from Massachusetts. Bush and incumbent Vice President Dick Cheney were renominated by their party with no difficulty. Former Governor Howard Dean emerged as the early front-runner in the 2004 Democratic primaries, but Kerry won the first set of primaries in January 2004 and clinched his party's nomination in March after a series of primary victories. Kerry chose Senator John Edwards of North Carolina, who had himself sought the party's 2004 presidential nomination, to be his running mate. Bush's popularity had soared early in his first term after the September 11 attacks, but his popularity declined between 2001 and 2004. Foreign policy was the dominant theme throughout the election campaign Bush's conduct of the War on Terrorism and the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Bush presented himself as a decisive leader and attacked Kerry as a "flip-flopper", while Kerry criticized Bush's conduct of the Iraq War. Domestic issues were debated as well, including the economy and jobs, health care, same-sex marriage and embryonic stem cell research. Bush won by a slim margin, taking 286 electoral votes, he swept the South and the Mountain States and took the crucial swing states of Ohio and New Mexico. Some aspects of the election process were subject to controversy, but not to the degree seen in the 2000 presidential election. Bush was the first candidate since George H. W. Bush in the 1988 election to win a majority of the popular vote, as well as the last Republican candidate to have won the popular vote. Bush's victory marked the first time that the Republican nominee won a presidential election without carrying any state in the Northeastern United States. Bush would serve until 2009 and be succeeded by Barack Obama, whereas Kerry would continue to serve in the Senate and go on to become the 68th Secretary of State of the United States during Barack Obama's second term.
George W. Bush won the presidency in 2000 after the Supreme Court's decision in Bush v. Gore remanded the case to the Florida Supreme Court, which declared there was not sufficient time to hold a recount without violating the U. S. Constitution. Just eight months into his presidency, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed Bush into a wartime president. Bush's approval ratings surged to near 90%. Within a month, the forces of a coalition led by the United States entered Afghanistan, sheltering Osama bin Laden, suspected mastermind of the September 11 attacks. By December, the Taliban had been removed, although a ongoing reconstruction would follow; the Bush administration turned its attention to Iraq, argued the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq had become urgent. The Iraq issue gave Bush an antagonist to present to the people. Rallying support against a common enemy rather than gaining voters through ideas or policy. Among the stated reasons were that Saddam's regime had tried to acquire nuclear material and had not properly accounted for biological and chemical material it was known to have possessed.
Both the possession of these weapons of mass destruction, the failure to account for them, would violate the UN sanctions. The assertion about WMD was hotly advanced by the Bush administration from the beginning, but other major powers including China, France and Russia remained unconvinced that Iraq was a threat and refused to allow passage of a UN Security Council resolution to authorize the use of force. Iraq permitted UN weapon inspectors in November 2002, who were continuing their work to assess the WMD claim when the Bush administration decided to proceed with war without UN authorization and told the inspectors to leave the country; the United States invaded Iraq on March 20, 2003, along with a "coalition of the willing" that consisted of additional troops from the United Kingdom, to a lesser extent, from Australia and Poland. Within about three weeks, the invasion caused the collapse of both the Iraqi government and its armed forces. However, the U. S. and allied forces failed to find any weapon of mass destruction in Iraq.
On May 1, George W. Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of "major combat operations" in the Iraq War. Bush's approval rating in May was according to a CNN -- USA Today -- Gallup poll. However, Bush's high approval ratings did not last. First, while the war itself was popular in the U. S. the reconstruction and attempted "democratization" of Iraq lost some support as months passed and casualty figures increased, with no decrease in violence nor progress toward stability or reconstruction. Second, as investigators combed through the country, they failed to find the predicted WMD stockpiles, which led to debate over the rationale for the war. Bush's popularity rose as a wartime president, he was able to ward off any serious challenge to the Republican nomination. Senator Lincoln Chafee from Rhode Island considered challenging Bush on an anti-war platform in New Hampshire, but decided not to run after the capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003.
