William Perry Clements Jr. was twice governor of Texas as a Republican. After making his fortune in crude oil, Clements served as Deputy Secretary of Defense and Chairman of the Board of Governors at Southern Methodist University; as the 42nd & 44th Governor of Texas he served two non-consecutive terms between 1979 and 1991, with his terms separated by the tenure of Democrat Mark White. When first sworn in in 1979, he became the first Republican to have served as governor of Texas since Reconstruction; when Clements left office for good at the end of his second term in 1991, his eight total years in office were the most served by any Texas governor until Rick Perry surpassed his total in 2009. Clements was the first governor to be elected to multiple terms since Texas changed its constitution in 1972 to extend their governor's term of office to four years. Clements was worked as an oil driller for many years, he founded SEDCO in 1947, the world's largest offshore drilling company and technical leader of the offshore drilling industry, developing dynamically positioned drilling rigs, top drives, many other offshore drilling innovations.
In 1984, SEDCO was sold to Schlumberger, its assets combined with their drilling contractor subsidiary, under Schlumberger management, to form Sedco–Forex. Sedco–Forex was acquired by Transocean in 1999 and combined with their existing fleet, he entered politics as the United States Deputy Secretary of Defense under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford, and, in 1973, served as acting Secretary of Defense for 39 days, the shortest term for any Secretary of Defense. Among the Secretaries of Defense he served under was Donald Rumsfeld, during the latter's first tenure in the office; the two men did not get along, yet when Rumsfeld was appointed Clements resisted efforts to be moved to another department going so far as to threaten if removed from his office to hold a press conference and label his dismissal a "power play." Though Clements remained as deputy secretary, Clements termed his time under Rumsfeld "very unpleasant." On January 16, 1979, Clements succeeded Democrat Dolph Briscoe as governor of Texas.
To win the position, he first defeated State Representative Ray Hutchison in the Republican primary by a lopsided vote of 115,345 to 38,268. Hutchison, a prominent Dallas attorney, is the second husband of Texas State Treasurer and U. S. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison, who served from 1993 to 2013. Clements enjoyed the support of former state party chairman Peter O'Donnell, organizer of the Draft Goldwater Committee in 1963-1964. O'Donnell became a key advisor to Clements, who won the general election held on November 8, 1978, by having narrowly defeated Democratic former Texas Supreme Court Chief Justice John Luke Hill, who had served six years as state attorney general. Clements polled 1,183,828 votes to Hill's 1,166,919 votes; the La Raza nominee, Mario C. Compean, two other minor candidates split the remaining 18,942 votes; the more liberal Hill, who had once been the appointed Secretary of State of Texas, had defeated Briscoe in the primary. In winning, Clements achieved victory with 350,158 fewer votes than the 1972 GOP nominee, Henry Grover, who went down to defeat because turnout was much lower in the 1978 off-year election than it had been during the presidential election year.
The 1972 Texas governor's race was the last to coincide with a presidential election because when the terms went to four years, the gubernatorial elections were set to coincide with the off years between presidential elections. In 1981, Clements jump-started the long judicial careers of three San Antonio Republican lawyers, David Peeples, Tom Rickhoff and David Berchelmann with their appointments to state district courts numbered 285, 289, 290, respectively. Rickhoff subsequently served on the Court of Appeals for the Fourth District. In 1989, Clements in his second term appointed Berchelmann as the first Republican to serve on the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. Clements ran for reelection in 1982, but was defeated by Democratic Attorney General Mark Wells White by more than 327,000 votes because of sagging economic indicators and weak support from minority voters, who support Democratic candidates. Clements was damaged politically by the Ixtoc I oil spill disaster. White received 1,697,870 votes to Clements's 1,465,537.
