World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
Benjamin Harrison was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd president of the United States from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison, creating the only grandfather–grandson duo to have held the office, he was a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a founding father. Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison had established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. During the American Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a colonel, was confirmed by the U. S. Senate as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers in 1865. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876; the Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U. S. Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1887. A Republican, Harrison was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. Hallmarks of Harrison's administration included unprecedented economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff, which imposed historic protective trade rates, the Sherman Antitrust Act.
Harrison facilitated the creation of the national forest reserves through an amendment to the Land Revision Act of 1891. During his administration six western states were admitted to the Union. In addition, Harrison strengthened and modernized the U. S. Navy and conducted an active foreign policy, but his proposals to secure federal education funding as well as voting rights enforcement for African Americans were unsuccessful. Due in large part to surplus revenues from the tariffs, federal spending reached one billion dollars for the first time during his term; the spending issue in part led to the defeat of the Republicans in the 1890 mid-term elections. Cleveland defeated Harrison for re-election in 1892, due to the growing unpopularity of the high tariff and high federal spending. Harrison returned to his law practice in Indianapolis. In 1899 Harrison represented the Republic of Venezuela in their British Guiana boundary dispute against the United Kingdom. Harrison traveled to the court of Paris as part of the case and after a brief stay returned to Indianapolis.
He died at his home in Indianapolis in 1901 of complications from influenza. Although many have praised Harrison's commitment to African Americans' voting rights and historians regard his administration as below-average, rank him in the bottom half among U. S. presidents. Historians, have not questioned Harrison's commitment to personal and official integrity. Benjamin Harrison was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, the second of Elizabeth Ramsey and John Scott Harrison's ten children, his paternal ancestors were the Harrison family of Virginia, whose immigrant ancestor, Benjamin Harrison I, arrived in Jamestown, circa 1630 from England. Harrison was of English ancestry, all of his ancestors having emigrated to America during the early colonial period; the future President was a grandson of U. S. President William Henry Harrison and a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a Virginia planter who signed the Declaration of Independence and succeeded Thomas Jefferson as governor of Virginia.
Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected U. S. president, but he did not attend the inauguration. Although Harrison's family was distinguished, his parents were not wealthy. John Scott Harrison, a two-term U. S. congressman from Ohio, spent much of his farm income on his children's education. Despite the family's modest resources, Harrison's boyhood was enjoyable, much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting. Benjamin Harrison's early schooling took place in a log cabin near his home, but his parents arranged for a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies. Fourteen-year-old Harrison and his older brother, enrolled in Farmer's College near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1847, he attended the college for two years and while there met his future wife, Caroline "Carrie" Lavinia Scott, a daughter of John Witherspoon Scott, the school's science professor, a Presbyterian minister. In 1850, Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford and graduated in 1852, he joined the Phi Delta Theta fraternity.
He was a member of Delta Chi, a law fraternity which permitted dual membership. Classmates included John Alexander Anderson, who became a six-term U. S. congressman, Whitelaw Reid, Harrison's vice presidential running mate in 1892. At Miami, Harrison was influenced by history and political economy professor Robert Hamilton Bishop. Harrison joined a Presbyterian church at college and, like his mother, became a lifelong Presbyterian. After his college graduation in 1852, Harrison studied law with Judge Bellamy Storer of Cincinnati, but before he completed his studies, he returned to Oxford, Ohio, to marry Caroline Scott on October 20, 1853. Caroline's father, a Presbyterian minister, performed the ceremony; the Harrisons had Russell Benjamin Harrison and Mary "Mamie" Scott Harrison. Harrison and his wife returned to live at The Point, his father's farm in southwestern Ohio, while he finished his law studies. Harrison was admitted to the Ohio bar in early 1854, the same year he sold property that he had inherited after the death of an aunt for $800, used the funds to move with Caroline to Indianapolis, Indiana.
