France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Le Bourget is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 10.6 km from the center of Paris. The commune features Le Bourget Airport. A small part of Le Bourget Airport lies on the territory of the commune of Le Bourget, which nonetheless gave its name to the airport. Most of the airport lies on the territory of the communes of Dugny, Bonneuil-en-France, Gonesse; the Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation civile is headquartered on the airport grounds and in Le Bourget proper. Le Bourget has been twinned with New York since 1979 and Zhukovsky in Russia. Le Bourget is served by Le Bourget station on Paris RER line B. There is an extensive freight rail yard with international traffic to Belgium, among others. Progressively, Le Bourget is planned to one of the principal transportation hub in the Paris North suburb: The Tangentielle Nord is an express tramway planned to enter in service in 2014, two train stations are planned in the long term as part of the Grand Paris Express project with the future lines 16 and 17.
The town is served by two major Highways, A1 autoroute in the north of the town, A86 autoroute in the south of the city. Those two highways ensure a direct connection to major Paris Region hubs like La Defense, Roissy Charles de Gaulle Airport, Paris. Paris–Le Bourget Airport is the first business flights airport in Europe, it connects with 800 destinations in EuropeOn May 8, 1927, the White Bird took off from Le Bourget and its pilots, Charles Nungesser and François Coli, hoped to reach New York City without stopovers. The plane disappeared without a trace, it was Charles Lindbergh who made the first air crossing of the North Atlantic between New York and Paris on May 21, 1927. He was welcomed as the "victor" of the North Atlantic. An enormous crowd welcomed Edouard Daladier on September 29, 1938, after the signing of the Munich Agreement signed between Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy represented by Adolf Hitler, Edouard Daladier, Neville Chamberlain and Benito Mussolini; the world-renowned Gagosian Gallery is located in Le Bourget airport area.
Le Bourget houses the Crèche intercommunale an intercommunal daycare. École maternelle Saint-Exupéry is the sole maternelle public nursery school in Le Bourget, while École primaire Louis Blériot is the sole élémentaire- only public school in Le Bourget. Two municipal schools, Groupe scolaire Jean Jaurès and Groupe scolaire Jean Mermoz, serve both the maternelle and élémentaire levels. Collège Didier Daurat is the sole municipal collège. There is Lycée Germaine Tillion. Institution Privée Sainte-Marie, serving the maternelle, élémentaire and collège levels, is the sole private school in Le Bourget; the 350-square-metre Le Bourget Public Library has 45,000 books and 100 magazines. It is located within the Urban Community of Le Bourget Airport. Germinal Pierre Dandelin was a mathematician and professor of engineering. Vizeadmiral Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière, born in Posen and of French-German descent, was a German U-boat commander during World War I. Bernard Tapie, lived at the Bourget in the years 1950/1960 where he attended the Edgard-Quinet school.
He lived with his parents and his younger brother Jean-Claude, at 11 Avenue Baudoin, in a modest building that still exists. Vincent Capo-Canellas is a French politician, he serves as a Senator for Seine-Saint-Denis. Franck Silvestre, former French footballer, was trained at the Bourget football school from 1975 to 1983. Communes of the Seine-Saint-Denis department Citations BibliographyINSEE Commune of Le Bourget
Asnières-sur-Seine is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, along the river Seine. It is located 7.9 km from the center of Paris. Asnières-sur-Seine was called Asnières. Asnières was recorded for the first time in a papal bull of 1158 as Asnerias, from Medieval Latin asinaria, meaning "donkey farm"; the poor soil of Asnières, where heather grew in Medieval times, was deemed only suitable for the breeding of donkeys. By the early 20th century it had become a favourite boating centre for Parisians, its industries included boat building. On 15 February 1968 the commune was renamed Asnières-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from other communes of France called Asnières. Asnières-sur-Seine is divided into two cantons: Asnières-sur-Seine-Nord: 43,453 inhabitants. Asnières-sur-Seine-Sud: 32,384 inhabitants. Different famous companies are located in Asnières: L'Oréal - cosmetics Lucas Lesieur Louis Vuitton - luxury productsThe Cimetière des Chiens is believed to be the first zoological necropolis in the world.
Public schools in the commune: 20 preschools 16 elementary schools 4 junior high schools: André Malraux, Auguste Renoir, François Truffaut, Voltaire Senior high schools: Lycée Auguste Renoir, Lycée professionnel de Prony, Institut départemental médico-éducatif Gustave BaguerPrivate schools: Institution Sainte-Geneviève Institution Saint-Joseph École catholique Sainte-Agnès University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle serves as the area university. In addition to the Courtilles ice rink, the town has ten gyms, six stadiums, a shooting range, two tennis clubs, a skate park, a Parisian boules court and a swimming pool; the Asnières Volley 92 plays at the Courtilles gymnasium. The city has a handball club in agreement with neighboring cities. For the 2017-2018 season, the first team evolves in Pool 2 in National 2; the city counts, with the Molosses, an American football club, created in 1992, evolving in Casque d'Or, 2-time vice-champion of France of D1. A full-contact club, known as ABC is managed by a coaching team composed with ex-France and European champions.
