Alfred Ernest Jean III is an American screenwriter and producer. Jean is well known for his work on The Simpsons, he was born and raised near Detroit and graduated from Harvard University in 1981. Jean began his writing career in the 1980s with fellow Harvard alum Mike Reiss. Together, they worked as writers and producers on television shows such as The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, ALF and It's Garry Shandling's Show. Jean was offered a job as a writer on the animated sitcom The Simpsons in 1989, alongside Reiss, together they became the first members of the original writing staff of the show, they served as showrunners during the show's third and fourth seasons, though they left The Simpsons after season four to create The Critic, an animated show about film critic Jay Sherman. It was first broadcast on ABC in January 1994 and was well received by critics, but did not catch on with viewers and only lasted for two seasons. In 1994, Jean and Reiss signed a three-year deal with The Walt Disney Company to produce other television shows for ABC, the duo created and executive-produced Teen Angel, canceled in its first season.
Jean returned full-time to The Simpsons during the tenth season. He became showrunner again with the start of the thirteenth season in 2001, without Reiss, has held that position since. Jean was one of the writers and producers who worked on The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film based on the series, released in 2007. Al Jean was born Alfred Ernest Jean III on January 9, 1961, he was born and raised in Farmington Hills, graduated from Farmington Hills Harrison High School, is of Irish ancestry. Jean arrived at Harvard University when he was sixteen years old and graduated in 1981 with a bachelor's degree in mathematics. Daryl Libow, one of Jean's freshman roommates, said he was a "math whiz" when he arrived at Harvard but "soon blossomed and found his comedic feet." In Holworthy Hall at Harvard, Jean met fellow freshman Mike Reiss. Jeff Martin, another writer for the Lampoon, said "they loomed large around the magazine, they were funny guys and unusually polished comedy writers for that age.
We were never surprised that they went on to success." Jean has stated that the duo spent most of their time at the Lampoon, adding that "it was my second dorm room." He became vice-president of the publication. Jean lives in Los Angeles, California with his wife, television writer Stephanie Gillis; the two were wed in Enniskerry, Ireland in 2002. Jean has two daughters; the humor magazine National Lampoon hired Jean and Reiss after they graduated in 1981. During the 1980s, the duo began collaborating on various television material. During this period they worked as writers and producers on television shows such as The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, ALF, Sledge Hammer! and It's Garry Shandling's Show. In 1989, Jean was offered a job as a writer on the animated sitcom The Simpsons, a show created by Matt Groening, James L. Brooks, Sam Simon that continues to air today. Many of Jean's friends were not interested in working on The Simpsons because it was a cartoon and they did not think it would last long.
Jean, was a fan of the work of Groening and Simon, therefore took the job together with Reiss. The duo became the first members of the original writing staff of The Simpsons and worked on the thirteen episodes of the show's first season. While watching the first episode of the show, "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire", premiering on television in December 1989, Jean opined to himself that the series was the greatest project he had been involved with and desired to continue working on it for the rest of his professional career. What he enjoyed most about The Simpsons at the time was something he recognized from Brooks' previous work: although the show was based on humor, it had depth and warmth. Although Jean has been credited as the sole writer of several episodes of the show, he considers the process to be collaborative: "the principal writer has, at most, written 40% of the script. It's a real team effort." The person, credited as the writer in the episode's opening credits is the person that came up with the idea for the episode and wrote the first draft if he or she only contributed to a small part of the final script.
Jean has stated. She is the character he relates to the most because of their similar childhoods and the fact that he has a daughter. Jean became show runner of The Simpsons at the start of the third season together with Reiss. A show runner has the ultimate responsibility of all the processes that an episode goes through before completion, including the writing, the animation, the voice acting, the music; when Jean began his tenure as show runner, the only thing he thought to himself every day was "Don't blow it and screw up this thing everyone loves." The first episode Jean and Reiss ran was "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", they felt a lot of pressure on them to make it good, they were so pressured that they did six to seven rewrites of the script in order to improve its humor. Jean said. It's not good enough.'" Reiss added that "we were scared. We had never run anything before, they dumped us on this."Jean and Reiss served as show runners until the end of the fourth season in 1993. Since the show had established itself in the first two seasons, they were able to give it more depth during their tenur
Springfield (The Simpsons)
Springfield is a fictional town in the American animated sitcom The Simpsons, which serves as its main setting. A mid-sized town in an undetermined state of the United States, Springfield acts as a complete universe in which characters can explore the issues faced by modern society; the geography of the town and its surroundings are flexible, changing to address whatever an episode's plot calls for. Springfield's location is impossible to determine, the show is deliberately evasive on the subject, providing contradictory clues and information about its location. Springfield is intended to represent "anytown, USA" and not be a specific real town, although the producers acknowledge basing the town on numerous locations including The Simpsons creator Matt Groening's hometown of Portland and Mike Scully's hometown, Massachusetts. Groening named Springfield after Springfield and took inspiration from Springfield being the fictitious setting of the series Father Knows Best, he said, "I figured out that Springfield was one of the most common names for a city in the U.
