A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research and measurement may be performed. Laboratory services are provided in a variety of settings: physicians offices, clinics and regional and national referral centers. Laboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist's laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those used by computer scientists, computers are used for either simulations or the analysis of data. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Engineers use laboratories as well to design and test technological devices.
Scientific laboratories can be found as research room and learning spaces in schools and universities, government, or military facilities, aboard ships and spacecraft. Despite the underlying notion of the lab as a confined space for experts, the term "laboratory" is increasingly applied to workshop spaces such as Living Labs, Fab Labs, or Hackerspaces, in which people meet to work on societal problems or make prototypes, working collaboratively or sharing resources; this development is inspired by new, participatory approaches to science and innovation and relies on user-centred design methods and concepts like Open innovation or User innovation. One distinctive feature of work in Open Labs is phenomena of translation, driven by the different backgrounds and levels of expertise of the people involved. Early instances of "laboratories" recorded in English involved alchemy and the preparation of medicines; the emergence of Big Science during World War II increased the size of laboratories and scientific equipment, introducing particle accelerators and similar devices.
The earliest laboratory according to the present evidence is a home laboratory of Pythagoras of Samos, the well-known Greek philosopher and scientist. This laboratory was created when Pythagoras conducted an experiment about tones of sound and vibration of string. In the painting of Louis Pasteur by Albert Edelfelt in 1885, Louis Pasteur is shown comparing a note in his left hand with a bottle filled with a solid in his right hand, not wearing any personal protective equipment. Researching in teams started in the 19th century, many new kinds of equipment were developed in the 20th century. A 16th century underground alchemical laboratory was accidentally discovered in the year 2002. Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor was believed to be the owner; the laboratory is preserved as a museum in Prague. Laboratory techniques are the set of procedures used on natural sciences such as chemistry, physics to conduct an experiment, all of them follow the scientific method. Laboratory equipment refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a laboratory: The classical equipment includes tools such as Bunsen burners and microscopes as well as specialty equipment such as operant conditioning chambers, spectrophotometers and calorimeters.
Chemical laboratorieslaboratory glassware such as the beaker or reagent bottle Analytical devices as HPLC or spectrophotometersMolecular biology laboratories + Life science laboratoriesAutoclave Microscope Centrifuges Shakers & mixers Pipette Thermal cyclers Photometer Refrigerators and Freezers Universal testing machine ULT Freezers Incubators Bioreactor Biological safety cabinets Sequencing instruments Fume hoods Environmental chamber Humidifier Weighing scale Reagents Pipettes tips Polymer consumables for small volumes sterileLaboratory equipment is used to either perform an experiment or to take measurements and gather data. Larger or more sophisticated equipment is called a scientific instrument; the title of laboratory is used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include: Film laboratory or Darkroom Clandestine lab for the production of illegal drugs Computer lab Crime lab used to process crime scene evidence Language laboratory Medical laboratory Public health laboratory Industrial laboratory In many laboratories, hazards are present.
Laboratory hazards might include poisons. Therefore, safety precautions are vitally important. Rules exist to minimize the individual's risk, safety equipment is used to protect the lab users from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency; the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States, recognizing the unique characteristics of the laboratory workplace, has tailored a standard for occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. This standard is referred to as the "Laboratory Standard". Under this standard, a laboratory is required to produce a Chemical Hygiene Plan which addresses the specific hazards found in its location, its approach to them. In determining the proper Chemical Hygiene Plan for a particular business
Miliary tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis, characterized by a wide dissemination into the human body and by the tiny size of the lesions. Its name comes from a distinctive pattern seen on a chest radiograph of many tiny spots distributed throughout the lung fields with the appearance similar to millet seeds—thus the term "miliary" tuberculosis. Miliary TB may infect any number of organs, including the lungs and spleen. Miliary tuberculosis is present in about 2% of all reported cases of tuberculosis and accounts for up to 20% of all extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Patients with miliary tuberculosis experience non-specific signs, such as coughing and enlarged lymph nodes. Miliary tuberculosis can present with enlarged liver, enlarged spleen, inflammation of the pancreas, multiple organ dysfunction with adrenal insufficiency. Miliary tuberculosis may present with unilateral or bilateral pneumothorax rarely. Stool may be diarrheal in nature and appearance. Other symptoms include fever, choroidal tubercles, cutaneous lesions.
