An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to cost-effective reasons, they are useful within larger stations where local and express services for the same direction of travel can be provided from opposite sides of the same platform thereby simplifying transfers between the two tracks. An alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks; the historical use of island platforms depends upon the location. In the United Kingdom the use of island platforms is common when the railway line is in a cutting or raised on an embankment, as this makes it easier to provide access to the platform without walking across the tracks. Island platforms are necessary for any station with many through platforms. Building small two-track stations with a single island platform instead of two side platforms does have advantages.
Island platforms allow facilities such as shops and waiting rooms to be shared between both tracks rather than being duplicated or present only on one side. An island platform makes it easier for wheelchair users and other people with physical limitations to change services between tracks or access facilities. If the tracks are above or below the entrance level, an island platform layout requires only one staircase and one elevator be built to access the platforms. Building the tracks and entrance at the same level creates a disadvantage. If an island platform is not wide enough to cope with passenger numbers, overcrowding can be a problem. Examples of stations where a narrow island platform has caused safety issues include Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground. An island platform requires the tracks to diverge around the center platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station on high-speed lines. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are 3 to 5 meters.
If the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks must slew out by the same distance. While this requirement is not a problem on a new line under construction, it makes building a new station on an existing line impossible without altering the tracks. A single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, with slower trains diverging from the main line so that the main line tracks remain straight. High-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms; this arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where slow trains can be passed by faster trains. A variation at some stations is to have the slow and fast pairs of tracks each served by island platforms A rarer layout, present at Mets-Willets Point on the IRT Flushing Line, 34th Street – Penn Station on the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and 34th Street – Penn Station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, uses two side platforms for local services with an island in between for express services.
The purpose of this atypical design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Since the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and IND Eighth Avenue Line have adjacent express stations at 42nd Street, passengers can make their transfers from local to express trains there, leaving more space available for passengers utilizing intercity rail at Pennsylvania Station; the Willets Point Boulevard station was renovated to accommodate the high volume of passengers coming to the 1939 World's Fair. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form; this was. If this happened, the lines would need to be compatible with continental loading gauge, this would mean it would be easy to change the line to a larger gauge, by moving the track away from the platform to allow the wider bodied continental rolling stock to pass while leaving the platform area untouched. Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. All railway stations in India consist of island platforms.
In Toronto, 29 subway stations use island platforms. In Sydney, on the Eastern Suburbs Railway and the Epping Chatswood Railway, the twin tunnels are spaced and the tracks can remain at a constant track centres while still leaving room for the island platforms. A slight disadvantage is. In Edmonton, all 18 LRT stations on the Capital Line and Metro Line use island platforms; the Valley Line under construction, utilizes the new low-floor LRT technology, but will only use island platforms on one of the twelve stops along the line. In southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 s
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Otahuhu railway station
Ōtāhuhu railway station is located on the Eastern and Southern Lines of the Auckland rail network in New Zealand. It is part of an integrated bus-train major transport hub, it can be reached by steps and elevator from an overhead concourse that leads from the adjacent bus transfer station and Walmsley Road. Ōtāhuhu station features a historic, decommissioned signal box and is the point where both freight and passenger trains enter and exit the main line from the Westfield locomotive depot. The station was opened in 1875 to serve the increasing settlement at Otahuhu, with a road constructed to the station; the station included a goods shed and a main building, which however burned down in 1909 after a fire in the oil room got out of hand with no water supply available to suppress the fires. In May 2011, Auckland Transport and KiwiRail started work to lengthen the platform to accommodate longer passenger trains; the platform area around the signal box was raised and further platform installed around the base of the pedestrian over bridge to Walmsley Road.
