click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gríma Wormtongue

Gríma, called Wormtongue, is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, he appears in the second and third volumes of the work, The Two Towers and The Return of the King, his role is expanded in Unfinished Tales. He is introduced in The Two Towers as the chief advisor to King Théoden of Rohan and henchman of Saruman. Gríma serves as an archetypal sycophant, flatterer and manipulator, is considered to be based by Tolkien on the untrustworthy character Unferth in Beowulf; the name Gríma derives from the Old English or Icelandic word meaning "mask", "helmet" or "spectre". Gríma, son of Gálmód, was at first a faithful servant, but he fell in league with Saruman, from on worked to weaken Théoden and his kingdom through lies and persuasion. Tolkien describes him as "a wizened figure of a man, with a pale wise face, heavy lidded eyes", a "long pale tongue". Gríma was disliked in Edoras. In Old English "wyrm" means "serpent, dragon", Gandalf compares him to a snake:The wise speak only of what they know, Gríma son of Gálmód.

A witless worm have you become. Therefore be silent, keep your forked tongue behind your teeth. I have not passed through fire and death to bandy crooked words with a serving-man till the lightning falls. See, Théoden, here is a snake! To slay it would be just, but it was not always. Once it was a man, it did you service in its fashion, it is implied that Saruman had promised him the king's niece, as a reward for his services. Her brother Éomer accused him of "watching her under his lids and haunting her steps", his schemes were foiled when Gandalf the White and his companions arrived at Edoras, convinced the king that he was not as weak as his adviser had made him seem. Upon Théoden's restoration, "many things which men had missed" were found locked in Gríma's trunk, including the king's sword, Herugrim. Théoden decided to go forth to battle at the Fords of Isen, Gríma was given a choice: prove his loyalty and ride into battle with the king, or ride into exile. Choosing the latter, he went to Saruman at Orthanc.

Following the confrontation between Saruman and Gandalf, Gríma mistakenly threw the palantír of Orthanc at the Rohirrim accompanying Gandalf, or at Saruman himself, so permitted its capture by Peregrin Took. Gríma accompanied Saruman to the Shire, where Saruman sought revenge for his defeat at Orthanc in petty tyranny over the Hobbits. During this time, Saruman shortened Gríma's nickname to "Worm"; when Saruman was overthrown by a hobbit rebellion and ordered to leave, Frodo Baggins implored Gríma not to follow him, offered him food and shelter. Saruman countered by revealing to the Hobbits that Gríma had murdered and eaten Lotho Sackville-Baggins, a kinsman of Frodo. Gríma played a major role in the back-story to The Lord of the Rings, prior to his first appearance in The Two Towers. In Unfinished Tales Tolkien writes that on 20 September in T. A. 3018 Gríma was captured by the Nazgûl in the fields of the Rohirrim, while on his way to Isengard to inform Saruman of Gandalf's arrival at Edoras.

He divulged what he knew of Saruman's plans to the Nazgûl his interest in the Shire, its location. Gríma was set free, the Nazgûl set out for the Shire. In another version within the same chapter, this role is given to the squint-eyed southerner that the hobbits encounter at Bree. In the same book, Tolkien intimates that Gríma may have given Théoden "subtle poisons" that caused him to age at an accelerated pace. In Ralph Bakshi's 1978 animated film adaptation of The Lord of the Rings, Gríma Wormtongue was voiced by Michael Deacon. Paul Brooke played Gríma in BBC Radio's 1981 serialisation. In Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings films, Gríma was played by Brad Dourif. According to Dourif, Jackson encouraged him to shave off his eyebrows so that the audience would have a subliminal reaction of unease to the character."The Scouring of the Shire" episode does not appear in the film version. This scene was cut from the theatrical releases of the films, but can be found on the Extended Edition DVD of The Return of the King.

