Liberty is a loose term in English for the goddess or personification of the concept of liberty, is represented by the Roman Goddess Libertas, by Marianne, the national symbol of France, by many others. The Statue of Liberty by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi is a well-known example in art, a gift from France to the United States; the ancient Roman goddess Libertas was honored during the second Punic War by a temple erected on the Aventine Hill in Rome by the father of Tiberius Gracchus. A statue in her honor was raised by Clodius on the site of Marcus Tullius Cicero's house after it had been razed; the figure bears certain resemblances to Sol Invictus, the late Roman Republic sun deity and the crown associated with that deity appears in modern depictions of Liberty. In 1793, during the French Revolution, the Notre Dame de Paris cathedral was turned into a "Temple of Reason" and, for a time, the Goddess of Liberty replaced the Virgin Mary on several altars. In the United States, "Liberty" is depicted with five-pointed stars, as appear on the American flag held in a raised hand.
Another hand may hold a sword pointing downward. Depictions familiar to Americans include the following: The Statue of Liberty, its replicas, its portrayal on many U. S. postage stamps. Many denominations of American coins have depicted Liberty in both bust side-view and full-figure designs; the flags of the States of New York and New Jersey On the dome of the U. S. Capitol as Freedom On the dome of the Georgia State Capitol as Miss Freedom On the dome of the Texas State Capitol On the dome of the Allen County Courthouse in Fort Wayne, Indiana On the dome of the Bergen County Courthouse in Hackensack, New Jersey On both Union and Confederate currencyIn the early decades of the 20th Century, Liberty displaced Columbia, used as the National personification of the US during the 19th Century. Texas Memorial Museum Texas Statue Bee county courthouse in Texas Another article on Beeville courthouse Mackinac Island
Texas State Capitol
The Texas State Capitol is the capitol building and seat of government of the American state of Texas. Located in downtown Austin, the structure houses the offices and chambers of the Texas Legislature and of the Governor of Texas. Designed in 1881 by architect Elijah E. Myers, it was constructed from 1882 to 1888 under the direction of civil engineer Reuben Lindsay Walker. A $75 million underground extension was completed in 1993; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970 and recognized as a National Historic Landmark in 1986. The Texas State Capitol is 302.64 feet tall, making it the sixth tallest state capitol and one of several taller than the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C; the capitol was ranked ninety-second in the 2007 "America's Favorite Architecture" poll commissioned by the American Institute of Architects. The current Texas State Capitol is the third building to serve that purpose; the second Texas capitol was built on the same site as the present capitol in Austin.
Construction of the Italian Renaissance Revival–style capitol was funded by an article of the state constitution, adopted on February 15, 1876, which authorized the sale of public lands for the purpose. In one of the largest barter transactions of recorded history, the builders of the capitol, known as the Capitol Syndicate, were paid with more than three million acres of public land in the "Panhandle" region of Texas; the value of the land, combined with expenses, added to a total cost of $3.7 million for the original building. It was constructed by convicts or migrant workers, as many as a thousand at a time; the building has been renovated several times, with central air conditioning installed in 1955 and the most recent refurbishments completed in 1997. The designers planned for the building to be clad with hill country limestone quarried in Oatmanville, about 10 miles to the southwest. However, the high iron content of the limestone led it to discolor with rust stains when exposed to the elements.
Learning of the problem, the owners of Granite Mountain near Marble Falls offered to donate to the state, free of charge, the necessary amount of sunset red granite as an alternative. To transport the red granite, the Austin and Northwestern Railroad was extended 2.3 miles to accommodate the transportation from Granite Mountain. Due to a bend in the tracks, trains would derail, accidentally dumping some of the pink granite. Many of the fallen rocks are a local point of interest. While the building is built of the Oak Hill limestone, most of this is hidden behind the walls and on the foundations. Red granite was subsequently used for many state government buildings in the Austin area; the project's 900 workers included 86 granite cutters brought from Scotland. The cornerstone for the building was laid on March 2, 1885, Texas Independence Day, the building was opened to the public on April 21, 1888, San Jacinto Day, before its completion; the building was dedicated by Texas State Senator Temple Houston on May 18, 1888.