In addition, the Republican down-ballot candidates were all defeated in 1982, including George Strake Jr. a Houston businessman, Clements's former secretary of state. Strake ran for lieutenant governor against Bill Hobby. After the 1982 campaign, Strake was named to replace Chet Upham of Mineral Wells as the Republican state chairman, a position that he filled from 1983 to 1988. Ernest Angelo, a former mayor of Midland, a Texas co-chair of Ronald Reagan's attempt in 1976 to wrest the Republican presidential nomination from Gerald R. Ford, said that Clements's defeat in 1982 was his own greatest disappointment in politics though Angelo himself lost a bid for the District 25 seat in the Texas State Senate in that same election. In between his two terms as governor, Clements was
Robert Allan Shivers was an American politician who served as the 37th Governor of Texas. Shivers was a leader of the Texas Democratic Party during the turbulent 1940s and 1950s, developed the lieutenant governor's post into an powerful perch in state government. Born in Lufkin, the seat of Angelina County in East Texas, Shivers was educated at the University of Texas at Austin, having earned a law degree in 1933. While at UT, he was a member of the Texas Cowboys and the Friar Society, he served as the student body president. In 1934, he was elected to the Texas State Senate, having become the youngest person to serve in the State Senate, he served in the Senate from 1934 to 1946, except for two years service in the United States Army during World War II, from which he was discharged with the rank of major. In 1946, he was elected the 33rd Lieutenant Governor of Texas defeating the Republican nominee, John A. Donaldson by a landslide margin with Shivers garnering 344,630 votes to Donaldson's 31,835 votes and was re-elected in 1948, garnering 1,050,163 votes to Republican Taylor Cole's 143,887 votes.
He is credited with developing the "ideas and techniques of leadership" that made the office the most powerful post in Texas government, although the powers of the Governor are limited by the state constitution more so than other states. In office, Shivers initiated the practice of appointing State Senators to specific committees and setting the daily agenda. Subsequently, the Senate passed a right-to-work law, reorganized the public school system with the Gilmer-Akin Laws, appropriated funds for higher education, including the Texas State University for Negroes, provided money for improvements of state hospitals and highways; when Governor Beauford Jester died on July 11, 1949, Shivers succeeded him—the only lieutenant governor in Texas history thus far to gain the governor's office through the death of his predecessor. In 1950, Shivers won election as governor in his own right, defeating Republican Ralph W. Currie: 355,010 votes for the incumbent Governor while Currie had garnered 39,737 votes In 1952, Shivers proved so popular that he was listed on the gubernatorial ballot as the nominee of both the Democratic and Republican parties.
Between both parties Shivers garnered 1,844,530 votes to "No Preference" getting 36,672 votes. Subsequently, Texas law was changed to remove the "No Preference" option and to prohibit an individual from being the candidate of more than one political party in any race. Shivers set the three-term precedent by running again and winning in 1954, he garnered 569,533 votes to Republican Tod R. Adams' 66,154 votes, he worked with his appointed Secretary of State John Ben Shepperd, who won election in 1952 and 1954 as state attorney general. Together Shivers and Shepperd tried to clean up corruption in the machine province of Duval County; the Shivercrats were a conservative faction of the Democratic Party in Texas in the 1950s. The faction was named for Shivers, criticized by liberals within the party—particularly Ralph Yarborough—for his corruption and conservatism; the term was first used derisively by party liberals, who attacked Shivers and his allies in the party for backing Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower over the national party's chosen candidate Adlai Stevenson in 1952.
Corruption during the Shivers administration damaged his reputation and endangered his chances of reelection in 1954. Land Office Commissioner Bascom Giles was convicted of committing rampant fraud against Texas war veterans, a disproportionate number of African-American veterans in particular, through the a veterans land program under the Texas Veterans Land Board of the Texas General Land Office. Giles was the only member of the Shivers administration to go to prison, but Shivers and the state attorney general, John Ben Sheppard, as ex officio members of the Veterans Land Board, were implicated in the scandal, which occurred during their watch; the Shivercrats responded with a vicious negative campaign that tried to paint the party liberals as communists. Shivers urged the Texas Legislature to pass a bill making membership in the Communist Party a death penalty offense, describing such membership as being "worse than murder", although a less extreme version of the proposition passed both Houses.
