United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public
Quercus alba, the white oak, is one of the preeminent hardwoods of eastern and central North America. It is an oak, native to eastern and central North America and found from Minnesota, Quebec. Specimens have been documented to be over 450 years old, although called a white oak, it is very unusual to find an individual specimen with white bark, the usual color is a light gray. In the forest it can reach a magnificent height and in the open it develops into a massive broad-topped tree with large branches striking out at wide angles. Q. alba typically reaches heights of 80 to 100 feet at maturity, trees growing in a forest will become much taller than ones in an open area which develop to be short and massive. The tallest known white oak is 144 feet tall and it is not unusual for a white oak tree to be as wide as it is tall, but specimens growing at high altitudes may only become small shrubs. White oak may live 200 to 300 years, with even older specimens known. The Wye Oak in Wye Mills, Maryland was estimated to be over 450 years old when it fell in a thunderstorm in 2002.
Another noted white oak is the Great White Oak in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, the tree measures 25 feet in circumference at the base and 16 feet in circumference four feet above the ground. The tree is 75 feet tall, and its branches spread over 125 feet from tip to tip, the oak, claimed to be the oldest in the United States, began showing signs of poor health in the mid-2010s. The tree was declared dead in 2016 and was planned to be taken down in 2017, sexual maturity begins at around 20 years, but the tree does not produce large crops of acorns until its 50th year and the amount varies from year to year. Acorns deteriorate quickly after ripening, the rate being only 10% for six-month-old seeds. As the acorns are prime food for animals and insects, all may be lost in years of small crops, the bark is a light ash-gray and peels somewhat from the top, bottom and/or sides. In spring the young leaves are of a delicate, silvery pink and covered with a soft, blanket-like down. The petioles are short, and the leaves which cluster close to the ends of the shoots are pale green and this condition continues for several days, passing through the opalescent changes of soft pink, silvery white and finally yellow green.
The leaves grow to be 5 to 8.5 inches long and 2.75 to 4.5 inches wide and have a glossy green upper surface. They usually turn red or brown in autumn, but depending on climate, some brown, dead leaves may remain on the tree throughout winter until very early spring. The lobes can be shallow, extending less than halfway to the midrib, or deep, the acorns are usually sessile, and grow to 0.5 to 1 inch in length, falling in early October
Hartford County, Connecticut
Hartford County is a county located in the north central part of the U. S. state of Connecticut. As of the 2010 census, the population was 894,014, Hartford County is included in the Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT Metropolitan Statistical Area. In Connecticut there is no executive or legislative government, the counties determine probate and criminal court boundaries. Each city or town is responsible for services such as schools, snow removal, fire department. In Connecticut and towns may agree to provide services or establish a regional school system. Hartford County was one of four counties in Connecticut established on May 10,1666. And it is ordered that the County Court shalbe kept at Hartford on the 1st Thursday in March, as established in 1666, Hartford County consisted of the towns of Windsor, Hartford and Middletown. The Thirty Miles Island referred to in the constituting Act was incorporated as the town of Haddam in 1668, in 1670, the town of Simsbury was established, extending Hartford County to the Massachusetts border.
In 1714, all of the territory north of the towns of Coventry. Windham County was constituted in 1726, resulting in Hartford County losing the towns of Windham, Mansfield, northwestern Connecticut, which was originally placed under the jurisdiction of New Haven County in 1722, was transferred to Hartford County by 1738. All of northwestern Connecticut was constituted as the new Litchfield County in 1751, in 1785, two more counties were established in what was now the U. S. state of Connecticut and Middlesex. This mostly resulted in the extent of Hartford County. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the establishment of several more towns resulted in minor adjustments in the bounds of the county, the final adjustment resulting in the modern limits occurred on May 8,1806, when the town of Canton was established. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 751 square miles. It is the second-largest county in Connecticut by land area, the county is divided into two unequal parts by the Connecticut River, and watered by Farmington, Podunk and other rivers.