S. In anticipation of the success of the show, I thought,'This will be cool, and they do." Groening liked Second City Television's use of Melonville, a town with a large cast of recurring characters that serves as a mini-universe for the show, based The Simpsons on it. Because of the many contradictory statements regarding Springfield, it is impossible for the town to exist in a specific state. In The Simpsons Movie, Ned Flanders tells Bart that the state where Springfield is located is bordered by the states of Ohio, Nevada and Kentucky - of which only Ohio and Kentucky are real neighboring states; the city's unknown and unknowable geography is a recurring joke in the series. But if you look at the clues, you can figure it out." Episodes make fun of the fact that Springfield's state is unidentifiable by adding further conflicting descriptions, obscuring onscreen map representations, interrupting conversational references. The 2012 episode "Beware My Cheating Bart" played upon the unidentifiability of the state in its opening chalkboard gag, which stated that "The true location of Springfield is in any state but yours".
David Silverman, who directed the movie and various episodes of the series, joked that Springfield is located in the fictional state of "North Takoma". This is substantiated by the state abbreviations TA used within the show; the telephone area codes for Springfield are 636 and 939. To promote The Simpsons Movie, various actual towns and cities across the U. S. called. The town of Springfield, was chosen. In 2016, a New York Times study of the 50 TV shows with the most Facebook Likes found that "of all the Springfields in America, is most popular in Springfields in Virginia and New Jersey, least popular in Springfields in Louisiana and Georgia". Springfield was founded in 1796 by a group led by Jebediah Springfield who, after misinterpreting a passage in the Bible, left Maryland trying to find "New Sodom." After he refused to found a town where men were free to marry their cousins, half of the group left. The dissenters founded the nearby town of Shelbyville, after fellow pioneer Shelbyville Manhattan, the two cities remain rivals after centuries.
Springfield reached its pinnacle in the mid-20th century, when it became the home of the world's first Aquacar factory. S. was said to wear Springfield galoshes and Springfield's streets were paved with gold. The town's prosperity faded. Springfield's geography is varied, including forests, mountain ranges, a desert, a gorge, a glacier, badlands, swamps, a harbor and waterways. Major named geographical features include Springfield Gorge, Springfield National Forest, the volcanic Mt. Springfield, the West Springfield Desert, the Springfield Badlands, the gigantic Murderhorn Mountain, Springfield Glacier, Mt. Useful National Park, Springfield Mesa, Springfield Monument Park, Springfield National Park; the town's climate is dry and sunny, with a bright blue sky. However, it has been subject to many natural disasters, including heat waves, avalanches, acid rain, hurricanes, lightning strikes and volcanic eruptions. Springfield's environment is unusually polluted. Overflowing garbage forced the whole town – both population and structures — to move five miles away from the massive dump that the old town of Springfield had become.
Springfield is unfortunately, home to the state's largest self-sustaining tire fire, burning continuously for many decades. Lake Springfield's pollution led to the town's destruction by an Environmental Protection Agency bomb, pollution from the nuclear power plant has mutated the fish in the river, with the Nuclear Power Plant's mascot being Blinky, with three eyes, its atmosphere proved to have such a thick and acidic pollution layer that it once reduced a comet to a tiny rock the size of a chihuahua's head. In politics, the mayor of Springfield is Joe Quimby, while the town's represe
Patty and Selma
Patty and Selma Bouvier are fictional characters in the American animated sitcom The Simpsons. They are both voiced by Julie Kavner, they are Marge Simpson's older twin sisters, who both work at the Springfield Department of Motor Vehicles, possess a strong dislike for their brother-in-law, Homer Simpson. Selma is the elder by two minutes, longs for male companionship while her sister, Patty, is a lesbian. Kavner voices them as characters who "suck the life out of everything". Patty and Selma first appeared on the first aired Simpsons episode "Simpsons Roasting On An Open Fire", which aired on December 17, 1989. Although the two have a similar look, there are several easy ways. Notable differences include: Hairstyle: Patty has an afro, while Selma's textured hair is parted in the middle to form an "M". Attire: Patty wears a short-sleeved pink dress and pink shoes while Selma wears a hemmed sleeveless blue dress and blue shoes. Earrings: Patty wears orange or blue triangular earrings while Selma wears purple or orange circular earrings.