President Lyndon B. Johnson at first aligned himself with the Shivercrats, but after becoming president Johnson sided with Yarborough and the liberals on policy matters. Most of the Shivercrats either left public life or became Republicans after Johnson's presidency, as the liberal-moderate faction was in firm control of the state party after 1970. In 1952, Shivers named the oil industrialist Bill Noël of Odessa to the Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission. Noël was reappointed by the two subsequent governors. Shivers appeared as himself in the 1955 film Lucy Gallant starring Charlton Heston. Shivers held the record for longest continuous service as Texas Governor at 7.5 years until June 2008, when Rick Perry surpassed Shivers's record for continuous service. Both Shivers and Perry are the only two Texas Governors. Shivers disputed the Truman administration's claim on the Tidelands and disapproved of Truman's veto that would have vested tideland ownership in the states. Bucking the tradition of the "Solid South," Shivers delivered Texas in t
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
2000 United States presidential election
The 2000 United States presidential election was the 54th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 2000. Republican candidate George W. Bush, the Governor of Texas and the eldest son of the 41st President George H. W. Bush, won the election by defeating Democratic nominee Al Gore, the incumbent vice president, it was the fourth of five presidential elections in which the winning candidate lost the popular vote, is considered one of the closest elections in US history. Vice President Gore secured the Democratic nomination with relative ease, defeating a challenge by former Senator Bill Bradley. Bush was seen as the early favorite for the Republican nomination and, despite a contentious primary battle with Senator John McCain and other candidates, secured the nomination by Super Tuesday. Bush chose former Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney as his running mate, while Gore chose Senator Joe Lieberman as his; the left-wing Green Party nominated a ticket consisting of political activists Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke.
Both major party candidates focused on domestic issues, such as the budget, tax relief, reforms for federal social insurance programs, although foreign policy was not ignored. Due to Clinton's sex scandal with Monica Lewinsky and subsequent impeachment, Gore avoided campaigning with Clinton. Republicans denounced Clinton's indiscretions. On election night, it was unclear who had won, with the electoral votes of the state of Florida still undecided; the returns showed that Bush had won Florida by such a close margin that state law required a recount. A month-long series of legal battles led to the contentious, 5–4 Supreme Court decision of Bush v. Gore, which ended the recount. With the end of the recount, Bush won Florida by a margin of or 537 votes; the Florida recount and subsequent litigation resulted in a major post-election controversy, various individuals and organizations have speculated about who would have won the election in various scenarios. Bush won 271 electoral votes, one more than was necessary for the majority, despite Gore receiving 543,895 more votes.
Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, a resident of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency seek the nomination of one of the political parties of the United States, in which case each party devises a method to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate; the party's delegates officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College. President Bill Clinton, a Democrat and former Governor of Arkansas, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment.
In accordance with Section I of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expired at 12:00 noon EST on January 20, 2001. Democratic candidates Al Gore, Vice President of the United States Bill Bradley, former U. S. Senator from Connecticut Al Gore from Tennessee was a consistent front-runner for the nomination. Other prominent Democrats mentioned as possible contenders included Bob Kerrey, Missouri Representative Dick Gephardt, Minnesota Senator Paul Wellstone, famous actor and director Warren Beatty, who declined to run. Of these, only Wellstone formed an exploratory committee. Running an insurgency campaign, Bradley positioned himself as the alternative to Gore, a founding member of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council. While former basketball star Michael Jordan campaigned for him in the early primary states, Bradley announced his intention to campaign "in a different way" by conducting a positive campaign of "big ideas"; the focus of his campaign was a plan to spend the record-breaking budget surplus on a variety of social welfare programs to help the poor and the middle-class, along with campaign finance reform and gun control.
Gore defeated Bradley in the primaries because of support from the Democratic Party establishment and Bradley's poor showing in the Iowa caucus, where Gore painted Bradley as aloof and indifferent to the plight of farmers. The closest Bradley came to a victory was his 50–46 loss to Gore in the New Hampshire primary. On March 14, Al Gore clinched the Democratic nomination. None of Bradley's delegates were allowed to vote for him, so Gore won the nomination unanimously at the Democratic National Convention. Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman was nominated for vice president by voice vote. Lieberman became the first Jewish American to be chosen for this position by a major party. Gore chose Lieberman over five other finalists: Senators Evan Bayh, John Edwards, John Kerry, House Minority Leader Dick Gephardt, New Hampshire Governor Jeanne Shaheen. Delegate totals: Vice President Albert Gore Jr. 4328 Abstentions 9 Republican candidates John McCain, Senator from Arizona Alan Keyes, former U. S. ECOSOC Ambassador from Maryland Steve Forbes, businessman from New Jersey Gary Bauer, former Undersecretary of Education from Kentucky (withd
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Marion Price Daniel Sr. was a Democratic U. S. Senator and the 38th Governor of the state of Texas, he was appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson to be a member of the National Security Council, Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness, Assistant to the President for Federal-State Relations. Daniel served as Associate Justice of the Texas Supreme Court. Marion Price Daniel Sr was born October 10, 1910 in Dayton, Texas, to Marion Price Daniel Sr and Nannie Blanch Partlow, in Liberty Texas, he was the eldest child. Sister Ellen Virginia Daniel was born in 1912, brother William Partlow Daniel in 1915. Price, as he was properly known by was married to Jean Houston Baldwin, great-great granddaughter of legendary Texas figure Sam Houston; as a teenager Daniel was a reporter for the Fort Worth Star-Telegram. He put himself through law school at Baylor University by working as a janitor and dishwasher and by working at the Waco News Tribune, he received his degree from Baylor in 1932. After graduation he established his own practice in Liberty County and accepted livestock and acreage for his fees.