Harrison began practicing law in the office of John H. Ray in 1854 and became a crier for the federal court in Indianapolis, for which he was paid $2.50 per day. He served as a Commissioner for the U. S. Court of Claims. Harrison bec
Mohave County, Arizona
Mohave County is in the northwestern corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 200,186; the county seat is Kingman, the largest city is Lake Havasu City. Mohave County includes the Lake Havasu City-Kingman, Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Las Vegas-Henderson, Nevada-Arizona Combined Statistical Area. Mohave County contains parts of Grand Canyon National Park and Lake Mead National Recreation Area and all of the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument; the Kaibab, Fort Mojave and Hualapai Indian Reservations lie within the county. Mohave County was the one of four original Arizona Counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature; the county territory was defined as being west of longitude 113° 20' and north of the Bill Williams River. Pah-Ute County was created from it in 1865 and was merged back into Mohave County in 1871 when much of its territory was ceded to Nevada in 1866; the county's present boundaries were established in 1881.
The county is notable for being home to a large polygamous Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints sect located in Colorado City. Mohave County has had five county seats: Mohave City, Cerbat, Mineral Park, Kingman. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 13,461 square miles, of which 13,311 square miles is land and 150 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county by area in Arizona and the fifth-largest in the contiguous United States. The county consists of two sections divided by the Grand Canyon, with no direct land communication between them; the northern section and less populated, forms the western part of the Arizona Strip, bordering Utah and Nevada. The larger southern section borders Nevada and California across the Colorado River, which forms most of the county's western boundary; the southern section includes Kingman, the county seat, other cities, as well as part of the Mojave Desert. Washington County, Utah - north Kane County, Utah - northeast Coconino County - east Yavapai County - east La Paz County - south San Bernardino County, California - southwest Clark County, Nevada - west Lincoln County, Nevada - northwestMohave County and its adjacent counties form the largest such block of counties outside of Alaska.
Their combined land area is larger than that of the state of Idaho. They include the #1, #2, #5, #7 largest counties outside of Alaska. Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge Grand Canyon National Park Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Kaibab National Forest Lake Mead National Recreation Area Pipe Spring National MonumentThere are 18 official wilderness areas in Mohave County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Most of these are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral parts of the preceding protected areas, or have shared jurisdiction with the BLM; some extend into neighboring counties All wilderness areas within Grand Canyon-Parashant NM are managed by BLM, although the National Monument shares management with the National Park Service: Arrastra Mountain Wilderness in Yavapai County, AZ and La Paz County, AZ Aubrey Peak Wilderness Beaver Dam Mountains Wilderness in Washington County, UT Cottonwood Point Wilderness Grand Wash Cliffs Wilderness managed by BLM Havasu Wilderness in San Bernardino County, CA Kanab Creek Wilderness in Coconino County, AZ Mount Logan Wilderness managed by BLM Mount Nutt Wilderness Mount Tipton Wilderness Mount Trumbull Wilderness managed by BLM Mount Wilson Wilderness Paiute Wilderness managed by BLM Rawhide Mountains Wilderness in La Paz County, AZ Swansea Wilderness in La Paz County, AZ Upper Burro Creek Wilderness in Yavapai County, AZ Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Warm Springs Wilderness As of the 2000 census, there were 155,032 people, 62,809 households, 43,401 families residing in the county.
The population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 80,062 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.06% White, 0.54% Black or African American, 2.41% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 4.00% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races. 11.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 62,809 households out of which 25.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 24.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.87. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.10% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 20.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years.
For every 100 females there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,521, the median income for a family was $36,311. Males had a median income of $28,505 versus $20,632 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,788. About 9.80% of families and 13.90% o
Grand Canyon Village, Arizona
Grand Canyon Village is a census-designated place located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, in Coconino County, Arizona, in the United States. Its population was 2,004 at the 2010 Census. Located in Grand Canyon National Park, it is wholly focused on accommodating tourists visiting the canyon, its origins trace back to the railroad completed from Williams, Arizona, to the canyon's South Rim by the Santa Fe Railroad in 1901. Many of the structures in use today date from that period; the village contains numerous landmark buildings, its historic core is a National Historic Landmark District, designated for its outstanding implementation of town design. Grand Canyon Village is located at 36°02′57″N 112°09′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 13.4 square miles, all of it land. It is located 180 miles north of Phoenix, 168 miles from Las Vegas, although the journey by car from the latter is longer, at 280 miles; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,460 people, 651 households, 345 families residing in the CDP.