The surface is very diverse, part of the valleys are alluvial and subject to flooding, while other portions of the county are hilly. The population density was 1,166 people per square mile, there were 353,022 housing units at an average density of 480 per square mile. 11. 55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,15. 2% were of Italian,11. 2% Irish,9. 1% Polish,6. 5% English,5. 7% French and 5. 3% German ancestry
Board of selectmen
The board of selectmen is commonly the executive arm of the government of New England towns in the United States. The board typically consists of three or five members, with or without staggered terms, three is the most common number, historically. In most New England towns, the voting population gathered annually in a town meeting to act as the local legislature, approving budgets. However, the towns grew, the more power would be distributed among other elected boards, such as fire wardens. For example, population increases led to the need for police departments. The advent of tarred roads and automobile traffic led to a need for full-time highway maintainers and plowmen, leaving selectmen to serve as Supervisors of Streets and Ways. The function of the board of selectmen differs from state to state, Selectmen almost always serve part-time, with a token or no salary. It is the executive branch of local government in the open town meeting form of government. In larger towns, the daily administrative duties are delegated to a full-time town administrator or town manager.
In some towns, the board of selectmen acts more like a city council, sometimes this is a part-time position, with larger towns hiring a full-time town administrator, who answers to the first selectman. In some towns and cities, the first selectman exercises some of the powers associated with mayors. In Massachusetts and New Hampshire, the presiding selectman is usually called the chairman and is chosen annually by his or her fellow selectmen, in New Hampshire cities, a selectman is an elected position that is responsible for organizing elections for local and federal offices. Three selectmen, a moderator, and a clerk are elected in each city ward, a rare use of the term outside of New England is in Georgetown, where the town governing body is called the Board of Selectmen. Local government in counties and villages, Town Structure and Urban Concepts in New England, The Professional Geographer 16,1. New England town law, a digest of statutes and decisions concerning towns and town officers, New Englands gift to the nation—the township.
The origin and influence of the towns of New England, the Connecticut town-officer, Part I, The powers and duties of towns, as set forth in the statutes of Connecticut, which are recited, pp. 7–97 Zimmerman, Joseph F. The New England Town Meeting, Democracy in Action Praeger Publishers,1999
Greater Hartford is a region located in the U. S. state of Connecticut, centered on the states capital of Hartford. This area of Connecticut is different from other parts of the state in that it is not dependent on metropolitan areas such as New York City or Boston. It is on the level land of the Connecticut River valley with soil less rocky than that of other areas in the state. Hartfords role as a point for the American insurance industry is known nationally. The vibrant music and arts scene defines the regions culture, the regions economy is closely tied with Springfield, Massachusetts, as Hartford and Springfield are twin cities, only 25 miles apart. The area is served by Bradley International Airport, shared with Springfield, although contiguous to Springfields northern border, Westover Metropolitan Airport was briefly marketed as an alternative for Hartford-bound flyers. Hartford is served by Hartford-Brainard Airport, the population of Greater Hartford, had a total population of 1,212,381.
The Capitol Region refers to a group of municipalities that the Capitol Region Council of Governments. Since Connecticut dissolved county governments, counties in the state have become purely ceremonial in nature, in place of county governments are local councils composed of the representatives from municipal governments. Other councils that fall within the Greater Hartford area the Central Connecticut Regional Planning Agency, New England City and Town Areas are cluster of cities and towns throughout all of New England defined by the Office of Management and Budget. The United States Census Bureau defines the Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, the area contains 54 towns of Hartford County, Tolland County, and Middlesex County. The 2015 population estimate for the MSA is 1,211,324 and is ranked as the 47th largest metropolitan area by population in the United States. The MSA definition of the area contains a significant portion of the Lower Connecticut River Valley, a region very similar to the MSA is covered by the combination of the Hartford Service Delivery Area and the Mid-Connecticut Service Delivery Area, covering 56 towns.