In this scene, the assembled leaders of the West ride to Ent-occupied Isengard to confront Saruman. Théoden offers Gríma clemency. Enraged, Gríma stabs Saruman in the back. Saruman falls from the tower and is impaled on a spiked wheel, remnant of his war machines, the palantír slips out of his cloak. Gríma himself is killed by one of Legolas' arrows. In the DVD commentary, Jackson states that in further deleted material Saruman reveals to the company that Gríma had killed Théoden's son Théodred, casting new light on both his earlier reaction to Théodred's death and on Legolas' reason for shooting him. In The Lord of the Rings: The Third Age video game, Gríma Wormtongue is a miniboss faced by the player in the village hall, he uses powerful spells that drain Action Points and disabling the target. In The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II, Gríma Wormtongue is a hero for the Isengard faction, can weaken and convert enemy units. In The Lord of the Rings: Conquest, Grima is a playable scout-type hero.

Gríma Wormtongue on IMDb "Gríma". Tolkien Gateway

Fulwood (ward), South Yorkshire

Fulwood ward—which includes the districts of Fulwood, Lodge Moor, Ranmoor—is one of the 28 electoral wards in City of Sheffield, England. It is located in the far western part of the city and covers an area of 23.2 km2. The population of this ward in 2011 was 18,233 people in 6,476 households. Fulwood ward is one of the five wards. In the 2004 local elections John Knight, Janice Sidebottom, Andrew Sangar, all Liberal Democrats, were returned as councillors for the newly drawn ward; the current Member of Parliament is Labour's Olivia Blake. Fulwood ward is located on the hills that overlook Sheffield from the west, it is bordered to the north by the River Rivelin and to the south by the Porter Brook; the western part of the ward is rural including parts of the Hallam Moors and the Peak District National Park. Its western boundary is Stanage, the western boundary of the City of Sheffield. Fulwood ward was created when Sheffield's electoral wards were redrawn in June 2004, prior to that most of the Fulwood ward was the old Hallam ward — created in 1934 when the Ecclesall Bierlow ward was subdivided.

It covers most of the area, Upper Hallam—one of the six townships that made up ancient parish of Sheffield. This area was sparsely populated well into the 19th century. In 1811 there were only 866 residents in its 8836 acres. A description of Sheffield from 1832 describes the area as "wild and dreary, with a population scanty in the extreme". Redmires Road, which runs from the Long Causway near Redmires reservoirs across the ward to Crookes, was thought to follow the course of a Roman road that ran from Templeborough to Brough-on-Noe, it is now thought to be a medieval road used as a saltway used to transport salt from Cheshire to Yorkshire. The traffic is thought to have continued into the 18th century; this road passes Hallam Head, which some have suggested may be the site of the village of Hallam and therefore the Aula of Waltheof mentioned in the Domesday book of 1086. Fulwood is a suburb of Sheffield. In ancient times this area was part of a large forest—the name Fulwood means a wet, marshy woodland.

In Mediaeval times it formed part of Rivelin Firth, the hunting chase of the Lords of the Manor of Sheffield. It developed into a wealthy residential district in the 19th century and many houses from this period still exist. Amongst the historic buildings in Fulwood are the Old Chapel, built in 1729, Fulwood Hall, built in 1620 and Stumperlowe Hall. According to the Indices of Deprivation 2007, the district of Fulwood is the second-least deprived area of the city after Ecclesall. Fulwood had a population of 3608 in 2011. Ranmoor is a suburb of Sheffield just to the east of Fulwood notable for its large church, St John's; this church was opened 24 April 1879 but was entirely destroyed by fire on 2 January 1887. All that survived from the original church was the spire, which still stands today. A new building was built and the church reopened on 9 September 1888. Lodge Moor is a suburb of Sheffield to the west of Fulwood, it is home to a large golf course. The hospital was closed in the 1990s. On 9 December 1955 a USAF Republic F-84 Thunderstreak crashed into the hospital, killing one person and injuring seven.