Necklace: Patty wears orange or blue spherical beads while Selma wears purple or orange elliptical beadsIn the episode "The Blue and the Gray", it is revealed that Selma is a blonde, while Patty is a redhead. Their hair has turned blue-gray from long-term exposure to cigarette ash. Seen apart and Selma are known for their distinctive gravelly voices, their cynical outlook on life, their bitter and unpleasant personalities, their love of cigarettes, they share an apartment at the Spinster City apartment complex and both work at the DMV. The two are avid, sometimes maniacal fans of MacGyver; the two seem to smoke a cigarette after every viewing of the show. When Jay Sherman, on advice from Homer, told Patty and Selma that MacGyver is gay, they stripped him to his boxers and hung him from the gutters. On the eve of Selma's marriage to Sideshow Bob, he insulted MacGyver and the wedding was cancelled as a result. Selma and Patty once met the actor who portrayed MacGyver, Richard Dean Anderson, kidnapped him.
Patty and Selma have taken many vacations together to various places including Czechoslovakia and the Dead Sea, where Selma sunk to the bottom when she attempted to float on her back. Patty and Selma have brought home "souvenirs" from their vacations, including a pillowcase full of seashells from their trip to Sulfur Bay that they forced the family to help them clean and organize, they drove away Richard Dean Anderson by showing him slides of their trip to the Remington Carriage Museum in Cardston, Alberta. Patty and Selma have a strong, mutually reciprocated dislike for their brother-in-law Homer, they regret that Marge chose Homer over her former boyfriend Artie Ziff, have unsuccessfully tried to help Artie win her back. However, Marge made it clear to her sisters that she loves Homer and there's nothing they can do to change her mind. Homer tries to be polite to them out of respect for Marge, but Patty and Selma do not hide their contempt for him, they showed little concern. While he was undergoing bypass surgery, they tried to set Marge up with a sleazy man named Andre.
They own a tombstone inscribed with the epitaph "Homer J. Simpson. We are richer for having lost him" and use it as a coffee table, stick pins in a voodoo doll which looks like Homer and commissioned a billboard urging voters to evict Homer from Springfield. Patty and Selma once kidnapped Homer and imprisoned him in a cellar in the hope that Marge would find someone else. Moved to tears by his obvious devotion to Marge, they let; when Homer contemplated suicide, they encouraged him to go through with it and pushed him off the bridge. They have given stoner Otto Mann a driver's license due to their mutual dislike for Homer, deliberately failed Homer on his limousine driver's test. For his part, Homer regards them as the "Gruesome Twosome" or "Fatty and Smellma" and was delighted when he heard they had died; as children and Selma were domineering towards Marge and ridiculed her ambition of becoming an astronaut. In return for their allowance, Marge used to do chores for them; the free time they now had led to them taking up smoking.
As adults, the Bouvier twins have a friendly relationship with their sister and seem protective of her and thus visit the Simpsons. They seem fond of their nieces and nephew, but seem to like them more when they are young, as one of them remarks "The older they get, the cuter they ain't." On occasions, they babysit Bart and Maggie, something not relished by the kids. Bart and Lisa were left traumatized when they had to stay with their aunts for a week while a stressed out Marge left for Rancho Relaxo. Maggie got to stay with Homer instead, their idea of bonding with Lisa includes tutoring her in the belief that men are pigs, using Homer as the prime example, which disgusts her as he is her father and despite his not paying attention to her, Lisa knows Homer loves her. Patty Bouvier is the younger of the two. Despite the similarities between her and Selma, Patty is more jaded than her sister towards relationships, it was once said by Marge that Patty chose a life of celibacy, that Selma had it thrust upon her.
