Graduated cylinder

A graduated cylinder, measuring cylinder or mixing cylinder is a common piece of laboratory equipment used to measure the volume of a liquid. It has a narrow cylindrical shape; each marked line on the graduated cylinder represents the amount of liquid, measured. Large graduated cylinders are made up of polypropylene for its excellent chemical resistance or polymethylpentene for its transparency, making them lighter and less fragile than glass. Polypropylene is easy to autoclave. A traditional graduated cylinder is narrow and tall so as to increase the accuracy and precision of volume measurement. An additional version is low. Mixing cylinders have ground glass joints instead of a spout, so they can be closed with a stopper or connect directly with other elements of a manifold. With this kind of cylinder, the metered liquid does not pour directly, but is removed using a Cannula. A graduated cylinder is meant to be read with the surface of the liquid at eye level, where the center of the meniscus shows the measurement line.

Typical capacities of graduated cylinders are from 10 mL to 1000 mL. Graduated cylinders are used to measure the volume of a liquid. Graduated cylinders are more accurate and precise than laboratory flasks and beakers, but they should not be used to perform volumetric analysis. Graduated cylinders are sometimes used to measure the volume of a solid indirectly by measuring the displacement of a liquid. For accuracy the volume on graduated cylinders is depicted on scales with 3 significant digits: 100mL cylinders have 1ml grading divisions while 10mL cylinders have 0.1 mL grading divisions. Two classes of accuracy exist for graduated cylinders. Class A has double the accuracy of class B. Cylinders can have double scales. Single scales allow to read the volume from top to bottom while double scale cylinders allow reading for filling and pouring. Graduated cylinders are calibrated either “to contain” and marked as "TC" or “to deliver” and marked “TD”; the tolerances for “to deliver” and “to contain” cylinders are distinct.

The international symbols “IN” and “EX” are more to be used instead of “TC” and “TD” respectively. To read the volume the observation must be at an eye level and read at the bottom of a meniscus of the liquid level; the main reason as to why the reading of the volume is done via meniscus is due to the nature of the liquid in a closed surrounded space. By nature, liquid in the cylinder would be attracted to the wall around it through molecular forces; this forces the liquid surface to develop either a convex or concave shape, depending on the type of the liquid in the cylinder. Reading the liquid at the bottom part of a concave or the top part of the convex liquid is equivalent to reading the liquid at its meniscus. From the picture, the level of the liquid will be read at the bottom of the meniscus, the concave; the most accurate of the reading that could be done here is reduced down to 1 mL due to the given means of measurement on the cylinder. From this, the derived error would be one tenth of the least figure.

For instance, if the reading is done and the value calculated is set to be 36.5 mL. The error, give or take 0.1 mL, must be included too. Therefore, the more precise value equates to 36.5 ± 0.1. Therefore, there are 3 significant figures. Another example, if the reading is done and the value calculated is set to be 40.0 mL. The precise value would be 40.0 ± 0.1.


The Cinebox was a coin-operated Italian 16mm film projector jukebox type machine invented in 1959 that appeared in Europe to rival the French made Scopitone that appeared in 1960. The Cinebox was manufactured in Rome by Ottico Meccanica Italiana. In 1963 it appeared in the USA and was retitled Colorama in 1965. In 1961 Cinebox machines were placed on ocean liners of the American Export Lines with Cineboxes showing cartoons and short subject comedies in on board nurseries whilst on board lounges showed musical and travelogues; each of the Cineboxes held five 40 minute films. In the United States the Cinebox musical juke box provided three minutes of sound film for 25 cents with 40 titles available at a time on the machine. In Canada, the Cinebox became the first e.commerce website, founded by Loïc Berthout, to sell movies online in 1998. It proposed video games and reached an international scope, it was selling through until 2010. Scopitone Archive Cinebox Films


Polyperchon, was a Macedonian general who served both Philip II and Alexander the Great and played an active role in the ensuing battles for control between Alexander's generals. Polyperchon was a son of Simmias from Tymphaia in Epirus, he served under Philip II and Alexander the Great, accompanying Alexander throughout his long journeys. After the Battle of Issus in 333, Polyperchon was given command of the Tymphaean battalion of the phalanx which he retained until 324. After his return to Babylon, Polyperchon was sent back to Macedon with Craterus, but had only reached Cilicia by the time of Alexander's death in 323. Polyperchon and Craterus continued onto Greece; as Craterus' second in command Polyperchon acted as governor of Macedon and helped Antipater to defeat the Greek rebellion in the Lamian War. Polyperchon defeated the Thessalian cavalry of Menon, hitherto considered invincible. Following the First War of the Diadochi, Polyperchon remained in Macedon while Antipater travelled to Asia Minor to assert his regency over the whole empire.

Upon Antipater's death in 319, Polyperchon was appointed regent and supreme commander of the entire empire but soon fell into conflict with Antipater's son Cassander, to have been his chief lieutenant. The two fell into civil war, which spread among all the successors of Alexander, with Polyperchon allying with Eumenes against Cassander and Ptolemy. Although Polyperchon was successful in securing control of the Greek cities, whose freedom he proclaimed, he suffered a major setback at Megalopolis in 317 BC, a few months his fleet was destroyed by Antigonus, Cassander secured control of Athens the year after that. Shortly thereafter, Polyperchon was driven from Macedon by Cassander, who took control of the disabled king Philip Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice. Polyperchon fled to Epirus, where he joined Alexander's mother Olympias, widow Roxana, infant son Alexander IV, he formed an alliance with Olympias and King Aeacides of Epirus, Olympias led an army into Macedon. She was successful and capturing the army of King Philip, whom she had murdered, but soon Cassander returned from the Peloponnesus and captured and murdered her in 316, taking Roxana and the boy king into his custody.

Polyperchon now fled to the Peloponnesus, where he still controlled a few strong points, allied himself with Antigonus, who had by now fallen out with his former allies. Polyperchon surrendered the regency to Antigonus. Polyperchon soon controlled much of the Peloponnesus, including Sicyon. Following the peace treaty of 311 between Antigonus and his enemies, the murder of the boy-king Alexander and his mother, Polyperchon retained these areas, when war again broke out between Antigonus and the others, Antigonus sent Alexander's reputed illegitimate son Heracles to Polyperchon as a bargaining chip to use against Cassander. Polyperchon, decided to break with Antigonus and murdered the boy in 309. There is no certain date for Polyperchon's death, he is last mentioned as being alive in 304, but the lack of further reference is only because Diodorus' subsequent narrative is lost and no others cover this period in sufficient detail. A mention in Plutarch's Life of Pyrrhus 8.3 suggests that he might have lived into the early 3rd century BC.

Polyperchon had a son named Alexander, a noted general in the Wars of the Diadochi. Green, Peter. Alexander to Actium. University of California Press. Pp. 17–20. ISBN 0-520-05611-6. Habicht, Christian. Ελληνιστική Αθήνα. Athens: Odysseas. ISBN 960-210-310-8. Simpson, R. H.. "Antigonus and the Macedonian Regency". Historia. 6: 371–73. JSTOR 4434536. Wheatley, P.. "The Date of Polyperchon's Invasion of Macedonia and Murder of Herakles". Antichthon. 32: 12–23. Doi:10.1017/S0066477400001064. Livius, Polyperchon by Jona Lendering Polyperchon entry in historical source book by Mahlon H. Smith