Firstly, many patients can experience a fever lasting several weeks with daily spikes in morning temperatures. Secondly, hypercalcemia prevails in 16 to 51% of tuberculosis cases, it is thought. Such that, 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol improves the ability of macrophages to kill bacteria. Thus, hypercalcemia proves to be an important symptom of miliary tuberculosis. Thirdly, chorodial tubercules, pale lesions on the optic nerve indicate miliary tuberculosis in children; these lesions may occur in both. Chorodial tubercules may serve as important symptoms of miliary tuberculosis, since their presence can confirm suspected diagnosis. Lastly, between 10 and 30% of adults, 20–40% of children with miliary tuberculosis have tuberculosis meningitis; this relationship results from mycobacteria from miliary tuberculosis spreading to the brain and the subarachnoid space. The risk factors for contracting miliary tuberculosis are being in direct contact with a person who has it, living in unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition.
In the U. S. risk factors for contracting the disease include homelessness and HIV/AIDS. Miliary tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis, the result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis travelling to extrapulmonary organs, such as the liver and kidneys. Although it is well understood that the bacteria spread from the pulmonary system to the lymphatic system and the blood stream, the mechanism by which this occurs is not well understood. One proposed mechanism is that tuberculous infection in the lungs results in erosion of the epithelial layer of alveolar cells and the spread of infection into a pulmonary vein. Once the bacteria reach the left side of the heart and enter the systemic circulation, they may multiply and infect extrapulmonary organs. Once infected, the cell-mediated immune response is activated; the infected sites become surrounded by macrophages, which form granuloma, giving the typical appearance of miliary tuberculosis. Alternatively, the bacteria may attack the cells lining the alveoli and enter the lymph node. the bacteria drain into a systemic vein and reach the right side of the heart.
From the right side of the heart, the bacteria may seed—or re-seed as the case may be—the lungs, causing the eponymous "miliary" appearance. Testing for miliary tuberculosis is conducted in a similar manner as for other forms of tuberculosis, although a number of tests must be conducted on a patient to confirm diagnosis. Tests include chest x-ray, sputum culture, open lung biopsy, head CT/MRI, blood cultures and electrocardiography; the tuberculosis blood test called an Interferon Gamma Release Assay or IGRA, is a way to diagnose latent TB. A variety of neurological complications have been noted in miliary tuberculosis patients—tuberculous meningitis and cerebral tuberculomas being the most frequent. However, a majority of patients improve following antituberculous treatment. Lymphangitic spread of lung cancer could mimic miliary pattern of tuberculosis on regular chest X-ray; the tuberculin skin test used for detection of other forms of tuberculosis, is not useful in the detection of miliary tuberculosis.