In July 2011, the signal box at the station was one of the last to be decommissioned in Auckland, as part of a project to upgrade the signalling of the Auckland suburban network in preparation for electrification. Mainline signalling in the Ōtāhuhu station limits will be operated from the National Train Control Centre in Wellington, along with the rest of the Auckland network. Concern was raised in 2007 about the 1.2 km walk between the station and the nearest bus services, with the station located in an out-of-the-way industrial area. These concerns were addressed by the construction of a bus-train interchange which opened in October 2016. A public open day was held with station designers in August 2014. Enabling works began in November 2014 after the temporary closure of Titi Street Bridge; the following year main construction works began. The $28 million bus-train interchange and concourse was completed in October 2016 and was opened on 29 October 2016; the decommissioned signal box has been retained as a historic feature of the new station.
In 1927, Ōtāhuhu Railway Workshops opened on a site west of the station. This facility became the North Island's foremost wagon and carriage construction and repair facility, it was progressively closed from 1986 to 1992. Further south, between Mangere station, a rail fabrication facility was built; this facility is still in use. Ōtāhuhu possessed Auckland's second-largest locomotive depot, opened in 1905, closed in 1968, with the opening of the Westfield facility. Transdev Auckland, on behalf of Auckland Transport, operates suburban services to Britomart, Manukau and Pukekohe via Ōtāhuhu; the typical weekday off-peak timetable is: 6 tph to Britomart, consisting of: 3 tph via Glen Innes 3 tph via Penrose and Newmarket 3 tph to Manukau 3 tph to PapakuraBus routes 32, 33, 321, 322, 324, 325, 326, 351 serve Ōtāhuhu Station. List of Auckland railway stations Public transport in Auckland
St Peter's College, Auckland
St Peter's College is a Catholic secondary school for boys, located in Auckland, New Zealand, in the central city suburb of Grafton. With a roll of over 1300, the school is one of the largest Catholic schools in New Zealand. St Peter's College was established in 1939 as a successor of Auckland's earliest school and of St Peter's School, founded in 1857; the Outhwaite family, who acquired the land around 1841, donated the site of the college. The Christian Brothers provided staff for the college for 70 years, it is the oldest Catholic boys' school in Auckland still on its original site. For nearly 50 years, the school had direct access to an adjacent railway station created for the college and known as the "St Peter's College station"; the school was integrated into the state system along with 240 other New Zealand Catholic schools in 1982. The school aims to achieve a diverse, family-oriented and good exam results. Auckland's first school of any sort was a Catholic school for boys, its first classes were held on 27 September 1841.
It was set up by Catholic laymen of Auckland following the first visit of Bishop Pompallier. The teacher was Edmund Powell, classes were first held in his residence in Shortland Crescent on 27 September 1841; this school appears to have existed only for a short time. In 1857, St Peter's School was established by a group of laymen led by Father O'Hara, the curate at St Patrick's Cathedral, as Auckland's first Catholic secondary school for boys. In that year Bishop Pompallier prepared a list of church schools for the Government and for "propaganda" which stated: "St Peter's Select School is established for the more advanced boys; the Greek, French and German languages are taught in it Geometry, Arithmetic, English Grammar etc... Terms per Annum 12.0.0 for each pupil." The school had a Board of Governors composed of its founders which included the Member of Parliament, Patrick Dignan. Classes commenced in rented accommodation in Drake St, Freemans Bay. John Logan Campbell donated a sum of £500 and a block of land on the corner of Pitt and Wellington Streets.
A brick school building was built there. The founding teacher was Richard O'Sullivan and, during his tenure, the school was identified with him. Amongst his students were John Sheehan, Joseph Tole, Peter Dignan and Charles and William Outhwaite. O'Sullivan resigned in 1861. In 1865 the teacher was Peter Morand. Bishop Pompallier made an annual inspection of the school. On 16 December 1864 he visited the school along with many parents; the proceedings were commenced by an address "to the Right Reverend Dr Pompallier, Bishop of Auckland", delivered by a pupil, Laurence Lorigan, on behalf of all the pupil's. Earlier in 1864, St Peter's School gave an address to Bishop Pompallier on his feast day, the feast of St John the Baptist; that address was delivered by Martin Maher on behalf of the pupils. St Peter's School was prominent in St Patrick's Day celebrations. On Friday 17 March 1865, St Peter's boys together with pupils of other Catholic schools began their celebrations with a Pontifical High Mass whose principal celebrant was Bishop Pompallier, in the Cathedral.