The population density was 108.6 people per square mile. There were 791 housing units at an average density of 100.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 73.70% White, 1.58% Black or African American, 18.84% Native American, 0.89% Asian, 0.27% Pacific Islander, 1.85% from other races, 2.88% from two or more races. 10.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 651 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.1% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.9% were non-families. 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 0.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.84. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 20.5% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 41.2% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, 2.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.1 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $42,083, the median income for a family was $53,676. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $23,565 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $19,923. About 1.7% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.9% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. The area is served by the Grand Canyon Unified School District. Grand Canyon Shuttle operates airport shuttles 24/7 on the North and South Rim from Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport; the Grand Canyon Railway connects the Grand Canyon Depot in Grand Canyon Village with the Williams Depot in Williams, Arizona. Connections are offered to Amtrak's Williams Junction station; the National Park Service operates free shuttle buses on the South Rim. The following is a brief description the images of some of the historic structures and plaques in the Grand Canyon Village; the Grand Canyon Railroad Depot – the depot was built in 1901 and is within the Grand Canyon Village Historic District.
It is one of three remaining railroad depots in the United States built with logs as the primary material. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on September 6, 1974, reference #74000343, it was declared a National Historic Landmark on May 28, 1987. The Horace M. Albright Training Center – the training center was established in 1963, is located on Albright Street within the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, it is the primary training facility for new permanent NPS employees. El Tovar Hotel -- was operated by the Fred Harvey Company, it is located in the Grand Canyon National Park, Rte 8A. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on September 6, 1974, reference #74000334, it was declared a National Historic Landmark on May 28m 1987. El Tovar Stables – were built in 1904 and is located in the Grand Canyon National Park, Rte 8A, it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on September 6, 1974, reference #74000336. AT& SF Employee residence – the employee residences were built between 1924 and 1933.
The residence pictured is located on Apache Street in the Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon Power House – the power house was built in 1926 and located in the Grand Canyon National Park, it was Designated a National Landmark and listed in the National Register of Historic Places on May 28, 1987, reference #87001411. The Bright Angel Lodge – the lodge was built in 1935, it was designed by architect Mary Jane Colter and is located within the Grand Canyon Village Historic District. The Buck O’Neil Cabin – the cabin was built in 1890 by William “Buckey” O’Neil. Among the occupations which O’Neil had during his lifetime were that author and judge in Arizona, he was a member of the Rough Riders and in Cuba he was killed in action. The cabin is the oldest extant structure on the South Rim; the Hopi House – built in 1904, by the Fred Harvey Company and designed by architect Mary Jane Colter. It is located within the Grand Canyon Village Historic District, it was Designated a National Landmark and listed in the National Register of Historic Places on May 28, 1987, reference #87001436.
The Look-Out Studio – designed by architect Mary Jane Colter it was built in 1914. It is located within the Grand Canyon Village Historic District, it was Designated a National Landmark and listed in the National Register of Historic Places on May 28, 1987, reference #87001436. The Kolb Studio – a historic structure situated on the edge of the South Rim of the Grand Canyon in Grand Canyon Villagewithin Grand Canyon
Wonders of the World
Various lists of the Wonders of the World have been compiled from antiquity to the present day, to catalogue the world's most spectacular natural wonders and manmade structures. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the first known list of the most remarkable creations of classical antiquity; the number seven was chosen because the Greeks believed it represented perfection and plenty, because it was the number of the five planets known anciently, plus the sun and moon. Many similar lists have been made; the historian Herodotus and the scholar Callimachus of Cyrene, at the Museum of Alexandria, made early lists of seven wonders. Their writings have not survived, except as references; the classic seven wonders were: Great Pyramid of the only one that still exists. Colossus of Rhodes Hanging Gardens of Babylon Lighthouse of Alexandria Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Statue of Zeus at Olympia Temple of Artemis at Ephesus In the 19th and early 20th centuries, some writers wrote their own lists with names such as Wonders of the Middle Ages, Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages, Seven Wonders of the Medieval Mind, Architectural Wonders of the Middle Ages.
However, it is unlikely that these lists originated in the Middle Ages, because the word "medieval" was not invented until the Enlightenment-era, the concept of a Middle Age did not become popular until the 16th century. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable refers to them as "later list", suggesting the lists were created after the Middle Ages. Many of the structures on these lists were built much earlier than the Medieval Ages but were well known. Representative are: Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa Colosseum Great Wall of China Hagia Sophia Leaning Tower of Pisa Porcelain Tower of Nanjing StonehengeOther sites sometimes included on such lists: Cairo Citadel Cluny Abbey Ely Cathedral Taj Mahal Following in the tradition of the classical list, modern people and organisations have made their own lists of wonderful things ancient and modern; some of the most notable lists are presented below. In 1994, the American Society of Civil Engineers compiled a list of Seven Wonders of the Modern World, paying tribute to the "greatest civil engineering achievements of the 20th century".