Her decision to not have relationships has been implied to be due to her closeted sexuality. Patty is more hostile to Homer than Selma is. However, when Patty came out as a lesbian, she found a surprising supporter in Homer, she swal
Polygamy is the practice of marrying multiple spouses. When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, sociologists call this polygyny; when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry. If a marriage includes multiple husbands and wives, it can be called a group marriage or mixed-orientation marriage. In contrast, monogamy is marriage consisting of only two parties. Like "monogamy", the term "polygamy" is used in a de facto sense, applied regardless of whether the state recognizes the relationship. In sociobiology and zoology, researchers use polygamy in a broad sense to mean any form of multiple mating. Worldwide, different societies variously encourage, outlaw polygamy. Of societies which allow or tolerate polygamy, in the vast majority of cases the form accepted is polygyny. According to the Ethnographic Atlas, of 1,231 societies noted, 588 had frequent polygyny, 453 had occasional polygyny, 186 were monogamous and 4 had polyandry. From a religious point of view, "The bible shows over 36 named men who had more than one wife."
In cultures which practice polygamy, its prevalence among that population is connected to class and socioeconomic status. From a legal point of view, in many countries, although marriage is monogamous, adultery is not illegal, leading to a situation of de facto polygamy being allowed, although without legal recognition for non-official "spouses". According to scientific studies, the human mating system is considered to be monogamous, with cultural practice of polygamy to be in the minority, based on both surveys of world populations, on characteristics of human reproductive physiology. Polygamy exists in three specific forms: Polygyny, wherein a man has multiple simultaneous wives Polyandry, wherein a woman has multiple simultaneous husbands Group marriage, wherein the family unit consists of multiple husbands and multiple wives of legal age Polygyny, the practice wherein a man has more than one wife at the same time, is by far the most common form of polygamy. Many Muslim-majority countries and some countries with a sizeable Muslim minority accept polygyny and culturally to varying extents.
Polygyny is more widespread in Africa than in any other continent in West Africa, some scholars see the slave trade's impact on the male-to-female sex ratio as a key factor in the emergence and fortification of polygynous practices in regions of Africa. Anthropologist Jack Goody's comparative study of marriage around the world utilizing the Ethnographic Atlas demonstrated an historical correlation between the practice of extensive shifting horticulture and polygamy in the majority of sub-Saharan African societies. Drawing on the work of Ester Boserup, Goody notes that the sexual division of labour varies between the male-dominated intensive plough-agriculture common in Eurasia and the extensive shifting horticulture found in sub-Saharan Africa. In some of the sparsely-populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place in Africa, women do much of the work; this favours polygamous marriages in which men seek to monopolize the production of women "who are valued both as workers and as child bearers".
Goody, observes that the correlation is imperfect and varied, discusses more traditionally male-dominated though extensive farming systems such as those that exist in much of West Africa in the West African savanna, where polygyny is desired by men more for the generation of male offspring, whose labor is valued. Anthropologists Douglas R. White and Michael L. Burton discuss and support Jack Goody's observation regarding African male farming systems in "Causes of Polygyny: Ecology, Economy and Warfare" where these authors note: Goody argues against the female contributions hypothesis, he notes Dorjahn's comparison of East and West Africa, showing higher female agricultural contributions in East Africa and higher polygyny rates in West Africa the West African savanna, where one finds high male agricultural contributions. Goody says, "The reasons behind polygyny are sexual and reproductive rather than economic and productive", arguing that men marry polygynously to maximize their fertility and to obtain large households containing many young dependent males.
Polygynous marriages fall into two types: sororal polygyny, in which the co-wives are sisters, non-sororal, where the co-wives are not related. Polygyny offers husbands the benefit of allowing them to have more children, may provide them with a larger number of productive workers, allows them to establish politically useful ties with a greater number of kin groups. Senior wives can benefit as well when the addition of junior wives to the family lightens their workload. Wives' senior wives', status in a community can increase through the addition of other wives, who add to the family's prosperity or symbolize conspicuous consumption. For such reasons, senior wives sometimes work hard or contribute from their own resources to enable their husbands to accumulate the bride price for an extra wife. Polygyny may result from the practice of levirate marriage. In such cases, the deceased man's heir may inherit his assets and wife; this provides support for the widow and her children and maintains t
Joseph William Namath, nicknamed Broadway Joe, is a former American football quarterback and actor. He played college football for the University of Alabama under coach Paul "Bear" Bryant from 1962 to 1964, professional football in the American Football League and National Football League during the 1960s and 1970s. Namath was an AFL icon and played for that league's New York Jets for most of his professional football career, he finished his career with the Los Angeles Rams. He was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1985, he retired including playoffs. His teams had an overall record is 68 wins, 71 losses, four ties, 64–64–4 in 132 starts, 4–7 in relief, he completed 1,886 passes for 27,663 yards, threw 173 touchdowns, had 220 interceptions, for a career passer rating of 65.5. He played for three division champions, earned one league championship, one Super Bowl victory. In 1999, he was ranked number 96 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Football Players, the only player on the list to have spent a majority of his career with the Jets.