In 1938, he was elected to the Texas House of Representatives. He was subsequently re-elected twice, serving in the 46th, 47th and 48th legislature from January 10, 1939 until January 9, 1945. Daniel opposed Texas adopting a sales tax. Committees served on during the 46th legislature Judiciary Oil and Mining Privileges and Elections Public Lands and BuildingsCommittees served on during the 47th legislature Judiciary Privileges and Elections Public Lands and Buildings Revenue and TaxationHe was elected Speaker of the House for the 48th legislature; when the legislature adjourned in May 1943, Daniel waived his draft exemption and enlisted in the United States Army, serving in the Security Intelligence Corps. In this capacity, he saw service in Amarillo, Pine Bluff and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, he received his Second Lieutenant commission in 1944 after training at the Judge Advocate General Officers School in Ann Arbor, afterwards becoming an instructor at the Army School for Personnel Services in Lexington, Virginia.
The Army shared Daniel with the United States Marine Corps in 1945, the latter sending him to Sasebo, Japan to set up a Marine Personnel School. He received "outstanding authority" citations from both branches of service, was discharged in May, 1946. Price won the seat of Attorney General; as Texas State Attorney General, he argued the 1946 submerged lands ownership lawsuit United States v. California, 332 U. S. 19 before the Supreme Court of the United States in 1947, on behalf of the coastal states. The Supreme Court decided against California on June 23, 1947. Daniel defended the University of Texas law school in the 1950 Painter desegregation case. Herman Marion Sweatt, a black student, was denied admission to the University of Texas Law School in February 1946. Sweatt had met all the requirements; the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in June, 1950, Sweatt must be allowed admission. In 1952, Daniel was elected to the United States Senate, he was taken under the wing of Senate Minority Leader Lyndon B.
Johnson, with the senior Senator helping to alleviate office space shortage by allowing Daniel's staff to work out of LBJ's office. Daniel held positions on committees of the Interior; the new Senator worked on a narcotics probe and reforming the electoral college Opposed to desegregation efforts, Senator Price Daniel joined 19 other Senators and 77 members of the United States House of Representatives in signing the 1956 Southern Manifesto, which condemned the 1954 United States Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education, encouraged states to resist implementing it; the Supreme Court's 1958 Cooper v. Aaron decision held that the states were bound to uphold the previous decision on desegregation; the most long-lasting accomplishment of Price Daniel was in helping to retain Texas title to the submerged lands, mineral rights therein, off the coast. The victory has netted billions of dollars for Texas schools. Texas viewed this issue as of primary importance during the 1952 campaign.
Eisenhower supported state ownership. The state of Texas, including many prominent state Democratic party leaders, went with Eisenhower who won the state of Texas in the election; the Tidelands controversy was over who owned the rights to 2,440,650 acres of submerged land in the Gulf of Mexico between low tide and the state's Gulfward boundary three leagues from shore. Texas acquired the rights as a republic, reserved the rights when it entered the Union in 1845; the Texas legislature authorized the School Land Board to execute the mineral leases on behalf of the Permanent School Fund. Among coastal states, the Federal government claimed ownership; the first lawsuit, United States v. California, 332 U. S. 19, was filed by the Federal government against California in 1946. The attorneys general of all other states filed an amicus curiae brief in opposition. Price Daniel Sr. as Texas State Attorney General, argued the case before the Supreme Court of the United States on March 13–14, 1947, on behalf of all the other states.