After addresses to the Bishop, the pupils went to the "paddocks" of Peter Grace Esq where "the sports for the youths consisted of feats of bat and ball, football etc. etc. A spirited cricket match came off between 11 students of St Francis de Sales School and a corresponding number of St Peter's School, the former being the victors in the game". In 1867 the celebration occurred on Monday 18 March. After Mass, the addresses to the bishop were read by a pupil of St Patrick's School and by "Master Anthony Martin, son of Mr Anthony Martin of Hobson St" on behalf of St Peter's; the pupils went to paddocks of Mr Dinnin on Ponsonby Road for sports, entertainments and "refreshments". In the 1870s and 1880s, Mr B Hammill was a well-known teacher, he was said to have a "first-class certificate from the Irish Board of Education" and to be "enthusiastically devoted to his profession". Mr Peter Leonard was another prominent teacher. In 1874, a report of the annual public examination of the boys attending St Peter's, presided over by Bishop Croke, stated that there was a "regular and good" attendance of about 70 pupils at the school.
In 1879 St Peter's had a roll of 43. In 1881, Mr Cronin was a teacher at St Peter's School which in an advertisement for pupils offered night classes to prepare pupils for "mercantile pursuits, civil service and teacher's examinations". In about 1884, St Peter's started to use a larger adjacent building as the number of pupils was exceeding the capacity of the brick school. In October 1884, William Mahoney, who received all his early education under Mr Hammill at St Peter's, paid a visit to the school on his return to New Zealand as a priest, he was Auckland's first New-Zealand-born priest. St Peter's School continued until the Marist Brothers established their own school on the site in 1885. Walter Herman Jacobus Steins S. J. third Catholic Bishop of Auckland thought, that as they were a French congregation, the Marist Brothers might not be welcome in Auckland and that it would be better to invite the Irish Christian Brothers as most of the Ca
Public transport in Auckland
Public transport in Auckland, the largest metropolitan area of New Zealand, consists of three modes: bus and ferry. Services are coordinated by Auckland Transport under the AT Metro brand. Britomart Transport Centre is the main transport hub; until the 1950s Auckland had high levels of ridership. However, the dismantling of an extensive tram system in the 1950s, the decision by William Goosman to not electrify Auckland's rail network, a focus of transport investment into a motorway system led to the collapse in both mode share and total trips. By the 1990s Auckland had experienced one of the sharpest declines in public transport ridership in the world, with only 33 trips per capita per year. Since 2000, a greater focus has been placed on improving Auckland's public transport system through a series of projects and service improvements. Major improvements include the Britomart Transport Centre, the Northern Busway, the upgrade and electrification of the rail network and the introduction of integrated ticketing through the AT Hop Card.
These efforts have led to sustained growth in ridership on the rail network. Between June 2005 and November 2017 total ridership increased from 51.3 million boardings per annum to 90.9 million. Despite those strong gains, the overall share of travel in Auckland by public transport is still quite low. At the 2013 census around 8% of journeys to work were by public transport and per capita ridership in 2017 of around 55 boardings is still well below that of Wellington, Melbourne and most large Canadian cities. Auckland's rapid population growth means that improving the city's public transport system is a priority for Auckland Council and the New Zealand Government. Major improvements planned or underway include the City Rail Link, extending the Northern Busway to Albany, construction of the Eastern Busway between Panmure and Botany, the proposed Auckland Airport Line, a light rail line between the city centre and Auckland Airport. Horse-drawn trams operated in Auckland from 1884 while the Auckland Electric Tram Company's system was opened on 17 November 1902.