In his 1975 autobiography, Bryant called Namath the most natural athlete he had coached. Namath is known for boldly guaranteeing a Jets' victory over Don Shula's NFL Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III making good on his prediction with a 16–7 upset. A celebrity, he was now established not only as a sports icon but a pop culture icon, he subsequently parlayed his notoriety into success with endorsement deals and as a nightclub owner, talk show host, pioneering advertising spokesman, motion picture, television actor, sports broadcaster. He remained a recognizable figure in the media and sports worlds nearly half a century after his brashness cemented his identity in the public mind. Namath was born and raised in Beaver Falls and grew up in its Lower End neighborhood, he is the son of Rose and János "John" Andrew Namath, a steelworker. His parents were of Hungarian descent, his Hungarian-born grandfather, András "Andrew" Németh, known as "A. J." to his family and friends, came to Ellis Island on the steamer Pannonia in 1911, worked in the coal and steel industries of the greater Pittsburgh area.
While growing up, Namath was close to both of his parents, who divorced. Following his parents' divorce, he lived with his mother, he was the youngest of four sons, with an older adopted sister. Namath excelled in all sports at Beaver Falls High School and was a standout quarterback in football, guard in basketball, outfielder in baseball. In an age when dunks were uncommon in high school basketball, Namath dunked in games. Coached by Larry Bruno at Beaver Falls, Namath's football team won the WPIAL Class AA championship with a 9–0 record in 1960. Coach Bruno presented Namath to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton. Upon graduation from high school in 1961, he received offers from several Major League Baseball teams, including the Yankees, Reds and Phillies, but football prevailed. Namath told interviewers that he wanted to sign with the Pirates and play baseball like his idol, Roberto Clemente, but elected to play football because his mother wanted him to get a college education, he enrolled at the University of Alabama, but left before graduating in order to pursue a career in professional football.
However, a college degree was conferred on Namath at age 64, after he completed an external-program bachelor of arts degree in interdisciplinary studies at the University of Alabama in 2007. Namath had many offers from Division I college football programs, including Penn State, Ohio State and Notre Dame, but decided upon the University of Maryland after being recruited by Maryland assistant coach Roland Arrigoni, he was rejected by Maryland because his college-board scores were just below the school's requirements. After ample recruiting by Bryant, Namath accepted a full scholarship to attend Alabama. Bryant stated his decision to recruit Namath was "the best coaching decision I made." Between 1962 and 1964, Namath quarterbacked the Alabama Crimson Tide program under Bryant and his offensive coordinator, Howard Schnellenberger. A year after being suspended for the final two games of the season, Namath led the Tide to a national championship in 1964. During his time at the University of Alabama, Namath led the team to a 29–4 record over three seasons.
Bryant called Namath "the greatest athlete I coached". When Namath was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1985, he broke down during his induction speech upon mentioning Bryant, who died from a heart attack in 1983. Namath's time at Alabama was a culture shock for him, as he had grown up in a neighborhood in Pennsylvania, predominantly black, he attended college at the height of the civil rights movement in the Southern United States. Namath refuted the story about being the only white starter on his high school basketball team on The James Brown Show in 2018, where he was the guest, he stated. Namath was eleventh in the balloting for the 1964 Heisman Trophy, won by quarterback John Huarte of Notre Dame. Despite suffering a nagging knee injury in the fourth game of his senior year at Alabama, Namath limped through the undefeated regular season to the Orange Bowl, he was a first-round draft selection by both the NFL and the upstart AFL
The Simpson family consists of fictional characters featured in the animated television series The Simpsons. The Simpsons are a nuclear family consisting of married couple Homer and Marge and their three children Bart and Maggie, they live at 742 Evergreen Terrace in the fictional town of Springfield, United States, they were created by cartoonist Matt Groening, who conceived the characters after his own family members, substituting "Bart" for his own name. The family debuted on Fox on April 19, 1987 in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" and were spun off into their own series, which debuted on Fox in the U. S. on December 17, 1989. Alongside the five main family members, there are a number of other major and minor characters in their family; the most recurring characters are Homer's father Abraham "Grampa" Simpson. Other family members include Homer's mother Mona Simpson, Homer's half-brother Herbert Powell, Marge's mother Jacqueline Bouvier, other minor relatives. Groening conceived of the idea for the Simpsons in the lobby of James L. Brooks's office.