The tuberculin skin test fails due to the high numbers of false negatives. These false negatives may occur because of higher rates of tuberculin anergy compared to other forms of tuberculosis. A case of miliary tuberculosis in an 82-year-old woman: The standard treatment recommended by the WHO is with isoniazid and rifampicin for six months, as well as ethambutol and pyrazinamide for the first two months. If there is evidence of meningitis treatment is extended to twelve months; the U. S. guidelines recommend nine months' treatment. "Common medication side effects a patient may have such as inflammation of the liver if a patient is taking pyrazinamide and isoniazid. A patient may have drug resistance to medication, respiratory failure, adult respiratory distress syndrome." If left untreated, miliary tuberculosis is always fatal. Although most cases of miliary tuberculosis are treatable, the mortality rate among children with miliary tuberculosis remains 15 to 20% and for adults 25 to 30%. One of the main causes for these high mortality rates includes late detection of disease caused by non-spec
Greenvale is a rural town and locality in the Charters Towers Region, Australia. In the 2016 census, Greenvale had a population of 232 people. Greenvale is a nickel mining area 220 kilometres northwest of Townsville. Other metal ores are extracted there, it lies on the Gregory Developmental Road. A good sealed road crosses the hills over to Townsville. An ore-carrying railway line ran between Greenvale and Queensland Nickel Industries processing plant at Yabulu 20 kilometres north of Townsville from 1974 to 1993. Gugu Badhun is an Australian Aboriginal language of North Queensland; the language region includes areas within the local government area of Charters Towers Region the localities of Greenvale and the Valley of Lagoons, in the Upper Burdekin River area and in Abergowrie. The town was named by the Queensland Place Names Board on 16 December 1972; the town takes its name from a pastoral run operated by John Langton in 1860s. Greenvale Project No 2 State School opened on 22 May 1972 and closed on 18 October 1974.
This is most to have been a school serving a construction camp. Greenvale Project No 1 State School opened 18 February 1974, it closed on 29 March 1974. Greenvale State School opened on 18 September 1972. Greenvale Post Office opened on 1 November 1973; some of the longest trains in Australia were pulled along the railway line. The railway line tracks were removed in mid-2000. People walk from Yabulu to Greenvale along it, as a form of fundraising. Despite the fact that the mine itself has since concluded operations, more mining operations around the area have since commenced and homes are all occupied with workers supporting the regional mining and exploration; when the nickel mine was in operation, its population was estimated to be 650 people. The 2006 Census Data states. Greenvale State School is a government primary school for girls at Cassia Court. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 31 students with 8 non-teaching staff. There are no real sights at Greenvale; however the town is a snapshot of life in 1973 so it's a point of interest for many passing tourists.
The Three Rivers Hotel, made famous by Slim Dusty in a song by the same name, is now located at Greenvale. This is not the actual hotel; the hotel reference is to the "Mess Hall" at the construction camp where Stan Coster penned the song. Stan worked as Grader operator for Thiess Brothers on the construction of the railway line; the origin of the name "Three Rivers Hotel" is not because the "hotel" was at the junction of the three rivers - Burdekin and Clarke as stated on numerous web sites. The lyrics mentions the camp at the Star River; this was one of 6 camps. During 1974 North Queensland was drenched by a active wet season and work on the railway line ceased for days weeks, on end; the workers in the camps had nothing better to do than spend the day in the camp "boozer". Each camp had a boozer, a basic demountable building with outdoor covered seating. During one of these wet days the water started to enter the confines of the boozer and some of the men started digging some improvised drainage around the boozer to channel away the water.
As they built the channels, some wags named them after the 3 main rivers. These were joined up as they do in real life and the boozer named "the Three Rivers Hotel". One of the drinkers that day was Stan Coster who penned the song on the spot in the bar and performed it for the drinkers; the three rivers referred in the song do not join up at one point but the Star and the Clarke join the Burdekin at separate locations and therefore there could be no hotel on the "junction" of the three rivers the song refers to. There is caravan park and general store/mini supermarket; the hotel serves meals and has a number of self-contained units once used by the mine to house staff and contractors. The Greenvale mining lease has undergone extensive exploration work by Straits Resources and Metallica Minerals for the purpose of reopening the nickel and cobalt operations; the surrounding areas have extensive cobalt mineralisation. During this most recent exploration work, the Lucknow ridge south of the mine has been found to contain one of the largest known reserves of scandium oxide in the Lateritic nickel ore deposits.
According to the managing director of Metallica Minerals, Andrew Gillies, the deposit's quality and purity are remarkably high. Scandium oxide is a critical component of solid oxide fuel cells which have promise for the efficient direct production of electricity from low carbon gas fuels