On March 10, 2004, Bush clinched the number of delegates needed to be nominated at the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City. He accepted the nomination on September 2, 2004, retained Vice President Dick Cheney as his running mate. During the convention and throughout the campaign, Bush focused on two themes: defending America against terrorism and building an ownership society. Bush us
Los Angeles General Services Police
The Los Angeles General Services Police was a law enforcement agency that provided police and security officer services to Historic Los Angeles City Hall, Los Angeles Central Library, Los Angeles Zoo, Los Angeles Convention Center and city parks, recreation centers, senior centers and other beaches, recreational facilities having similar duties of the now defunct Los Angeles County Office of Public Safety, absorbed into the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. The department's last police chief was Gary S. Newton; the department was established as a security force in 1979. A peace officer component was created in the late 1980s and reorganized in 2003 when Los Angeles City Council members Wendy Gruel and Jack Weiss proposed to create the Office of Public Safety by merging the many city security services into one centralized division of the Department of General Services. In July 2012 through January 2013, the department and its duties were absorbed into the Los Angeles Police Department.
As of 2007, GSPD was authorized 112 police officers and over 350 security officers and support staff with an annual budget of over 30 million dollars excluding employee benefits. The department patrolled over 72 libraries and 900 municipal buildings, it was the 10th largest law enforcement agency in L. A. County; the department was responsible for citywide contract security services as well as physical and technology based access and surveillance throughout the city. The department was dissolved by the Los Angeles City Council; the City Council voted to close the department to save the city money and as a result and security personnel were transferred into the new Los Angeles Police Department Security Services Division, Division #36. List of law enforcement agencies in California Los Angeles General Services Police
2008 United States presidential election
The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois, Joe Biden, the senior Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska. Obama became the first African American to be elected as president. Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush was ineligible to pursue a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment; as neither Bush nor Vice President Dick Cheney sought the presidency, the 2008 election was the first election since 1952 in which neither major party's presidential nominee was the incumbent president or the incumbent vice president. McCain secured the Republican nomination by March 2008, defeating Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, other challengers; the Democratic primaries were marked by a sharp contest between Obama and the initial front-runner, Senator Hillary Clinton.
Clinton's victory in the New Hampshire primary made her the first woman to win a major party's presidential primary. After a long primary season, Obama clinched the Democratic nomination in June 2008. Early campaigning focused on the Iraq War and Bush's unpopularity. McCain supported the war, as well as a troop surge that had begun in 2007, while Obama opposed the war. Bush endorsed McCain, but the two did not campaign together, Bush did not appear in person at the 2008 Republican National Convention. Obama campaigned on the theme that "Washington must change,"; the campaign was affected by the onset of a major financial crisis, which peaked in September 2008. McCain's decision to suspend his campaign during the height of the financial crisis backfired as voters viewed his response as erratic. Obama won a decisive victory over McCain, winning the Electoral College and the popular vote by a sizable margin, including states that had not voted for the Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 and 1964.
Obama received the largest share of the popular vote won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964; as of the 2016 presidential election Obama's total count of 69.5 million votes still stands as the largest tally won by a presidential candidate. Hillary Clinton, U. S. Senator from New York John Edwards, former U. S. Senator from North Carolina Bill Richardson, Governor of New Mexico Dennis Kucinich, U. S. Representative from Ohio Joe Biden, U. S. Senator from Delaware Mike Gravel, former U. S. Senator from Alaska Christopher Dodd, U. S. Senator from Connecticut Evan Bayh, U. S. Senator from Indiana Tom Vilsack, former Governor of Iowa Media speculation had begun immediately after the results of the 2004 presidential election were released. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats regained majorities in both houses of the U. S. Congress. Early polls taken before anyone had announced a candidacy had shown Senators Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama as the most popular potential Democratic candidates.
The media speculated on several other candidates, including Al Gore, the runner-up in the 2000 election. Edwards was one of the first to formally announce his candidacy for the presidency, on December 28, 2006; this run would be his second attempt at the presidency. Clinton announced intentions to run in the Democratic primaries on January 20, 2007. Obama announced his candidacy on February 10 in his home state of Illinois. Early in the year, the support for Barack Obama started to increase in the polls, he passed Clinton for the top spot in Iowa. Obama's win was fueled by first time caucus-goers and Independents and showed voters viewed him as the "candidate of change." Iowa has since been viewed as the state that jump-started Obama's campaign and set him on track to win both the nomination and the presidency. After the Iowa caucus, Joe Biden and Christopher Dodd withdrew from the nomination contest. Obama became the new front runner in New Hampshire, when his poll numbers skyrocketed after his Iowa victory The Clinton campaign was struggling after a huge loss in Iowa and no strategy beyond the early primaries and caucuses.