The dedication ceremony was marked by a weeklong celebration from May 14–19, 1888, that attracted nearly 20,000 visitors and included events such as military drill demonstrations, cattle roping, baseball games, German choral singing, fireworks. Guests were able to purchase souvenirs such as pieces of red granite and copies of a song written by composer and pianist Leonora Rives-Diaz called the "State Capitol Grand Waltz". In 1931, the City of Austin enacted a local ordinance limiting the height of new buildings to a maximum of 200 feet, aiming to preserve the visual preeminence of the capitol. From that time until the early 1960s, only the University of Texas Main Building Tower was built higher than the limit, but in 1962 developers announced a new 261-foot high-rise residential building to be built adjacent to the capitol, called the Westgate Tower. Governor Price Daniel voiced his opposition to the proposed tower, State Representative Henry Grover of Houston introducing a bill to condemn the property, defeated in the Texas House of Representatives by only two votes.
The Westgate was completed in 1966, but the controversy over the preservation of the capitol's visual presence that dogged its construction continued to grow. The Westgate was followed by taller structures: first the Dobie Center, a series of larger downtown bank towers, culminating in the 395-foot One American Center. In early 1983, inspired by the Westgate and these other structures, State Senator Lloyd Doggett and State Representative Gerald Hill advanced a bill proposing a list of protected "Capitol View Corridors" along which construction would not be permitted, so as to protect the capitol's visibility from a series of points around Austin; the bill was signed into law on May 3, 1983, defining thirty state-protected viewing corridors and prohibiting any construction that would intersect one of them. The City of Austin has adopted similar rules, so that the majority of the corridors are protected under municipal zoning code, as well as under state law. On February 6, 1983, a fire began in the apartment of William P. Hobby Jr. the state lieutenant governor.
A guest of Hobby's was killed, four firemen and a policeman were injured by the subsequent blaze. The capitol was crowded with accumulated archives, the fire was intense and came dangerously close to des
Secretary of State of Texas
The Texas Secretary of State is one of the six members of the executive department of the state of Texas, in the United States. Under the Texas Constitution, the appointment is made by the Governor, with confirmation by the Texas Senate. Rolando Pablos is the 111th person to hold the office, he was appointed by Greg Abbott, sworn in on January 6, 2017. Pablos has announced his resignation, effective December 15, 2018; the secretary of state is the chief elections officer, the protocol officer for state and international matters, the liaison for the governor on Mexican and border matters. The Secretary of State offices are in the James Earl Rudder State Office Building at 1019 Brazos Street in Austin; the SOS elections office is on the second floor of the James Earl Rudder Building. The executive offices are in Room 1E.8 in the Texas State Capitol. Under the Texas Constitution the secretary of state is, with the governor, the lieutenant governor, the Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, the commissioner of the Office of General Land and the attorney general, one of the six members of the Executive Department.
Of these offices all are elected by the voters in statewide elections except the secretary of state, nominated by the governor and confirmed by the senate. The secretary of state administers the Texas Election Code, maintains public filings, is the keeper of the State Seal of Texas; the secretary of state issues appointments for notaries public. The first secretary of state of the Republic of Texas, Stephen F. Austin, was appointed by Texas president Sam Houston in 1836. Since Texas became a state of the United States in 1845 and there have been 109 secretaries of state. List of company registers Secretary of State of Texas
Dan Patrick (politician)
Dan Goeb Patrick is an American radio talk show host and politician. He is the 42nd and current lieutenant governor of Texas, serving since January 2015. From Baltimore, Patrick began his career as a radio and television broadcaster. After forming a chain of sports bars and subsequently going bankrupt, he became a radio host again, this time becoming a conservative commentator. From 2007 to 2015, Patrick was a Republican member of the Texas Senate for the 7th District, which included a small portion of the city of Houston and several Houston-area suburbs located in northwest Harris County. Patrick defeated three-term incumbent David Dewhurst in the primary runoff for lieutenant governor on May 27, 2014, he won the position in the fall general election. He was re-elected in 2018. Patrick was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 4, 1950, he was reared in a blue-collar neighborhood in East Baltimore. He is the only child of the former Vilma Jean Marshall and Charles Anthony Goeb, who worked at the Baltimore Sun for thirty-one years as a newspaper vendor, before he retired in 1984.
In life, he changed his surname from Goeb to Patrick. Patrick graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Patrick started his first radio job in 1968 at the age of 18. After college, in 1977, he became a television broadcaster at WNEP-TV in Pennsylvania. Patrick held a similar position at WTTG in Washington, D. C. before he became the lead sportscaster with KHOU-TV in Houston. As a broadcaster, Patrick was able to get attention through various stunts, such as painting himself blue in support for the Houston Oilers and wearing a large cowboy hat, he became the second most popular TV personality in Houston by 1983, as well as one of the most well-known, though surveys found that he was one of the most disliked. Patrick had excellent public speaking skills, which caused him to be nicknamed "the Silver-tongued Devil." Patrick left his job at KHOU in the mid-1980s after failing to reach an agreement with the station's new ownership for a long-term contract.