The Electric Tram Company started as a private company before being acquired by Auckland City Council. The tram network shaped much of Auckland's growth throughout the early 20th century. Auckland's public transport system was well utilised, with usage peaking at over 120 million boardings during the Second World War though Auckland's population was under 500,000 at the time. Auckland's extensive tram network was removed in the 1950s, with the last line closing in late 1956. Although a series of ambitious rail schemes were proposed between the 1940s and 1970s, the focus of transport improvements in Auckland shifted to developing an extensive motorway system. Passionate advocacy from long-time Mayor of Auckland City Council Dove-Myer Robinson for a "rapid rail" scheme was unsuccessful. Removal of the tram system, little investment in Auckland's rail network and growing car ownership in the second half of the 20th century led to a collapse in ridership across all modes of public transport. From a 1954 average level of 290 public transport trips per person per year, patronage decreased rapidly.
1950s ridership levels were only reached again in the 2010s, despite Auckland's population growing four-fold over the same time period. These decisions shaped Auckland's growth patterns in the late 20th century, with the city becoming a low-density dispersed urban area with a population dependent on private vehicles for their travel needs. By the late 1990s ongoing population growth and high levels of car use were leading to the recognition that traffic congestion was one of Auckland's biggest problems, it has been claimed that the city's public transport decline resulted from, "privatisation, a poor regulatory environment and a funding system that favours roads". On the other hand, NZ Bus claim that increasing passengers and cost control began with privatisation in 1991; as concerns over urban sprawl and traffic congestion grew in the 1990s and early 2000s, public transport returned to the spotlight, with growing agreement of the "need for a substantial shift to public transport". Growing recognition that Auckland could no longer "build its way out of congestion" through more roads alone led to the first major improvements to Auckland's public transport system in half a century: The Britomart Transport Centre was opened in 2003, the first major upgrade of Auckland's rail network since World War II.
This project allowed trains to reach into the heart of Auckland's city centre and acted as a catalyst for the regeneration of this part of downtown Auckland. The Northern Busway was opened in 2008, providing Auckland's North Shore with rapid transit that enabled bus riders to avoid congestion on the Northern Motorway and Auckland Harbour Bridge. A core upgrade of Auckland's rail network between 2006 and 2011, known as Project DART, which included double-tracking of the Western Line, the reopening of the Onehunga Branch line to Onehunga, a rail spur to Manukau City and a series of station upgrades. Electrification of the Auckland rail network and the purchase of new electric trains from Spanish manufacturer CAF. Electric train services commenced in 2014. Implementation of an integrated ticketing and fares system, through the AT HOP card, enabling consistent fares and easy transfers between different bus and ferry operators. Despite these improvements, the lack of investment in Auckland's public transport system throughout the latter part of the 20th century means the city still has much lower levels of ridership than other major cities in Canada and Australia.
Fruitvale Road railway station
Fruitvale Road railway station is on the Western Line of the Auckland railway network. It is including two major high schools; the station was opened on 28 September 1953. In 2006/2007, the station was closed over summer to be upgraded, lengthened for 6-car trains, it is named after a nearby road. The road is not well known, thus new passengers will most have no idea which suburb this station serves, it has been proposed to rename it ` Kelston'. It is quite close to Kelston Shopping Centre, Kelston Girls' College and Kelston Deaf Education Centre. List of Auckland railway stations
Swanson railway station
Swanson railway station is a station on the North Auckland Line in Auckland, New Zealand. Western Line services of the Auckland rail network are operated between the station and Britomart in central Auckland by Transdev, on behalf of Auckland Transport; the station is the northernmost point of the city's electrified network. It became the terminus of the Western Line in July 2015, when urban train services to Waitakere station ceased because the Waitakere-Swanson section of track was not electrified. A bus shuttle service operates between Swanson stations; the current station building was relocated from Avondale railway station following an upgrade there. 1881: The station opened on 18 July. 1920: A signal box was built. 1925: Signal box destroyed by fire following a lightning strike. 1970: Signal box was removed. 1972: Closed to goods. 1972: Buildings replaced by a platform shelter. 1995: Avondale railway station building was relocated here, now Swanson Station Cafe. 2000: New platform on the east side of the tracks.
2008: New platform on the west side of the tracks. 2011: Electrification. 2014: Electrification works completed, station energised. List of Auckland railway stations Media related to Swanson Railway Station, Auckland at Wikimedia Commons