Lovers (1991 film)
Lovers is a 1991 Spanish film noir written and directed by Vicente Aranda, starring Victoria Abril, Jorge Sanz and Maribel Verdú. The film brought Aranda to widespread attention in the English-speaking world, it is considered one of the best Spanish films of the 1990s. In Madrid, in the mid-1950s, Paco, a handsome young man from the provinces serving the last days of his military service, is in search of both a steady job and lodging, he is engaged to be married to his major's maid. Trini is not only sweet and pretty, but has saved a sizable amount of money through years of hard work and frugal living, which will enable her and Paco to start their lives together comfortably. With a factory job lined up, Paco moves out of his barracks and looks for somewhere to live until the wedding. Trini unwittingly refers him to Luisa, a beautiful widow who periodically takes in boarders and rents him a spare bedroom. Besides supplementing her income with boarders, Luisa engages in swindles with underworld contracts, is not above cheating her partners by skimming money off her illicit earnings.
Smitten by Paco, the attractive Luisa seduces her new tenant. Paco, frustrated by his unfruitful job hunt and by Trini's refusal to sleep with him until they are married, offers little resistance when Luisa seduces him, initiating an affair, he is dazzled with the sexual delight. So intense is Paco's attraction for Luisa, that he abandons Trini for long periods showing up at the major's house to spend Christmas Eve with her. Trini feels a distance between herself and Paco, while the couple is strolling in the street, she is surprised to see the “old widow” and guesses that she and Paco are having a relationship. Trini seeks the advice of the major's wife, who tells her that she should use her own sexual powers to win Paco back. Waiting for Luisa to leave the apartment, Trini goes to Paco's room and gives herself to him, making sure that Luisa sees her leaving. At first, her tactic works and Paco reaffirms his love for her and they leave to visit Trini's mother in her village. However, Trini is no match for her rival as Paco can not get Luisa out of his mind.
When they come back to Madrid, Paco is willing to continue his twin relationship, but Luisa, who knows of Trini's existence, is wildly jealous of her rival. Things become more complicated for Paco by Luisa's shady business dealings with Minuta and Gordo, members of a gang of swindlers whom she owes money, they have threatened her life, Paco, attempting to aid his lover, suggests that he get the money by swindling Trini of her savings. Luisa would prefer that they kill Trini, but proposes that Paco should marry Trini steal her savings and run away with Luisa. Paco uneasily agrees; the plan is for Paco to propose marriage to Trini and bring her to the provincial city of Aranda del Duero where they have planned to purchase a bar. Under that pretense and Trini leave Madrid. Luisa unsure of Paco's resolve. While Trini is asleep, Paco steals the money from her handbag, he pulls out of their plan to flee together. Luisa upset, tells him he's botched the plan, when he tells her to wait and, "Things will be okay," she excitedly utters, "Kill her!", walks away, tossing the money at her feet – it is Paco she wants.
Paco retrieves the money, driven by guilt, he returns to Trini to explain the situation. After the disappearance of the money, Trini realized the fraud and understands that her love for Paco is doomed; when Paco comes back to the hotel room and confesses the plan, Trini locks herself in the bathroom and attempts to commit suicide using Paco's razor. She is thwarted by Paco snatching the razor from her; as the two sit in the rain on a bench in front of the cathedral of the town, Trini refuses to forgive Paco, tells him she prefers death to abandonment. Thwarted in her attempt to cut her own wrist with Paco's razor, she begs him to kill her since, what he wants, he does so rushes to the train station to prevent Luisa from leaving. Placing his bloody hands on her compartment window, signaling to Luisa that the mission has been accomplished, she gets off the moving train; the couple embraces passionately on the platform. A title informs viewers. Amantes had its origin in La Huella del Crimen, a Spanish TV series depicting infamous crimes which happened in Spain, for which Vicente Aranda had directed the chapter El Crimen del Capitán Sánchez in 1984.
The success of this production, made for TVE, compelled Producer Pedro Costa to develop a second part. In the new installment of the series, there was to be an episode called Los Amantes de Tetuán, the story of a real life crime committed by a couple living in the district of Tetuán de las victorias, a working class sector of Madrid; the actual crime took place in the 1949 in La Canal, a small village near Burgos and so it was dubbed as El crimen de La Canal. The crime concerned a widow, Francisca Sánchez Morales, engaged in blackmailing who persuaded a young man, José García San Juan, to kill his young wife, Dominga del Pino Rodríguez. Three days the couple was caught and never saw each other again, they were condemned to capital punishment. They got their sentences commuted and they served between ten and twelve years; the widow died of a heart attack just after leaving jail, the young man started a new and prosp
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
ETA (separatist group)
ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country. The group was founded in 1959 and evolved from a group promoting traditional Basque culture to a paramilitary group engaged in a violent campaign of bombing and kidnappings in the Southern Basque Country and throughout Spanish territory, its goal was gaining independence for the Basque Country. ETA was the main group within the Basque National Liberation Movement and was the most important Basque participant in the Basque conflict. Between 1968 and 2010, it killed injured thousands more. ETA was classified as a terrorist group by Spain, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union; this convention was followed by a plurality of domestic and international media, which referred to the group as "terrorists". There are more than 260 imprisoned former members of the group in Spain and other countries. ETA declared ceasefires in 1989, 1996, 1998 and 2006.