The Hartford Metropolitan Statistical Area in combined with the Norwich-New London MSA in an entity known as the Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of 2015, the population of the CSA was 1,483,187 and it houses two theaters within the complex, the 2, 800-seat Mortensen Hall and the 906-seat Belding Theater. Other theaters in the include the Hartford Stage and TheatreWorks. The area is home to the Xfinity Theatre, a 7. The lawn outside the theater is capable of holding roughly 22,500 people, the Connecticut Convention Center is located in downtown Hartford adjacent to the Hartford Marriot Downtown
John Manners, Marquess of Granby
Lieutenant-General John Manners, Marquess of Granby PC was a British soldier and the eldest son of the 3rd Duke of Rutland. As he did not outlive his father and inherit the dukedom, he was known by his fathers subsidiary title, Granby served in the Seven Years War as overall commander of the British troops on the battlefield and was subsequently rewarded with the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Forces. He was popular with his troops and many houses are still named after him today. Born the eldest son of the 3rd Duke of Rutland and Bridget Manners, John Manners was educated at Eton, leaving in 1732, in 1740 he went to Italy on the Grand Tour travelling eastwards to Turkey, returning in 1742. Four years he received a commission as colonel of a regiment raised by the Duke of Rutland to assist in quelling the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745, very soon his regiment was disbanded, but he retained his rank and campaigned in Flanders in 1747. Based in Newcastle they had mutinied as unpaid, Granby paid the money owed out of his own pocket.
Thereafter he left England for Flanders as Intelligence Officer to Cumberland, in 1752, the Government suggested to George II that Granby be appointed colonel of the prestigious Royal Horse Guards, in order to secure the parliamentary support of his family. The king initially refused to make the appointment, in the meantime, Granby advanced his parliamentary career, and was returned for Cambridgeshire in 1754. Though he despised faction in government, he allied himself with Viscount Royston, the knight of the shire. The king came to him more favorably, and he defended the Newcastle ministry in the House of Commons. He was promoted major-general on 18 March 1755, and was at last made Colonel of the Blues in on 27 May 1758, on 21 August, Granby arrived at Munster as second in command to Lord George Sackville, as the aged Duke of Marlborough had recently died. The British cavalry were divided into Heavy and Light cavalry, and drilled under the influence of George Elliot. Accredited as the greatest colonel since the Earl of Oxford, Granby was both courageous and competent as a soldier and he was appointed overall commander of the expedition replacing Sackville on 21 August 1759.
He became Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance on 15 September 1759 and he was one of the first who understood the importance of welfare and morale for the troops. The character of British soldiering improved, and properly led the army was unbeatable in war, nearly all the portraits show mounting a horse, or helping the wounded. On 7 June 1760 he wrote to Viscount Barrington, Secretary at War, Granby was sent to Paderborn in command of a cavalry brigade. While leading a charge at the Battle of Warburg, he is said to have lost his hat and wig, forcing him to salute his commander without them. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1759, that year he fought at the Battle of Minden as commander of the line of cavalry under Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
The Berkshires is a highland geologic region located in the western parts of Massachusetts and Connecticut. Also referred to as the Berkshire Hills, Berkshire Mountains, and Berkshire Plateau, the region enjoys a vibrant tourism industry based on music, geologically, the mountains are a range of the Appalachian Mountains. The Berkshires was named among the 200 Last Great Places by The Nature Conservancy, the term The Berkshires has overlapping but non-identical political and geographic definitions. The cultural region includes the Taconic Mountains bordering New York, southwest Vermont and the Taconic region of New York are occasionally grouped with the Berkshires cultural region. Sir Francis Bernard, the Royal Governor, named the area Berkshire to honor his home county in England. They are on the average 1,000 ft lower and less prominent than the Green Mountains of Vermont, erosion over hundreds of millions of years wore these mountains down to the hills that we see today. The average regional elevation of the Berkshires ranges from about 700 to 1,200 feet and his men continued east through the Berkshires and finally arrived in Boston.
This feat, known as the Noble train of artillery, was accomplished in the dead of winter, the Berkshires lie within the New England-Acadian forests ecoregion. Each region is distinct from the others providing a unique habitat assemblage, much of the Hoosic and Housatonic River Valleys have underlying bedrock limestone and marble which contribute to calcareous wetlands unique in Massachusetts. The alkaline pH waters support a diversity of plants and animals intolerant of more acidic waters, combined with the rich mesic forests ranging from the northern hardwood to the taiga or sub-alpine, makes for a valuable, biologically diverse ecosystem. Today, efforts are being made on behalf of many organizations to preserve and manage this region for biological diversity, recreation directly related to this ecology is a popular area for trout fishing, and the areas relative pristineness contributes to the popularity of nature walks in the region. See also, Natural History of the Berkshires The Berkshires are a popular year-round premiere tourist destination and vacation getaway, the Berkshires are less than 3 hours from New York City and Boston and offer culture and adventure year-round.