There was a prisoner of war camp here in the First World War and the Second World War, a notable prisoner held from 1918 to 1919 was U-boat captain Karl Dönitz, whom Hitler chose as his successor to the position of Führer, a position which Dönitz fulfilled in the last days of the Second World War. To the west of Lodge Moor is the area of Redmires and the Redmires Reservoirs, the Sheffield City Battalion had a camp and training area here during the First World War. There was a First World War air landing site next to the camp, used by aircraft to defend Sheffield against Zeppelin raids, but it was only used until 1916. Near to the site of the hospital there were three Bronze Age barrows, which were removed to make way for housing development. One of these was excavated in the 1950s by the Hunter Archaeological Society. Fulwood Old Chapel Friends of the Porter Valley Sources for the history of Fulwood Produced by Sheffield City Council's Libraries and Archives

Frank W. Simpson

Frank William Simpson was an American football player and coach. He served as the head football coach at the University of Oregon from 1898 to 1899 and at the University of California, Berkeley in 1901, compiling a career college football record of 15–3–2. From 1898 to 1899, he guided the Oregon Webfoots to a 6–3–1 record. At California in 1901, he coached the Golden Bears to a 9–0–1 record. Simpson was killed when his car crashed into a tree when he and his wife were returning from a duck hunt hear Alvarado, California in December 1929, his wife died in the hospital. McCann, Michael C.. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. Eugene, OR: McCann Communications Corp. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7 Frank W. Simpson at Find a Grave

Béchar

Béchar is the capital city of Béchar Province, Algeria. It is a commune, coextensive with Béchar District, of Béchar Province. In 2008 the city had a population of 165,627, up from 134,954 in 1998, with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. The commune covers an area of 5,050 square kilometres. Before coal was found here in 1907, Béchar was a small populated town like many others in the region, it thrived on the activity of the coal mines. Leatherwork and jewellery are notable products of Béchar. Dates, figs and almonds are produced near Béchar. There are bituminous coal reserves near Béchar, but they are not exploited to their greatest potential because of transportation costs are too high relative to that from the oil and gas fields of eastern Algeria; the city was once the site of a French Foreign Legion post. The Kenadsa longwave transmitter, whose masts are the tallest structures in Algeria at 357 metres, is found near Béchar. Béchar is located in the northwestern region of Algeria 58 kilometres south of the Moroccan border.

Béchar lies at an elevation of 747 metres on the banks of Oued Béchar, which runs through the city from northeast to southwest. The rocky highlands of the Djebel Béchar overlook the city from the southeast, reaching 1,206 metres to the east of the city. Further to the northeast the Djebel Antar range rises higher, to 1,953 metres; the northwest, by contrast, is a flat rocky reg. Béchar has a hot desert climate, with hot summers and warm winters despite the high elevation. There is little rain throughout the year, summers are dry. Agriculture is an important industry in Béchar; the commune has a total of 8,384 hectares of arable land. There are a total of 109,000 date palms occupying 910 hectares. Other crops include vegetables, figs and almonds; as of 2009 there were 19,067 sheep, 16,664 goats, 1,766 camels, 444 cattle. There were 126,000 chickens in 20 buildings. There is some tourism in the city, with 10 hotels and tourist attractions including sand dunes, palm groves, the old ksar, an ancient fort.

Other industries in the city include coal mining, the production of leatherwork and jewellery. 98% of Béchar's population is connected to drinking water, 95% is connected to the sewerage system, 99% have access to electricity. There are 6 fuel service stations in the town. Béchar has a total of 33,245 houses, of which 25,499 are occupied, giving an occupation rate of 6.5 inhabitants per occupied building. The main road through Béchar is the N6 highway. There is a total length of 207.5 kilometres of roads in the commune. It is served by a narrow gauge railway station of SNTF, which in 2008, may be replaced with a standard gauge railway. From 1941 to 1963 it was reached by the standard gauge Mediterranean-Niger-Railway. Béchar is served by 4 kilometres to the northwest of the city; the city is home to the University of Béchar. There are 68 elementary schools in Béchar, with 777 classrooms including 581 in use. There are a total of 33,511 school students.8.3% of the population has a tertiary education, another 23.0% has competed secondary education.