Brooks had asked Groening to pitch an idea for a series of animated shorts, which Groening intended to present as his Life in Hell series. However, when Groening realized that animating Life in Hell would require the rescinding of publication rights for his life's work, he chose another approach and formulated his version of a dysfunctional family, he named the characters after his own family members – his father Homer, his mother Margaret, his younger sisters Lisa and Maggie. He substituted "Bart", an anagram of "brat", for his own name, modeled the character after his older brother, Mark; the five family members were given simple designs so that their facial emotions could be changed with no effort and so that they would be recognizable in silhouette. Groening submitted only basic sketches to the animators and assumed that the figures would be cleaned-up in production. However, the animators re-traced his drawings, which led to the crude appearance of the characters in the initial short episodes.
The Simpson family made their debut on April 19, 1987 in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night". In 1989, the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series airing on the Fox Broadcasting Company; the Simpson family remained the main characters on this new show. Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, Yeardley Smith all began voicing their characters on The Tracey Ullman Show. Nancy Cartwright was the only one of the group, trained to be a voice actor while Castellaneta had done some voice over work in Chicago. Castellaneta and Kavner had been part of the regular cast of The Tracey Ullman Show and voices were needed for the shorts, so the producers decided to ask them to voice Homer and Marge rather than hire more actors; the producers decided to hold casting for the roles of Lisa. Yeardley Smith had been asked to audition for the role of Bart, but casting director Bonita Pietila believed her voice was too high. Smith recalled, "I always sounded too much like a girl. I read two lines as Bart and they said,'Thanks for coming!'"
Smith was given the role of Lisa instead. On March 13, 1987, Nancy Cartwright went in to audition for the role of Lisa. After arriving at the audition, she found that Lisa was described as the "middle child" and at the time did not have much personality. Cartwright became more interested in the role of Bart who she found more fascinating because he was described as "devious, school-hating, clever." Matt Groening let her try out for the part instead, upon hearing her read, gave her the job on the spot. The Simpsons are a family who live in at 742 Evergreen Terrace in the town of Springfield in the United States; the state in which in this town is located is never specified, however they do have snow and sometimes wear sweaters in the fall. It's a running joke in the show to be as vague and ambiguous as possible whenever hinting at which U. S. state. Homer, the father, works as a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, a position at odds with his careless, buffoonish personality.
He is married to a stereotypical American housewife and mother. They have three children: a ten-year-old troublemaker; the family owns a dog, Santa's Little Helper, a cat, Snowball II. Both pets have had starring roles in several seasons. Despite the passing of yearly milestones such as holidays or birthdays, the Simpsons do not physically age and still appear just as they did at the end of the 1980s. Although the family is dysfunctional, many episodes examine their relationships and bonds with each other and they are shown to care about one another. Homer Jay Simpson, voiced by Dan Castellaneta, is the protagonist of the show and the father of the Simpson family, he embodies several American working class stereotypes: he is crude, incompetent, thoughtless and a borderline alcoholic. He has displayed flashes of great intellect and fitness whenever the situation calls for it, an integrity reflecting his own values, including a fierce devotion to and protectiveness of his family, his voice started out as an impression of Walter Matthau but evolved into a more robust voice during the second and third season of the half-hour show, allowing Homer to cover a fuller range of emotions.