According to Patrick, as his surname from birth, was not pleasant-sounding or spelled as it sounded, he did not use it from his first day as a radio host. Instead, he used the pseudonym Dan Scott; when Patrick became a television broadcaster in 1977, he changed his air name at the request of the person who hired him in order to avoid confusing Patrick with another anchor at a competitor station with the last name of Scott. Patrick chose Dan Patrick, with "Patrick" being his middle name of his wife's brother. Patrick continued to use this name, by the time he changed his name around 2004, he and his family were known as the Patricks. In November 1983, Patrick and several investors opened one of the first sports bars in the U. S. which they named Dan and Nick's Sportsmarket. The bar did well for a time, due to "the strength of Patrick’s personality" and an oil boom in Houston at the time, they took ownership of five sports bars in the city. Patrick's mother was the company bookkeeper. Questions arose during the 2014 lieutenant governor's race about the immigration status of one of Patrick's employees, Miguel "Mike" Andrade.
Patrick and Andrade offered different recollections about Andrade's employment. The matter was raised by one of Patrick's opponents, Jerry Patterson, who questioned Patrick's declared commitment to halt illegal immigration; when the oil boom ended, Houston's economy fell, something which fatally hurt Patrick's sports bar chain. In 1986, after the sports bars failed, Patrick filed for personal bankruptcy. In October 1992, the case was closed, discharging several hundred thousand dollars in remaining debts. Patrick, who stated it took him 10 years for him and his family "to regain financial equilibrium," has and discussed the ordeal and stated how it shaped him as an individual and conservative. Soon after his bankruptcy, Patrick "reinvented himself." He became a conservative talk radio host in the 1990s. He began by buying a four-hour timeslot at AM 700 KSEV in the summer of 1987, he was a sports radio host, operating out of his remaining sports bar. However, he was able to take over the radio station in 1988, he switched to politics shortly afterward.
He hosted. The program, Dan Patrick & Friends, was broadcast in the Houston radio market on KSEV and in Dallas on AM 1160 KVCE. Patrick grew influential through his talk radio career, he earned high name recognition. As a talk radio host, Patrick advocated for fiscal conservatism, evangelical Christian values on social issues, he became a vocal opponent of illegal immigration, he was known as a populist. Patrick's talk radio career was instrumental to his political rise, including his election and influence in the State Senate and his eventual election as lieutenant governor. One notable decision Patrick made as the owner of a talk radio station was to sign Rush Limbaugh, not well known at the time, to be heard on KSEV in 1989, via radio syndication. Limbaugh's success as a national talk show host helped raise the popularity of Patrick's radio station. By February 2006, Patrick owned one radio station. In 2006, Patrick signed a deal to purchase radio station KMGS AM 1160 in Texas. By 2013, Patrick was the majority owner of two radio stations, in Dallas radio markets.
Patrick continued broadcasting after his election as a State Senator, he continued to own KSEV after his election as lieutenant governor. Patrick cons
George P. Bush
George Prescott Bush is an American corporate lawyer, former U. S. Navy Reserve officer, real estate investor, politician who serves as the Commissioner of the Texas General Land Office. A fourth-generation elected official as a member of the Bush family, he is the oldest child of former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, a nephew of the 43rd President George W. Bush, a grandson of the 41st President George H. W. Bush, after whom he is named. Bush's middle name is taken from Senator Prescott Bush. Bush was born in Texas, to Jeb and Columba Bush. Bush has younger brother John Ellis Bush, Jr.. In 1994, Bush was arrested for burglary in the Killian area of Miami, but not charged, he attended law school at University of Texas School of Law, where he earned a Juris Doctor degree in 2003. Like his grandfather and uncle, Bush was a freshman walk-on to the baseball team at Rice University, but left the team by his sophomore year. Bush played quarterback for the Jones College intramural football team, he was featured in People Magazine's top 100 Bachelors in 2000.