The overall literacy rate is 86.4%, is 91.4% among males and 81.4% among females. Béchar has 2 hospitals, 4 polyclinics, 17 room care facilities, a maternity ward, 36 private pharmacies, 5 medical operating theatres, a psychiatric service. Béchar has a cinema with 850 seats, as well as a museum. Béchar has 27 operational mosques, with another 19 under construction; the commune is composed of 8 localities: Béchar Djedid is located 5 kilometres south of the city and was constructed as housing for coal miners working in Kénadsa. Railway stations in Algeria Official website of Béchar Province

Vasily Andreyev

Vasily Vasilievich Andreyev was a Russian musician responsible for the modern development of the balalaika and several other traditional Russian folk music instruments, is considered the father of the academic folk instrument movement in Eastern Europe. His accomplishments included: developing in the 1880s a standardized balalaika made with the assistance of violin maker V. Ivanov. Reviving the domra, a three-stringed long-necked melody instrument with a melon-shaped body, which he developed in prima, alto and bass sizes. Reviving the gusli, an autoharp chorded with piano-type keys. Arranging many traditional Russian folk songs and melodies for the orchestra composing many tunes of his own. Vasily Andreyev was born in Bezhetsk, Tver Governorate, Russia to the family of an honorary citizen of Bezhetsk and merchant of the first guild, Vasily Andeyevich Andreyev and his wife, the noblewoman Sophia Mikhaylovna Andreyeva; when the boy was one year old, his father died. The family moved to Saint Petersburg, where the boy was brought up by Nil Seslavin.

At the age of ten, Vasily began playing the balalaika and other folk instruments. Andreyev was studying to play the violin and working as a musician in the various salons catering to European tourists to the Russian capital. On numerous occasions, he was asked about performing traditional Russian music, he started collecting examples, he once had the instrument copied. His solo performances were popular, a group of players developed around him, he developed an ensemble playing different sized balalaikas that proved to be successful. The group grew into a full orchestra. In 1887 Andreyev was inspired by Ginislao Paris' mandolin orchestra. Paris' orchestra was the first mandolin orchestra in Russia, Andreyev put together the first orchestra based on Russian instruments; the popularity of Andreyev's group grew after their performance in Paris, France at the world Exhibition, where they became celebrities. In 1881 Andreyev organized his Great Russian orchestra that included string instruments: four types of domras, six types of balalaika, woodwind instruments: zhaleikas.

Many instruments were customized to work in an orchestra setting. In a few years, the orchestra became famous, generating thousands of followers as well as causing an explosion of balalaika compositions. Still many members of the intelligentsia criticized the orchestra and its instruments for being not Russian but Turkish. More Iurii Boiko pointed out in 1984 that the orchestra's technique of playing a melody in the form of a sustained tremolo on one string – much copied and thought of as "Russian" in style – is in fact not a Russian manner of playing at all; this new form of folk music gained international popularity after Andreyev's many concert tours in Great Britain between 1900 and 1910. Государственный академический русский оркестр им. В.В.Андреева Olson, Laura J.. Performing Russia: Folk revival and Russian identity. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-32614-1

Bloomfield, Walworth County, Wisconsin

Bloomfield is a town in Walworth County, United States. The population was 5,537 at the 2000 census; the village of Bloomfield was formed from part of the town on December 20, 2011. The census-designated place of Lake Ivanhoe is located in the town; the unincorporated community of North Bloomfield is located in the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 33.4 square miles, of which, 32.6 square miles of it is land and 0.8 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,537 people, 2,067 households, 1,448 families residing in the town; the population density was 170.1 people per square mile. There were 2,476 housing units at an average density of 76.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.93% White, 1.95% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.17% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.97% of the population. There were 2,067 households out of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.9% were non-families.

24.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.16. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,232, the median income for a family was $45,856. Males had a median income of $36,884 versus $25,131 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,302. About 6.8% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.1% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. Alfred H. Abell, town official, Wisconsin State Representative, lived in the town. Timothy Fellows, farmer and county official, Wisconsin State Representative, who helped the Underground Railroad smuggle escaped slaves out of the country.

Edwin Kull, farmer and Wisconsin State Representative, was born in the town. Village of Bloomfield website