The Berkshires is a destination with a cultural scene to rival far larger urban dwellings. The area includes Bash Bish Falls, the tallest waterfall in Massachusetts, the Berkshires are home to dozens of summer camps, some of which date back to the turn of the 20th century. At Williams College, the Chapin Library displays a selection of rare books. The Kripalu Center of Stockbridge, North Americas largest residential facility for health and education
1910 United States Census
The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation. The column titles in the form are as follows, LOCATION. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation, Number of family in order of visitation. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15,1910, was in this family, enter surname first, the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15,1910, omit children born since April 15,1910. Relationship of this person to the head of the family, whether single, widowed, or divorced. Number of years of present marriage, Mother of how many children, Number born. Mother of how children, Number now living. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated, if born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country, place of birth of this Person. Place of birth of Father of this person, place of birth of Mother of this person. Year of immigration to the United States, whether able to speak English, or, if not, give language spoken.
Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by person, as spinner, laborer. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, farm. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account, whether out of work on April 15,1910. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909, attended school any time since September 1,1909. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy, special Notation, In 1912, New Mexico and Arizona would become the 47th and 48th states admitted to the Union. The 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301 and 204,354 respectively
The white-tailed deer, known as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia. It has introduced to New Zealand, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles, and some countries in Europe, such as Finland, the Czech Republic. In the Americas, it is the most widely distributed wild ungulate, in North America, the species is widely distributed east of the Rocky Mountains, but elsewhere, it is mostly replaced by the black-tailed or mule deer. Some taxonomists have attempted to separate white-tailed deer into a host of subspecies, genetic studies, suggest fewer subspecies within the animals range, as compared to the 30 to 40 subspecies that some scientists described in the last century. The Florida Key deer, O. virginianus clavium, and the Columbian white-tailed deer, in the United States, the Virginia white-tail, O. virginianus virginianus, is among the most widespread subspecies. The white-tailed deer species has tremendous genetic variation and is adaptable to several environments, several local deer populations, especially in the southern states, are descended from white-tailed deer transplanted from various localities east of the Continental Divide.
Some of these populations may have been from as far north as the Great Lakes region to as far west as Texas, yet are quite at home in the Appalachian. These deer over time have intermixed with the indigenous deer populations. Central and South America have a number of white-tailed deer subspecies that range from Guatemala as far south as Peru. This list of subspecies of deer is more exhaustive than the list of North American subspecies, the white-tailed deer populations in these areas are difficult to study, due to overhunting in many parts and a lack of protection. Some areas no longer carry deer, so it is difficult to assess the genetic difference of these animals, the deer can be recognized by the characteristic white underside to its tail. It raises its tail when it is alarmed to warn the predator that it has been detected, a population of white-tailed deer in New York is entirely white —not albino—in color. The former Seneca Army Depot in Romulus, New York, has the largest known concentration of white deer, strong conservation efforts have allowed white deer to thrive within the confines of the depot.
White-tailed deers horizontally slit pupils allow for night vision and color vision during the day. The white-tailed deer is highly variable in size, generally following Bergmanns rule that the size is larger farther away from the Equator. North American male deer usually weigh 45 kilograms, but in rare cases, mature bucks over 180 kilograms have been recorded in the northernmost reaches of their native range, specifically and Ontario. In 1926, Carl J. Lenander, Jr. took a white-tailed buck near Tofte, MN, the female in North America usually weighs from 40 to 90 kg. White-tailed deer from the tropics and the Florida Keys are markedly smaller-bodied than temperate populations, averaging 35 to 50 kg, white-tailed deer from the Andes are larger than other tropical deer of this species and have thick, slightly woolly looking fur
Southwick is a town in Hampden County, United States. The population was 9,502 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. Southwick was originally inhabited by either the Matitacooke, Mayawaug or Woronoake tribes of Native Americans, in the mid-17th century, pioneering English explorers moving up the Connecticut River Valley, seeking fertile farmlands and game, discovered the area and settled Southwick. It became a community, defined as the Southern village part of the town of Westfield. In colonial times, church attendance was mandatory, the 800 Christian residents of Southwick in the 1760–70s were required to travel to Westfield to congregate. Only by establishing their own community could they establish their own parish. On November 7,1770, Southwick was incorporated as a district of Westfield. The area of Southwick became somewhat smaller in 1770, the southernmost portion of Southwick joined Suffield, Connecticut, as the result of a simultaneous secession of citizens in that part of the village.