In 1947, the Suprem
Texas Military Forces
The Texas Military Forces is the three-branch military of the U. S. state of Texas. It is composed of the Texas Army National Guard, the Texas Air National Guard, the Texas State Guard. All three branches are administered by the state adjutant general, an appointee of the Texas governor, fall under the command of the governor; the Texas military was first established by Stephen F. Austin on February 18, 1823, under the authorization of the emperor of Mexico, Agustín de Iturbide, who directed Austin "to organize the colonists into a body of the national militia, to preserve tranquility," as well as to make war on Native American tribes who were hostile to newly established Texas settlements. All of the Texan militias would come under the command of Sam Houston during the Texas War of Independence between Texas and Mexico beginning in 1835 and ending in 1836 after Texas secured its independence to become the new nation of the Republic of Texas. From 1836 to 1845, the Texas militias being a part of the Army of the Republic of Texas fell under the command of the President of the Republic of Texas.
After Texas became the 28th US state in 1845, the state military and its various branches have fallen under the command of the Texas governor. The Texas National Guard consists of the Joint Force Headquarters for Texas, the Texas Army National Guard, the Texas Air National Guard and the Domestic Operations Command; the Guard is administered by an appointee of the governor of Texas. The Constitution of the United States charges the National Guard with dual federal and state missions; those functions range from limited actions during non-emergency situations to full scale law enforcement of martial law when local law enforcement officials can no longer maintain civil control. The National Guard may be called into federal service in response to a call by the President or Congress; when National Guard troops are called to federal service, the President serves as Commander-in-Chief. The federal mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide properly trained and equipped units for prompt mobilization for war, National emergency or as otherwise needed."
The Governor may call individuals or units of the Texas National Guard into state service during emergencies or to assist in special situations which lend themselves to use of the National Guard. The state mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide trained and disciplined forces for domestic emergencies or as otherwise provided by state law." The Texas State Guard is a military entity authorized by both the State Code of Texas, U. S. Code and executive order. Additionally, the U. S. Constitution grants the states the right to organize a state militia; the Texas State Guard is the state's authorized militia and is composed of retired and former active and reserve military personnel. Other members include those with no prior military service plus selected professional persons who volunteer their time and talents in further service to Texas; the current adjutant general for the Texas National Guard is Major General Tracy R. Norris, she is the 52nd Adjutant General for the State of Texas and the first female to hold that post in Texas.
Formations of the Texas Army National Guard include the 36th Infantry Division, the 56th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the 72nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the 36th Combat Aviation Brigade, the 71st Battlefield Surveillance Brigade, the 36th Sustainment Brigade, the 176th Engineer Brigade, the 136th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade, the 136th Expeditionary Signal Battalion, the 136th Regiment. The current Assistant Adjutant General-Army, for Texas is Major General William L. Smith; the Texas Air National Guard is composed of the 149th Fighter Wing, the 136th Airlift Wing, the 147th Attack Wing, the 254th Combat Communications Group, the 272nd Engineering Installation Squadron, the 204th Security Forces Squadron. The 149th Fighter Wing prepares pilots for combat, the 136th Airlift Wing flies C-130s in-and out of theater and the 147th Reconnaissance Wing has acquired Predators to be the eyes in the hostile sky; the 136th Airlift Wing in Fort Worth flies C-130 cargo aircraft carrying personnel and equipment around the world.
The 531st Air Force Band is co-located with the 136th Airlift Wing. The 147th Attack Wing, headquartered in Houston on the Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base, provides a worldwide deployable dual-role fighter/attack capability while covering the Gulf Coast from Brownsville, Texas to New Orleans, Louisiana in the Air Sovereignty Alert mission; the 111th Attack Squadron is attached to the 147th Attack Wing. The Squadron flies the MQ-9 Reaper unmanned aerial vehicle; the 149th Fighter Wing is headquartered in San Antonio on Lackland Air Force Base. The fighter wing is assigned to the US Air Forces Air Education and Training Command and is one of the primary "school houses" for F-16 pilots; the 182nd Fighter Squadron is attached to the 149th Fighter Wing. The Squadron flies the Block 30 F-16C/D Fighting Falcon dual-role fighter; the 204th Security Forces Squadron is located at Fort Bliss, El Paso. They are the only security forces unit in the Air National Guard. Since September 11, 2001 attacks, members of the 204th SFS have seen duty in central and southwest Asia, in Africa and onboard ship in the Persian Gulf.
They have served on installations in several states in the U. S. and taught military base defense in Latin American countries. The unit still has members serving in the Iraq area of operations as par