Homer has since become one of the most influential fictional characters and has been described by the UK newspaper The Sunday Tim
Daniel Louis Castellaneta is an American actor, voice actor and screenwriter, best known for his long-running role as Homer Simpson on the Fox Broadcasting Company animated sitcom The Simpsons. He voices many other characters for the show including Abraham "Grampa" Simpson, Barney Gumble, Krusty the Clown, Sideshow Mel, Groundskeeper Willie, Mayor Quimby and Hans Moleman. Castellaneta had roles in several other programs, including Futurama for Fox Broadcasting Company and Darkwing Duck for ABC, The Adventures of Dynamo Duck for Fox Kids, Back to the Future: The Animated Series for CBS, Aladdin for Toon Disney, Taz-Mania for Warner Bros. Animation and Hey Arnold! for Nicktoons. In 1999, he appeared in the Christmas special Olive, the Other Reindeer, won an Annie Award for his portrayal of the Postman, he released a comedy album I Am Not Homer, wrote and starred in a one-person show titled Where Did Vincent van Gogh? Daniel Louis Castellaneta was born on October 29, 1957 at Roseland Community Hospital on Chicago's south side and was raised in River Forest and Oak Park, Illinois.
He is of Italian descent, born to Louis Castellaneta. Louis Castellaneta was an amateur actor. Castellaneta became adept at impressions at a young age and his mother enrolled him in an acting class when he was sixteen years old, he would do impressions of the artists. He was a "devotee" of the works of many performers, including Alan Arkin and Barbara Harris and directors Mike Nichols and Elaine May, he attended Oak Park and River Forest High School and upon graduation, started attending Northern Illinois University in the fall of 1975. Castellaneta studied art education, with the goal of becoming an art teacher, he would entertain his students with his impressions. Castellaneta was a regular participant in The Ron Petke and His Dead Uncle Show, a radio show at NIU; the show helped Castellaneta hone his skills as a voice-over actor. He recalled "We did parodies and sketches, we would double up on, so you learned to switch between voices. I got my feet wet doing voiceover; the show was just audible, but we didn't care.
It was the fact that we got a chance to do it and write our own material." He auditioned for an improvisational show. A classmate first thought Castellaneta would "fall on his face with improvisation" but soon "was churning out material faster than could make it work." Castellaneta started acting after his graduation from Northern Illinois University in 1979. He decided, he began taking improvisation classes. He started to work at The Second City, an improvisational theatre in Chicago, in 1983 and continued to work there until 1987. During this period, he did voice-over work with his wife for various radio stations, he auditioned for a role in The Tracey Ullman Show and his first meeting underwhelmed Tracey Ullman and the other producers. Ullman decided to fly to Chicago to watch Castellaneta perform, his performance that night was about a blind man who tries to become a comedian and Ullman recalled that although there were flashier performances that night, Castellaneta made her cry. She was impressed and Castellaneta was hired.
Castellaneta is most famous for his role as Homer Simpson on the longest running animated television show The Simpsons. The Tracey Ullman Show included a series of animated shorts about a dysfunctional family. Voices were needed for the shorts, so the producers decided to ask Castellaneta and fellow cast member Julie Kavner to voice Homer and Marge Simpson rather than hire more actors. Homer's voice began as a loose impression of Walter Matthau, but Castellaneta could not "get enough power behind that voice" and could not sustain his Matthau impression for the nine- to ten-hour long recording sessions, he tried to find something easier, so he "dropped the voice down", developed it into a more versatile and humorous voice during the second and third season of the half-hour show. Castellaneta's normal speaking voice has no similarity to Homer's. To perform Homer's voice, Castellaneta lowers his chin to his chest, is said to "let his IQ go."Castellaneta likes to stay in character during recording sessions, tries to visualize a scene in his mind so that he can give the proper voice to it.
Despite Homer's fame, Castellaneta claims he is recognized in public, "except, maybe, by a die-hard fan." Castellaneta provides the voices for numerous other characters, including Grampa Simpson, Barney Gumble, Krusty the Clown, Groundskeeper Willie, Mayor Quimby, Hans Moleman, Sideshow Mel, Kodos, the Squeaky Voiced Teen and Gil Gunderson. Krusty's voice is based on Chicago television's Bob Bell, who had a raspy voice and portrayed WGN-TV's Bozo the Clown from 1960 to 1984. Barney's trademark is a loud belch. During early recording sessions for the show, he recorded a new version of the belch for every episode but discovered that it was not easy for him to do it every time a script called for it. Castellaneta chose a recording of what he believed was his best belch and told the producers to make that the standard. Groundskeeper Willie's first appearance was in the season two episode "Principal Charming"; the character was written as an angry janitor and Castellaneta was assigned to perform the voice.
He did not know what voice to use and Sam Simon, directing at the time, suggested he use an accent. Castellaneta first tried, he tried a "big dumb Swede", rejected. For his third try, he used the vo