In November 2006 the American national newspaper USA Today and the American television show Good Morning America revealed a list of "New Seven Wonders" as chosen by six judges. An eighth wonder was chosen on November 2006, from viewer feedback. Similar to the other lists of wonders, there is no consensus on a list of seven natural wonders of the world, there has been debate over how large the list should be. One of the many existing lists was compiled by CNN: Aurora Grand Canyon Great Barrier Reef Harbor of Rio de Janeiro Mount Everest Parícutin volcano Victoria Falls In 2001 an initiative was started by the Swiss corporation New7Wonders Foundation to choose the New7Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments through online votes; the Great Pyramid of Giza, the only remaining of the Seven Ancient Wonders, was not one of the winners announced in 2007 but was added as an honorary candidate. New7Wonders of Nature, a contemporary effort to create a list of seven natural wonders chosen through a global poll, was organized by the same group as the New7Wonders of the World campaign.
Iguazu Falls Hạ Long Bay Jeju Island Puerto Princesa Underground River Table Mountain Komodo Amazon rainforest New7Wonders Cities is the third global vote organized by New7Wonders. Durban, South Africa Vigan, The Philippines Havana, Cuba Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Beirut, Lebanon Doha, Qatar La Paz, Bolivia The Seven Underwater Wonders of the World was a list drawn up by CEDAM International, an American-based non-profit group for divers, dedicated to ocean preservation and research. In 1989 CEDAM brought together a panel of marine scientists, including Dr. Eugenie Clark, to pick underwater areas which they considered to be worthy of protection; the results were announced at The National Aquarium in Washington DC by actor Lloyd Bridges, star of TV's Sea Hunt: Palau Belize Barrier Reef Great Barrier Reef Deep-Sea Vents Galápagos Islands Lake Baikal Northern Red Sea British author Deborah Cadbury wrote Seven Wonders of the Industrial World, a book telling the stories of seven great feats of engineering of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 2003, the BBC aired a seven-part docudrama exploring the same feats, with Cadbury as a producer. Each episode dramatised the construction of one of the following industrial wonders: SS Great Eastern Bell Rock Lighthouse Brooklyn Bridge London sewerage system First Transcontinental Railroad Panama Canal Hoover Dam In a 1999 article, Astronomy magazine listed the "Seven Wonders of the Solar System"; this article was made into a video. Enceladus, a moon of Saturn The Great red spot of Jupiter The Asteroid belt The surface of the Sun The Oceans of Earth The Rings of Saturn Olympus Mons on Mars Numerous other authors and organisations have composed lists of the wonders of the world. For example: British biographer, science writer, novelist Ronald W. Clark published a book of man-made and natural wonders titled Wonders of the World, which lists 52 wonders, one for each week of the year. Travel writer Howard Hillman published two books on the subject, one with 10 man-made wonders, one with 10 natural wonders.
Seven Wonders of the World is a 1956 film in which Lowell Thomas searches the world for natural and man made wonders and invites the audience to try to update the ancient Wonders of the World list. Eighth Wonder of the World National Seven Wonders Seven Wonders of Canada Seven Wonders of Colombia Seven Wonders of Poland Sev
A national monument is a monument constructed in order to commemorate something of national importance such as the country's founding, independence or a war. The term may refer to a specific monument status, such as a national heritage site, which most national monuments are by reason of their cultural importance rather than age; the National monument aims to represent the nation, serve as a focus for national identity. A series of structures or areas deemed to be of national importance and therefore afforded protection by the state are part of a country's cultural heritage; these national heritage sites are called something different per country and are listed by national conservation societies. Romania has listed at least one plant as a national monument, Nymphaea lotus f. thermalis. The National Monument Maqam Echahid The Pakistan Monument The National Martyr's Memorial The National Monument The Netherlands National Monument The National Monument of Scotland National Monument to Victor Emmanuel II National Kaiser Wilhelm Monument National Monuments of Colombia National monuments of Ireland National monuments of Portugal National monuments of Singapore National monuments of Spain National Monument National heritage sites of South Africa National icon National memorial National myth National Monument
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S