According to The Vancouver Sun, Campaign strategists had "mapped a victory scenario that envisioned the former first lady wrapping up the Democratic presidential nomination by Super Tuesday on Feb. 5." In what is considered a turning point for her campaign, Clinton had a strong performance at the Saint Anselm College, ABC, Facebook debates several days before the New Hampshire primary as well as an emotional interview in a public broadcast live on TV. Clinton won that primary by 2% of the vote, contrary to the predictions of pollsters who had her trailing Obama for a few days up to the primary date. Clinton's win was the
Constitution of California
The Constitution of California is the primary organizing law for the U. S. state of California, describing the duties, powers and functions of the government of California. Following cession of the area from Mexico to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War, California's original constitution was drafted in both English and Spanish by delegates elected on August 1, 1849, to represent all communities home to non-indigenous citizens; the delegates wrote and adopted the constitution at the 1849 Constitutional Convention, held beginning on September 3 in Monterey, voters approved the new constitution on November 13, 1849. Adoption of the "state" constitution preceded California's Admission to the Union on September 9, 1850 by ten months. A second constitutional convention, the Sacramento Convention of 1878–79, amended the original document, ratifying the amended constitution on 7 May 1879; the Constitution of California is one of the longest collections of laws in the world due to provisions enacted during the Progressive Era limiting powers of elected officials, but due to additions by California ballot proposition and voter initiatives, which take form as constitutional amendments.
Initiatives can be proposed by the governor, legislature, or by popular petition, giving California one of the most flexible legal systems in the world. It is the 8th longest constitution in the world. Many of the individual rights clauses in the state constitution have been construed as protecting rights broader than the United States Bill of Rights in the Federal Constitution. An example is the case of Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, in which "free speech" rights beyond those addressed by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution were found in the California Constitution by the California courts. One of California's most significant prohibitions is against "cruel or unusual punishment," a stronger prohibition than the U. S. Constitution's Eighth Amendment prohibition against "cruel and unusual punishment." This caused the California Supreme Court to find Capital Punishment unconstitutional on state Constitutional grounds in the 1972 case of People v. Anderson; the constitution has undergone numerous changes since its original drafting.
It was rewritten from scratch several times before the drafting of the current 1879 constitution, which has itself been amended or revised. In response to widespread public disgust with the powerful railroads that controlled California's politics and economy at the start of the 20th century, Progressive Era politicians pioneered the concept of aggressively amending the state constitution by initiative in order to remedy perceived evils. From 1911, the height of the U. S. Progressive Era, to 1986, the California Constitution was amended or revised over 500 times; the constitution became bloated, leading to abortive efforts towards a third constitutional convention in 1897, 1914, 1919, 1930, 1934 and 1947. By 1962, the constitution had grown to 75,000 words, which at that time was longer than any other state constitution but Louisiana's; that year, the electorate approved the creation of a California Constitution Revision Commission, which worked on a comprehensive revision of the constitution from 1964 to 1976.
The electorate ratified the Commission's revisions in 1966, 1970, 1972, 1974, but rejected the 1968 revision, whose primary substantive effect would have been to make the state's superintendent of schools into an appointed rather than an elected official. The Commission removed about 40,000 words from the constitution; the California Constitution is one of the longest in the world. The length has been attributed to a variety of factors, such as influence of previous Mexican civil law, lack of faith in elected officials and the fact that many initiatives take the form of a constitutional amendment. Several amendments involved the authorization of the creation of state government agencies, including the State Compensation Insurance Fund and the State Bar of California. Unlike other state constitutions, the California Constitution protects the corporate existence of cities and counties and grants them broad plenary home rule powers; the Constitution gives charter cities, in particular, supreme authority over municipal affairs allowing such cities' local laws to trump state law.
By enabling cities to pay counties to perform governmental functions for them, Section 8 of Article XI resulted in the rise of the contract city. Article 4, section 8 defines an "urgency statute" as one "necessary for immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety". Many of the individual rights clauses in the state constitution have been construed as protecting rights broader than the Bill of Rights in the federal constitution. Two examples include the Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins case involving an implied right to free speech in private shopping centers, the first decision in America in 1972 which found the death penalty unconstitutional, California v. Anderson, 6 Cal. 3d 628. This noted that under California's state constitution a stronger protection applies than under the U. S. Constitution's 8th Amendment.