Around 100 members take part in trainings three times a Week. The judo and jujitsu club Arts Martiaux d'Asnières uses several of the town's gyms. Car traffic in Asnières is difficult. Most of the traffic is on the banks of the Seine around the city; the crossing of the Asnières bridge is painful during peak hours. The Grand rue Charles-de-Gaulle the Avenue d'Argenteuil are difficult to pass because serving Bois-Colombes and northern towns. Moreover, the city has few parking spaces, garages and private parking spaces are scarce and expensive. Between 2010 and 2013, there was a development plan to change the streets of the city being one-way and become practicable in both directions for bicycles. Asnières-sur-Seine is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 13: Gabriel Péri, Les Agnettes and Asnières – Gennevilliers – Les Courtilles, terminus of the line; the tramway line 1 serves Asnières – Gennevilliers – Les Courtilles station, connecting to Noisy-le-Sec. It is served by Asnières-sur-Seine and Bois-Colombes stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail network.
Lines J and L can be used. A number of bus lines cross the town to connect it with its neighbours: lines 165, 175, 177, 276, 140. Bathers at Asnières by Georges-Pierre Seurat depicts a scene of 19th century leisure and developing industry in this suburb of Paris. In 1885 Seurat made Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte used a technique of placing colored dots on a work which led a movement called "Pointillism". Vincent van Gogh made a series of paintings of Asnières. Influenced by Impressionism and Pointillism, van Gogh modified his traditional style and used vivid color, shorter brushstrokes and perspective to engage the viewer, his views of the banks of the Seine are an important progression for his landscape paintings. In Asnières, within walking distance of Theo's flat in Montmartre, van Gogh painted parks, cafés, restaurants and the river; the old château was the death place of Anne Marie Victoire de Bourbon, daughter of Henri Jules de Bourbon and thus grand daughter of le Grand Condé, cousin to Louis XIV.
Asnières was the birthplace of the cyclist Gaston Rivierre Henri Barbusse and writer of Under Fire. A street in the town was named after him; the violinist and teacher Marcel Chailley the violinist Maurice Hewitt the composer Ginette Keller the actor Frédéric Gorny the football player William Gallas the football player Axel Ngando The Franco-Irish composer and pianist George Alexandre O'Kelly died here in 1914. Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE Asnières-sur-Seine official website
Paray-Vieille-Poste is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France. Paris-Orly Airport is located in the commune. Inhabitants of Paray-Vieille-Poste are known as Paraysiens. Paray-Vieille-Poste originated from the old village of Paray, which had about 60 residents in 1790; the name "Paray-Vieille-Poste" first appeared in 1923. By 1928 the population swelled to 3,000 residents. At the time streets had not yet been built, running water had not yet been installed; the Sarraut law of 15 March 1928 lead to the quick establishment of vital infrastructure. In 1931 Paray-Vieille-Poste received electricity and water connections, the work was completed by 1933; the commune was affected by World War II bombings against Orly Airport. The coat of arms contains bugles of the postilions announcing their passage to tell bystanders to move out of the way, the arms of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, the arms of Maréchal de Vaux. Transavia.com France has its head office in Paray Vieille Poste.
OpenSkies is headquartered in Paray Vieille Poste. Prior to its re-establishment as OpenSkies, the airline L'Avion was headquartered in that location. Kyocera Fineceramics Group has its design centre in Orlytech in Paray-Vieille-Poste. Prior to its disestablishment, Air Inter had its head office in the commune. AOM French Airlines had its head office in Building 363 in Paray-Vieille-Poste. After AOM and Air Liberté merged in 2001, the new airline occupied building 363. Schools in Paray-Vieille-Poste include École Maternelle Victor-Hugo, École Primaire Jules-Ferry, École Paul-Bert, Collège Pierre-de-Ronsard; as of 2016 440 students attend Collège Pierre-de-Ronsard. The Saint-Exupéry Library serves the village. Communes of the Essonne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Official website Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Jean-Paul Huchon is a civil administrator and French politician. Mayor of Conflans-Sainte-Honorine from 1994 to 2001, he was the President of the regional council for Île-de-France from 1998 to 2015. Graduated of ENA 1971 to 1975: Civil administrator of Treasure Department 1981 to 1985: General director for Michel Rocard 1985 to 1986: General Manager of Crédit Agricole. 1988 to 1991: General director for Michel Rocard 1991 to 1998: General Manager for François Pinault 2004 to present: President of The Metropolis Association Electoral mandates Regional Council President of the Regional Council of Île-de-France: Since 1998, reelected in 2004, 2010. Regional councillor of Île-de-France: Since 1998, reelected in 2004, 2010. Municipal Council Mayor of Conflans-Sainte-Honorine: 1994-2001. Elected in 1994, after the resignation of Michel Rocard. Reelected in 1995. Deputy-mayor of Conflans-Sainte-Honorine: 1977-1994. Reelected in 1983, 1989. Municipal councillor of Conflans-Sainte-Honorine: Since 1977. Reelected in 1983, 1989, 1995, 2001, 2008.