In 1998, Bush became a public high school teacher in Florida. He left this position to go to law school in Texas. After law school, he clerked for U. S. District Judge for the Northern District of Texas, Sidney A. Fitzwater. Bush managed St. Augustine Partners, an energy and technology-focused investment firm in Fort Worth, Texas, he co-founded Pennybacker Capital, LLC, a real estate private equity firm in Austin, Texas. The firm was named N3 Capital and headquartered in Fort Worth. Bush left Pennybacker Capital in 2012. Before entering the real estate investment business, he practiced corporate and securities law in Dallas with Akin, Strauss, Hauer & Feld LLP. In 2005, Bush was selected as one of Texas Monthly's "Rising Stars" for his work with Akin Gump. Bush was the national co-chair of Maverick PAC, a national political action committee dedicated to engaging the next generation of Republican voters. Bush was a co-founder and on the board of directors of Hispanic Republicans of Texas, a political action committee whose goal is to elect Republican political candidates of Hispanic heritage to office in Texas.
Bush was the Tarrant County chairman for Uplift Education—a Dallas-based public charter network focused on closing the achievement gap in inner-city public schools. On March 21, 2007, the United States Navy Reserve announced the selection of Bush for training as an intelligence officer through the direct commission officer program, a Navy initiative whereby applicants in specialized civilian fields forgo the typical prerequisites of a commission, such as the Naval Academy, NROTC or OCS, – instead – attend three weeks of Direct Commissioned Officer Indoctrination Course classes on subjects such as naval history and courtesies, followed by online classes. Bush told The Politico that attending the October 2006 launch of the aircraft carrier named for his grandfather – the USS George H. W. Bush – inspired him to join the service, he called the death of Pat Tillman, the NFL player and Army Ranger, killed in a friendly fire incident in Afghanistan in 2004, "a wake-up call". Bush served in Operation Enduring Freedom for eight months and returned to the United States in 2011.
During that deployment, he was given a different name for security purposes. Not those he was serving alongside knew his real identity. Bush left the U. S. Navy Reserve on May 9, 2017 at the rank of Lieutenant. At the age of 12, Bush spoke before the 1988 Republican National Convention, which nominated his grandfather, he spoke at the 1992 convention on the occasion of George H. W. Bush's renomination, he campaigned for George W. Bush, during the 2000 and 2004 presidential campaigns. In his speeches he stated support for his uncle's position in favor of comprehensive immigration reform, he has expressed his opinion on some issues. In August 2004, during a trip to Mexico sponsored by the group Republicans Abroad, he called Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez a dictator and criticized the U. S. Border Patrol's use of guns which fire plastic pellets packed with chili powder. Bush was quoted as telling Mexican media, "If there has been American approval for this policy, reprehensible. It's kind of barbarous."
He attributed the gun usage to "some local INS guy who's trying to be tough, act macho", although it is an agency policy. When asked in 2003 about whether he planned to run for office himself, Bush replied that his grandmother, Barbara Bush, had advised that anyone thinking about entering politics should distinguish himself in some other field first: "Make a name for yourself, have a family, marry someone great, have some kids, buy a house, pay taxes, do the things everyone does instead of just running out and saying,'Hey, I'm the nephew of or the son of or the grandson of...'"Bush criticized Florida Governor Charlie Crist for accepting money from the 2009 stimulus package, calling for a return to fiscal conservatism. In January 2010, he endorsed Crist's opponent for the United States Senate. Bush served as a member of several diplomacy missions, including one to Nicaragua for the second peaceful transfer of power in that country, one to Brazil for the Pan American Games in 2007, he joined two US Congressional delegations, one to Saudi Arabia during the Arab Spring of 2011 and one to Turkey in 2012 at the time of the civil war in neighboring Syria.
As of 2012 he was the deputy finance chairman of the Republican Party of Texas. He was ranked one of "Newsmax's 50 Most Influential Latino Republicans" in 2016, his father ran in the 2016 Republican presidential race, but l
Judiciary of Texas
The structure of the Judiciary of Texas is laid out in Article 5 of the Texas Constitution and is further defined by statute, in particular the Texas Government Code and the Texas Probate Code. The structure is exceedingly complex, featuring many layers of courts, numerous instances of overlapping jurisdiction, myriad differences between counties, an unusual bifurcated appellate system at the top level found in only one other state: Oklahoma; the Municipal Courts are the most active courts, with the County-level and District Courts handling most other cases and sharing the same courthouse. Administration is the responsibility of the Texas Supreme Court, aided by the Texas Office of Court Administration, the Texas Judicial Council and the State Bar of Texas, which it oversees; the State Bar of Texas is a mandatory bar, rather than an association of lawyers. In order to practice law in Texas courts, an attorney must be licensed, must stay abreast of legal developments through CLE programs, must pay dues.