Ultimately, Southwick became an independent town in 1770. The town remained divided until 1793, when Massachusetts claimed the area, a border dispute continued until 1804, when the current boundary was established through a compromise between Connecticut and Massachusetts. As a result of this resolution, Southwick is the southernmost town in western Massachusetts. In the early 19th century, the Farmington Canal and Hampshire and Hampden Canal was built to link New Haven, Connecticut, to Northampton, irish immigrants came to the area to labor on this project. Developers spoke of Southwicks potential, calling it the Port of the World, farmers conflicted with the prospect that the canal would drain the Lakes. It was reported that citizens would kick in the banks to damage the canal, traces of the canal can still be found in the Great Brook and Congamond Lakes area. Due to winter freezings, summer drought and wildlife impact, the canal was phased out in favor of the railroad, completed in the late 1840s, the New York/New Haven Railroad was built alongside the canal as a revolutionary mode of travel to and through Southwick.
With the railroad came the ice industry and the tourist resorts around the Congamond Lakes, several ornate hotels and dance halls were built as well as a small amusement park. There was a stop near the Lakes where visitors would disembark to swim and/or pile into canopied pleasure boats. During the First and Second World Wars, trains loaded with soldiers would pass through town and it has been noted that local girls would gather letters thrown by the soldiers from the train - and forward them to the intended recipients at the Post Office
American black bear
The American black bear is a medium-sized bear native to North America. It is the continents smallest and most widely distributed bear species, Black bears are omnivores, with their diets varying greatly depending on season and location. They typically live in forested areas, but do leave forests in search of food. Sometimes they become attracted to human communities because of the availability of food. The American black bear is the worlds most common bear species, along with the brown bear, it is one of only two of the eight modern bear species not considered globally threatened with extinction by the IUCN. American black bears often mark trees using their teeth and claws as a form of communication with other bears, a behavior common to many species of bears. Despite living in North America, American black bears are not closely related to bears and polar bears. American and Asian black bears are considered sister taxa, and are closely related to each other than to other species of bear. Reportedly, the sun bear is a recent split from this lineage.
A small primitive bear called Ursus abstrusus is the oldest known North American fossil member of the genus Ursus and this suggests that U. abstrusus may be the direct ancestor of the American black bear, which evolved in North America. Although Wolverton and Lyman still consider U. vitabilis an apparent precursor to modern black bears, the ancestors of American black bears and Asiatic black bears diverged from sun bears 4.58 mya. The American black bear split from the Asian black bear 4.08 mya, the earliest American black bear fossils, which were located in Port Kennedy, greatly resemble the Asiatic species, though specimens grew to sizes comparable to grizzlies. From the Holocene to present, American black bears seem to have shrunk in size, the American black bear lived during the same period as short-faced bears and the Florida spectacled bear. These Tremarctine bears evolved from bears that had emigrated from Asia to North America 7–8 ma, both Arctodus and Tremarctos had survived several other ice ages.
American black bears are reproductively compatible with several other bear species, according to Jack Hannas Monkeys on the Interstate, a bear captured in Sanford, was thought to have been the offspring of an escaped female Asian black bear and a male American black bear. In 1859, a bear and a Eurasian brown bear were bred together in the London Zoological Gardens. In the reports published since this date three species have produced young, a black bear shot in autumn 1986 in Michigan was thought by some to be a black bear/grizzly bear hybrid, due to its unusually large size and its proportionately larger braincase and skull. DNA testing was unable to determine whether it was a black bear or grizzly