Convicted of corruption in 2007. Légion d'honneur officer Ordre national du Mérite Mérite Agricole 1972: Le Marché Commun 1993: Jours tranquilles à Matignon 2002: La Montagne aux singes 2005: Ceux qui aiment ne peuvent pas perdre Huchon was a keynote speaker at the 2008 Metropolis Congress in Sydney October 2008. Huchon addressed world mayors and industry leaders on issues of eco-regions and governance in the 21st Century. Http://www.metropoliscongress2008.com
Antony is a French commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 11.3 km from the centre of Paris. Antony is a subprefecture of the Hauts-de-Seine department and the seat of the arrondissement of Antony. Watered by the Bièvre, a tributary of the Seine, Antony is located at the crossroads of important transport routes the main north-south axis which has existed for 2,000 years. Little urbanized until the early 20th century, the city grew between the two wars, under Senator-Mayor Auguste Mounié, from 4,000 to 20,000 inhabitants. In the early 1960s the population increased from 25,000 to 50,000 to accommodate the repatriated people from Algeria. Now incorporated in the Paris Metropolitan Area, it is strong in education with one of the largest private institutions in France and in the health field with the largest private establishment in Île-de-France; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Antoniens or AntoniennesThe commune has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom.
Antony is a city in the southern suburbs of Paris located in the Hurepoix and is the chief town of the arrondissement of Hauts-de-Seine - 12.5 km south-west of Notre-Dame Cathedral. Its altitude is 48m above sea level at the lowest point at rue Gabriel Chamon in the Bièvre Valley and 100m at the highest point in the Avenue d'Estienne d'Orves on the border with Châtenay-Malabry. Antony is at the intersection of three departments: Essonne, with the communes of Verrières-le-Buisson to the west, Wissous to the east, Massy to the south. One branch of the Bièvre upstream flows in the open through Heller Park in an area where the Bièvre is maintained by the Inter-communal association for development of the Bièvre Valley. From there it has been channeled and covered since the decision of the municipal council on 26 October 1950 nearly all the way to Paris, it becomes part of the network of the Inter-departmental association for sanitation of the Paris agglomeration. Since the early 2000s, the restoration of the open air to the Bièvre at Antony and downstream has been envisaged.
In 2003 this was done to Fresnes at the Pars des Prés on the edge of the La Fontaine district of Antony. Antony is bisected by the South Parisian Green corridor which forms a portion of the via Turonensis: one of four paths in France for the pilgrimage to Saint Jacques de Compostela; the commune area is 956 hectares with the altitude varying between 103 m. The plateaux of Beauce ends in the north in an area crossed by small tributaries of the Seine. Antony is located in the extreme north-east of this area, called Hurepoix; the crust of limestone of Beauce ends with a ledge at the edge of the Bois de Verrières. It covers a thick impermeable layer about 50 m thick of sand mixed with marl from Fontainebleau, itself resting on layers of green marl in which there are some areas of gypsum finally blue marl forming the bottom of the Bièvre valley; these green and blue marls form a waterproof layer about 10 m thick. These set the date of these layers to the Tertiary period when the sea occupying the centre of the Paris Basin began to retreat.
The old village of Antony is located on the green marl at the edge of the outcrop of the water table. It was in the gypsum layer that, in Antony in 1807, Georges Cuvier discovered the fossils of an extinct animal, one of the first to be scientifically recognized - in 1796 Cuvier had been one of first to argue species could become extinct. Naming it Anoplotherium commune, he described an mammalian ungulate herbivore with a long tail and the stature of a donkey or horse that lived 30 million years ago in the Late Eocene to the earliest Oligocene. Antony climate type is of degraded oceanic; the most used meteorological observation stations for Antony are those at Orly and at the airport of Vélizy-Villacoublay, both being communes located near Antony. The climate in the departments of the inner suburbs of Paris is characterized by sunshine and low rainfall; the following table compares the climate of the city of Antony with that of some large French cities: The issue of flooding in some districts of Antony and Fresnes, following clogging of water networks during violent storms returns periodically although a protection plan against flooding was made, either by the prefect or the mayor, in August 2006.
Antony is served by the D920 road which passes along the entire length of the commune tracing the route of the Roman road via Aurelianensis which crossed Gaul from south to north coming from Spain and going to Cologne. Crossing Antony from east to west is the A86 autoroute which, since 1996, followed the route of National Road RN186 which itself traced the route of the road opened by Louis XV; the A86 is used by Parisians during peak hours in the morning and late afternoon. It is a way of avoiding Paris by a peripheral route it replaced the function of the RN186, however the latter was retained as an urban axis. Parts of the A86 are in a tunnel at Antony. Work began. Due to lack of funding, construction of the southern tunnel of the A86 has stopped at the RER bridge; the drilling of the section between the Sub-Prefecture