Griffith Park is a large municipal park at the eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains, in the Los Feliz neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The park covers 4,310 acres of land, it is the second-largest city park in California, after Mission Trails Preserve in San Diego, the 11th largest municipally owned park in the United States. It has been referred to as the Central Park of Los Angeles but is much larger, more untamed, rugged than its New York City counterpart. After investing in mining, Griffith J. Griffith purchased Rancho Los Feliz in 1882 and started an ostrich farm there. Although ostrich feathers were used in making women's hats in the late-19th century, Griffith's purpose was to lure residents of Los Angeles to his nearby property developments, which were haunted by the ghost of Antonio Feliz. After the property rush peaked, Griffith donated 3,015 acres to the city of Los Angeles on December 16, 1896. Griffith was tried and convicted of shooting and wounding his wife in a 1903 incident.
When released from prison, he attempted to fund the construction of an amphitheater, planetarium, a girls' camp and boys' camp in the park. His reputation in the city was tainted by his crime, however, so the city refused his money. In 1912, Griffith designated 100 acres of the park, at its northeast corner along the Los Angeles River, be used to "do something to further aviation"; the Griffith Park Aerodrome was the result. Aviation pioneers such as Glenn L. Martin and Silas Christoffersen used it, the aerodrome passed to the National Guard Air Service. Air operations continued on a 2,000-foot -long runway until 1939, when it was closed due to danger from interference with the approaches to Grand Central Airport across the river in Glendale, because the City Planning commission complained that a military airport violated the terms of Griffith's deed; the National Guard squadron moved to Van Nuys, the Aerodrome was demolished, though the rotating beacon and its tower remained for many years.
From 1946 until the mid-1950s, Rodger Young Village occupied the area, the Aerodrome. Today that site is occupied by the Los Angeles Zoo parking lot, the Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum, soccer fields, the interchange between the Golden State Freeway and the Ventura Freeway. Griffith set up a trust fund for the improvements he envisioned, after his death in 1919 the city began to build what Griffith had wanted; the amphitheater, called the Greek Theatre, was completed in 1930, Griffith Observatory was finished in 1935. Subsequent to Griffith's original gift further donations of land, city purchases, the reversion of land from private to public have expanded the Park to its present size. In December, 1944 the Sherman Company donated 444 acres of Hollywoodland open space to Griffith Park; this large, eco-sensitive property borders the Lake Hollywood reservoir, the former Hollywoodland sign, Bronson Canyon where it connects into the original Griffith donation. The Hollywoodland residential community is surrounded by this land.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Civilian Conservation Corps camp contained within Griffith Park was converted to a holding center for Japanese Americans arrested as "enemy aliens" before they were transferred to more permanent internment camps. The Griffith Park Detention Camp opened immediately after the Pearl Harbor attack, taking in 35 Japanese immigrants suspected of fifth column activity because they lived and worked near military installations; these men fishermen from nearby Terminal Island, were transferred to an Immigration and Naturalization Service detention station after a brief stay, but Issei internees arrested in the days and weeks following the outbreak of the war arrived soon after to take their place. Up to 550 Japanese Americans were confined in Griffith Park from 1941 to 1942, all subsequently transferred to Fort Lincoln, Fort Missoula and other DOJ camps. On July 14, 1942, the detention camp became a POW Processing Center for German and Japanese prisoners of war, operating until August 3, 1943, when the prisoners were transferred elsewhere.
The camp was changed to the Army Western Corps Photographic Center and Camouflage Experimental Laboratory until the end of the war. Hired as part of a welfare project, 3,780 men were in the park clearing brush on October 3, 1933, when a fire broke out in the Mineral Wells area. Many of the workers were ordered to fight the fire. In all, 29 men were killed and 150 were injured. Professional firefighters limited the blaze to 47 acres. On May 12, 1961, a wildfire on the south side of the park burned 814 acres, it destroyed eight homes and damaged nine more, chiefly in the Beachwood Canyon area. Another fire occurred circa 1971 in the Toyon Canyon area. Repelled by the ugliness of the devastated area, Amir Dialameh replanted a portion of it himself by hand. Over the course of more than 30 years, he tended the garden he built there with the help of occasional volunteers. On May 8, 2007, a major wildfire burned more than 817 acres, destroying the bird sanctuary, Dante's View, Captain's Roost, forcing the evacuation of hundreds of people.