The public can obtain basic information on all Texas attorneys, including their bar number, license status, disciplinary record, from the Bar's website. In the 19th century, Texas had a reputation for arbitrary "frontier justice"; the latter decision attempted to distinguish the earlier one by trying to explain why the letter l was more important than the letter t. The poor quality of the state's judicial system in the period has been attributed to its shortage of proper law schools and law libraries, as well as the traditional preference of Texans for "'self-help' justice as practiced in the courts of'Judge Winchester' or'Judge Lynch.'" Texas is the only state besides Oklahoma to have a bifurcated appellate system at the highest level. The Texas Supreme Court hears appeals involving civil matters, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals hears appeals involving criminal matters. Sometimes, the dividing line is murky with respect to jurisdiction in mandamus and habeas corpus cases. See, e.g. Justice Willett's dissent in In re Reece, 341 S.
W.3d 360. Unlike its counterpart in Oklahoma, the Texas Supreme Court is not supreme when it comes to a jurisdictional ping-pong or tug-of-war between the two high courts because both are co-equal. Article V, Section 1, states: he judicial power of this State shall be vested in one Supreme Court, in one Court of Criminal Appeals, in Courts of Appeals, in District Courts, in County Courts, in Commissioners Courts, in Courts of Justices of the Peace, in such other courts as may be provided by law; the Legislature may establish such other courts as it may deem necessary and prescribe the jurisdiction and organization thereof, may conform the jurisdiction of the district and other inferior courts thereto. As such, the Texas Legislature has created additional courts to address caseload pressures driven by population growth in different areas of the state. District courts are consecutively numbered regardless of whether they are specialize to handle criminal, civil, or family matters; the highest numbers indicate that the court was created but the number alone provides no clue as to location of the new court and the appellate district within which it is located.
As such, a comprehensive list of Dallas courts can be found to include 60 courts in Dallas. Further sections of Article V spell out the basic requirements for each court's jurisdiction and for its officers; the Texas Supreme Court hears appeals involving civil matters and does not hear any appeals involving criminal matters except when the defendant is a juvenile. Under Texas law, juvenile proceedings are considered civil matters under the Texas Family Code; the Supreme Court maintains responsibility for attorney licensing and discipline. The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals hears appeals on criminal cases excluding those involving juvenile proceedings. Cases in which the death penalty was imposed are directly and automatically appealed to this court, bypassing the intermediate Courts of Appeals, which hear both civil and criminal cases. Texas has 14 Courts of Appeals, which have intermediate appellate jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases. Death penalty cases, are automatically appealed to the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals and thus skip the intermediate tier in the appellate court hierarchy.
The total number of intermediate appellate seats is 80, with membership ranging from three to 13 justices per court, as set by statute. All cases are heard by a three-justice panel; the en banc process is used to maintain consistency in the court's jurisprudence, to overrule existing precedent, binding on individual panels, to set new precedent on an unsettled question of substantive law or procedure. The Texas Legislature determines which counties are included within a particular court of appeals' district, has shifted counties
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 4th-most populous city in Texas, it is the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census; the city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, Lake Walter E. Long. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo."
Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state; the city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development, by the 1990s it emerged as a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin including, 3M, Amazon.com, Apple Inc. Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, PayPal, Texas Instruments, Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in Round Rock. Residents of Austin are known as Austinites, they include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers, a vibrant LGBT community. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World," a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.
The city adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird," which refers to the desire to protect small and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. In the late 19th century, Austin was known as the "City of the Violet Crown," because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name. Austin is known as a "clean-air city" for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars. U. S. News & World Report named Austin the #1 place to live in the U. S. for 2017 and 2018. In 2016, Forbes ranked Austin #1 on its "Cities of the Future" list in 2017 placed the city at that same position on its list for the "Next Biggest Boom Town in the U. S." In 2017, Forbes awarded the South River City neighborhood of Austin its #2 ranking for "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials."
WalletHub named Austin the #6 best place in the country to live for 2017. The FBI ranked Austin as the #2 safest major city in the U. S. for 2012. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC; the area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC, based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area; the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin; the mission was in this area for only about seven months, was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
Early in the 19th century, Spanish forts were established in what are now San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans. In 1835 -- 1836, Texans won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River. In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.
The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River. Edwin Wall