On 5 September 2010, ETA declared a new ceasefire that remained in force, on 20 October 2011, ETA announced a "definitive cessation of its armed activity". On 24 November 2012, it was reported that the group was ready to negotiate a "definitive end" to its operations and disband completely; the group announced on 7 April 2017 that it had given up all its explosives. On 2 May 2018, ETA made public a letter dated to 16 April 2018 according to which it had "completely dissolved all its structures and ended its political initiative". ETA's motto was Bietan jarrai, referring to the two figures in its symbol, a snake wrapped around an axe. ETA changed its internal structure on several occasions for security reasons; the group used to have a hierarchical organization with a leading figure at the top, delegating into three substructures: the logistical and political sections. Reports from Spanish and French police pointed towards significant changes in ETA's structures in its years. ETA divided the three substructures into a total of eleven.
The change was a response to captures, possible infiltration, by the different law enforcement agencies. ETA's intention was to reduce the impact of detentions; the leading committee comprised 7 to 11 individuals, ETA's internal documentation referred to it as Zuba, an abbreviation of Zuzendaritza Batzordea. There was another committee named Zuba-hitu; the eleven different substructures were: logistics, international relations with fraternal organisations, military operations, prisoner support, information, recruitment and treasury. ETA's armed operations were organized in different taldes or commandos composed of three to five members, whose objective was to conduct attacks in a specific geographic zone; the taldes were coordinated by the cúpula militar. To supply the taldes, support groups maintained safe zulos; the small cellars used to hide the people kidnapped are named by ETA and ETA's supporters "people's jails". The most common commandos were itinerant, not linked to any specific area, thus were more difficult to capture.
Among its members, ETA distinguished between legales/legalak, those members who did not have police records and lived normal lives. There were imprisoned members of the group, serving time scattered across Spain and France, that sometimes still have significant influence inside the organisation. In the past there was the figure of the deportees, expelled by the French government to remote countries where they lived freely. ETA's internal bulletin was named replacing the earlier one Zutik. ETA promoted the kale borroka, that is, violent acts against public transportation, political parties offices or cultural buildings, destruction of private property of politicians, military, council members, anyone voicing criticism against ETA, bank offices, graffiti of political mottoes, general rioting using Molotov cocktails; these groups were made up of young people, who were directed through youth organisations. Many members of ETA started their collaboration with the group as participants in the kale borroka.
The former political party Batasuna, disbanded in 2003, pursued the same political goals as ETA and did not condemn ETA's use of violence. Known as Euskal Herritarrok and "Herri Batasuna", it was banned by the Spanish Supreme Court as an anti-democratic organisation following the Political Parties Law, It received 10% to 20% of the vote in the Basque Autonomous Community. Batasuna's political status was controversial, it was considered to be the political wing of ETA. Moreover, after the investigations on the nature of the relationship between B
Twisted Obsession is a 1989 Spanish erotic thriller directed by Fernando Trueba and starring Jeff Goldblum and Miranda Richardson. It was written by Trueba, Manuel Matji and Menno Meyjes based on the novel The Dream of the Mad Monkey by Christopher Frank. Goldblum stars as a screenwriter who becomes involved with a young incestuous sister. Liza Walker and Dexter Fletcher are featured in the cast. Jeff Goldblum as Dan Gillis Miranda Richardson as Marilyn Anémone as Marianne Daniel Ceccaldi as Julien Legrand Dexter Fletcher as Malcolm Greene Liza Walker as Jenny Greene Jerome Natali as Danny Arielle Dombasle as Marion Derain Asunción Balaguer as Juana Twisted Obsession on IMDb Twisted Obsession at Rotten Tomatoes
El bosque animado
El bosque animado is a 1987 Spanish comedy-fantasy film directed by José Luis Cuerda, based on the eponymous novel written by Wenceslao Fernández Flórez, with a script by Rafael Azcona. The film has a large ensemble cast headed by Alfredo Landa, it was a critical success winning five Goya Awards including Best Film, Best Director and Best Actor. The film shows the adventures of the human inhabitants of the shrubland of Cecebre and how their paths cross over under the shelter of a lively forest where animals and plants form a harmonious system, it notably tells the misfortunes of Malvís, a farm hand sick of the shortages of his trade, who decides to become a bandit and hides in the shrubland under the alias Fendetestas, and, joined by a kid as an apprentice, Fuco. Alfredo Landa as Malvís / Bandid Fendetestas Tito Valverde as Geraldo Alejandra Grepi as Hermelinda Miguel Rellán as Fiz de Cotovelo Alicia Hermida as Gloria Roade Amparo Baró as Amelia Roade Fernando Rey as Sr. D'Abondo Manuel Alexandre as Roque Freire Encarna Paso as Juanita Arruallo María Isbert as Moucha Antonio Gomero as civil guard Paca Gabaldón as Sra.