The fire came right up to one of the largest playgrounds in Los Angeles, Shane's Inspiration, the Los Angeles Zoo, threatened the Griffith Observatory, but left such areas intact. Several local organizations, including SaveGriffithPark.org, have been working since with local officials to restore the park in a way that would benefit all. It was the third fire
Los Angeles Department of Transportation
The Los Angeles Department of Transportation referred to as LADOT, is a municipal agency that oversees transportation planning, construction and operations within the City of Los Angeles. LADOT was created by city ordinance, is run by a general manager appointed by the Mayor of Los Angeles, under the oversight of a citizens' commission appointed by the mayor. LADOT is best known for providing public transportation to the City of Los Angeles, it operates the second-largest fleet in Los Angeles County next to Metro. It consist of over 300 vehicles, serving nearly 30 million passengers a year and operating over 800,000 hours. LADOT develops the traffic signal timing and transportation planning for the city. Actual road maintenance and construction is provided by the Los Angeles City Department of Public Works. LADOT performs many transportation related duties, with six main operating groups: Parking Enforcement & Traffic Control, Project Delivery, Parking Management & Regulations, Transit Services, Administration.
The DASH is a transit bus operates 30 routes covering Downtown Los Angeles and many outlying communities within the City. Its primary function is to provide localized service, is a feeder into the countywide MTA Metro service. DASH Community Routes include: Beachwood Canyon Boyle Heights/East LA Chesterfield Square Crenshaw Downtown A: Little Tokyo/City West Downtown B: Chinatown/Financial District (connects with the Metro Red Line, Metro Gold Line, Metro Blue Line, Metrolink Lines: Ventura County, Antelope Valley, San Bernardino, 91, Orange County, Amtrak lines: Pacific Surfliner, Coast Starlight, Sunset Limited, Southwest Chief, Texas Eagle Downtown D: Union Station/South Park (connects with the Metro Red Line, Metro Gold Line, Metro Blue Line, Metro Expo Line, Metrolink Lines: Ventura County, Antelope Valley, San Bernardino, 91, Orange County, Amtrak lines: Pacific Surfliner, Coast Starlight, Sunset Limited, Southwest Chief, Texas Eagle Downtown E: City West/Financial District Downtown F: Financial District Exposition Park, L.
A. Coliseum/LAFC Stadium/USC El Sereno/City Terrace Fairfax Highland Park/Eagle Rock Hollywood Hollywood/Wilshire King-East Leimert Park/ Slauson Lincoln Heights /Chinatown Los Feliz /Weekend Observatory Shuttle Midtown Northridge Observatory Panorama City/Van Nuys Pico Union/Echo Park San Pedro Southeast/Pueblo Del Rio Van Nuys/Studio City Vermont/Main Watts Wilmington Wilshire Center/Koreatown Most DASH buses are El Dorado EZ-Rider vehicles powered by propane, although CNG Gillig BRTs have since been introduced; the first two digits of DASH bus numbers denote. For instance, 98001 denotes 1998 and 06301 denotes 2006. All DASH buses are 30 feet long, making it easier to navigate in dense neighborhoods where there are narrower streets and tighter turns. Commuter Express is an express bus service, consisting of 13 routes, all but one running during rush hours only. Service started in 1985. Routes 419, 423, 431, 437, 438, 448 are former Metro lines that were cancelled. Fares are based on a flat rate for travel on streets plus an extra charge based on the distance traveled on freeways.
Unless otherwise noted, all services operates towards Downtown LA during the morning rush and from Downtown LA during the afternoon rush. For the purposes of this chart, closed-door means that customers are not allowed to use buses for local trips and open-door means that customers are allowed to use buses for local trips. Commuter Express services are provided by a variety of suburban vehicles, including Gillig Phantoms, Neoplan Metroliners, Stewart & Stevenson Apollo T-40s. Part of the fleet are a small number of CNG powered Orion V coaches. CityRide is a program for individuals in the City of Los Angeles, aged 65 or older and for qualified disabled persons. Los Angeles Department of Transportation TrafficInfo Department summary, p. 36