D'Abondo El bosque animado on IMDb
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero is a Spanish politician and member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. He was the Prime Minister of Spain being elected for two terms, in the 2004 and 2008 general elections. On 2 April 2011 he announced he would not stand for re-election in the 2011 general election and left office on 20 December 2011. Among the main actions taken by the Zapatero administration were the withdrawal of Spanish troops from the Iraq war, the increase of Spanish troops in Afghanistan. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero was born in Valladolid, Castile and León, to Juan Rodríguez y García-Lozano, a lawyer, María de la Purificación Zapatero Valero, he grew up in León. His paternal grandfather, Juan Rodríguez y Lozano, was a Republican captain, executed by Francisco Franco's National army a month into the Spanish Civil War, for refusing to fight with them, his whereabouts were revealed by fascists in Valladolid. His maternal grandfather, Faustino Valentín Zapatero Ballesteros, was a paediatrician and middle class liberal.
His maternal grandmother María de la Natividad Valero y Asensio was a conservative and died at age 103. Zapatero was born in Valladolid not only because of his mother's attachment to her family, who lived there, but because of the medical profession of her father. Zapatero has said that, as a youngster, "as I remember it, I used to participate in late night conversations with my father and brother about politics, law or literature". However, he did not get along well with his father at times. Sources say that his father refused to let him work or take any part in his law firm, this scarred him for life, he says that his family taught him to be tolerant, thoughtful and austere. The memory of Republican Captain Rodríguez y Lozano was kept alive by his last will, handwritten 24 hours before facing the firing squad, which can be considered a final declaration of principles; the will comprised the first three bestowing his possessions on his heirs. In the sixth, Zapatero's grandfather asked his family to clear his name in the future as his creed consisted only in his "love for peace, for good and for improving the living conditions of the lower classes".
According to an Israeli newspaper, Maariv, by Zapatero's own statement: "My family, named Zapatero, is of Jewish descent" from a family of Marranos. He is an agnostic, he studied Law at the University of León, graduating in 1982. His performance as a student was above average before his pre-University year. According to his brother Juan: "He didn't study much but it made no difference, he continued successfully". After graduating, Zapatero worked as a teaching assistant in constitutional law at the University of León until 1986, it was subsequently found that he had been appointed by his department without the usual selection process involving interviews and competitive examinations, which if true, constitutes a case of political favouritism. He has declared that the only activity that attracts him besides politics is teaching or, at most, academic research. Rodríguez Zapatero met Sonsoles Espinosa in León in 1981, they have two daughters named Laura and Alba. Having received successive deferments because of his conditions as a university student and a teaching assistant, Zapatero did not do the compulsory military service.
As an MP he was exempted. Zapatero attended his first political rally, organized by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in Gijón in 1976; some political parties had been legal since 21 July 1976, but the PSOE was not legalized until February 1977. The speech of Felipe González, the PSOE leader and future Prime Minister of Spain, who took part in the rally, exerted an important influence on Zapatero, he said, among other things, that "the Socialists' goal was the seizure of power by the working class to transform the ownership of the means of production" and that "the PSOE was a revolutionary party but not revolutionarist or aventurist, as it defended the use of elections to come to power". Zapatero and his family had been traditionally attracted to the Communist Party as it was the only party organized before Francisco Franco's death in 1975. But, after the famous political rally in Gijón, Zapatero, started to believe that the Socialist Party was the most probable future for the Spanish left.
At that time the Socialist Party was rebuilding its infrastructure in the province of León after having been outlawed following the Spanish Civil War. In 1977, the year of the first democratic elections after Franco's death, Zapatero supported both the Communist and Socialist parties, he pasted posters of both parties. He joined the PSOE on 23 February 1979; the impression Felipe González had caused on him in 1976 played a fundamental role in his decision to join the party. In 1979, during the Congreso Extraordinario del PSOE, the PSOE had renounced Marxism as its ideological base, he said nothing about joining t