Murad I was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389. He was a son of the Valide Nilüfer Hatun. Murad I conquered Adrianople, renamed it to Edirne, in 1363 made it the new capital of the Ottoman Sultanate, he further expanded the Ottoman realm in Southeast Europe by bringing most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule, forced the princes of northern Serbia and Bulgaria as well as the Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos to pay him tribute. Murad I administratively divided his sultanate into the two provinces of Rumelia. Murad's death against the Serbs would cause the Ottomans to halt their expansion into the territory temporarily and focus their attention once more on the ailing Byzantine Empire. Murad fought against the powerful beylik of Karaman in Anatolia and against the Serbs, Albanians and Hungarians in Europe. In particular, a Serb expedition to expel the Turks from Adrianople led by the Serbian brothers King Vukašin and Despot Uglješa, was defeated on September 26, 1371, by Murad's capable second lieutenant Lala Şâhin Paşa, the first governor of Rumeli.
In 1385, Sofia fell to the Ottomans. In 1386 Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović defeated an Ottoman force at the Battle of Pločnik; the Ottoman army suffered heavy casualties, was unable to capture Niš on the way back. In 1389, Murad's army defeated the Serbian Army and its allies under the leadership of Lazar at the Battle of Kosovo. There are different accounts from different sources about how Murad I was assassinated; the contemporary sources noted that the battle took place and that both Prince Lazar and the Sultan lost their lives in the battle. The existing evidence of the additional stories and speculations as to how Murad I died were disseminated and recorded in the 15th century and decades after the actual event. One Western source states that during first hours of the battle, Murad I was assassinated by Serbian nobleman and knight Miloš Obilić by knife. Most Ottoman chroniclers state that he was assassinated after the finish of the battle while going around the battlefield. Others state that he was assassinated in the evening after the battle at his tent by the assassin, admitted to ask a special favour.
His older son Bayezid, in charge of the left wing of the Ottoman forces, took charge after that. His other son, Yakub Bey, in charge of the other wing, was called to the Sultan's command center tent by Bayezid, but when Yakub Bey arrived he was strangled, leaving Bayezid as the sole claimant to the throne. In a letter from the Florentine senate to the King Tvrtko I of Bosnia, dated 20 October 1389, Murad I's killing was described. A party of twelve Serbian lords slashed their way through the Ottoman lines defending Murad I. One of them Miloš Obilić, had managed to get through to the Sultan's tent and kill him with sword stabs to the throat and belly. Sultan Murad's internal organs were buried in Kosovo field and remains to this day on a corner of the battlefield in a location called Meshed-i Hudavendigar which has gained a religious significance by the local Muslims, it has been renovated recently. His other remains were carried to Bursa, his Anatolian capital city, were buried in a tomb at the complex built in his name.
He established the sultanate by building up a society and government in the newly conquered city of Adrianople and by expanding the realm in Europe, bringing most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and forcing the Byzantine emperor to pay him tribute. It was Murad, he established the title of sultan in 1383 and the corps of the janissaries and the devşirme recruiting system. He organised the government of the Divan, the system of timars and timar-holders and the military judge, the kazasker, he established the two provinces of Anadolu and Rumeli. He was the son of Orhan and the Valide Hatun Nilüfer Hatun, daughter of the Prince of Yarhisar, of ethnic Greek descent Gülçiçek Hatun, he and his ally, Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus' son Andronicus, rebelled against their fathers. Murad had Savcı killed. Andronicus, who had surrendered to his father, was blinded at Murad's insistence. Sultan Bayezid I – son of Gülçiçek Hatun. Bayezid I had Yakub killed during or following the Battle of Kosovo at which their father had been killed.
Şehzade Ibrahim. Harris, The End of Byzantium. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8 Imber, Colin; the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-57451-9. Notes: References: Media related to Murad I at Wikimedia Commons
Third Battle of Panipat
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about 60 miles north of Delhi, between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohillas Najib-ud-daulah, Afghans of the Doab region and Shuja-ud-Daula-the Nawab of Awadh. Militarily, the battle pitted the artillery and cavalry of the Marathas against the heavy cavalry and mounted artillery of the Afghans and Rohillas led by Abdali and Najib-ud-Daulah, both ethnic Afghans; the battle is considered one of the largest and most eventful fought in the 18th century, has the largest number of fatalities in a single day reported in a classic formation battle between two armies. The specific site of the battle itself is disputed by historians, but most consider it to have occurred somewhere near modern-day Kaalaa Aamb and Sanauli Road; the battle involved over 125,000 troops. Protracted skirmishes occurred, with gains on both sides.
The forces led by Ahmad Shah Durrani came out victorious after destroying several Maratha flanks. The extent of the losses on both sides is disputed by historians, but it is believed that between 60,000–70,000 were killed in fighting, while the numbers of injured and prisoners taken vary considerably. According to the single best eyewitness chronicle—the bakhar by Shuja-ud-Daulah's Diwan Kashi Raj—about 40,000 Maratha prisoners were slaughtered in cold blood the day after the battle. Grant Duff includes an interview of a survivor of these massacres in his History of the Marathas and corroborates this number. Shejwalkar, whose monograph Panipat 1761 is regarded as the single best secondary source on the battle, says that "not less than 100,000 Marathas perished during and after the battle."The result of the battle was the halting of further Maratha advances in the north, destabilization of their territories, for ten years. This period is marked by the rule of Peshwa Madhavrao, credited with the revival of Maratha domination following the defeat at Panipat.
In 1771, ten years after Panipat, he sent a large Maratha army into northern India in an expedition, meant to re-establish Maratha domination in that area and punish refractory powers that had either sided with the Afghans, such as the Rohillas had shaken off Maratha domination after Panipat. But their success was short lived. Crippled by Madhavrao untimely death at the age of 28, infighting ensued among Maratha chiefs soon after, they met their final blow at the hands of the British in 1818; the 27-year Mughal-Maratha war led to rapid territorial loss of the Maratha Empire to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. However after his death in 1707, this process reversed following the Mughal Succession War between the sons of Aurangzeb. By 1712, Marathas started retaking their lost lands. Under Peshwa Baji Rao, Gujarat and Rajputana came under Maratha control. In 1737, Baji Rao defeated the Mughals on the outskirts of Delhi and brought much of the former Mughal territories south of Agra under Maratha control.
Baji Rao's son Balaji Baji Rao further increased the territory under Maratha control by invading Punjab in 1758. Raghunathrao's letter to the Peshwa, 4 May 1758 This brought the Marathas into direct confrontation with the Durrani empire of Ahmad Shah Abdali. In 1759 he raised an army from the Pashtun and Baloch tribes and made several gains against the smaller Maratha garrisons in Punjab, he joined with his Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Gangetic Doab—forming a broad coalition against the Marathas. The Marathas, under the command of Sadashivrao Bhau, responded by gathering an army of between 45,000–60,000, accompanied by 200,000 non-combatants, a number of whom were pilgrims desirous of making pilgrimages to Hindu holy sites in northern India; the Marathas started their northward journey from Patdur on 14 March 1760. Both sides tried to get the Nawab of Shuja-ud-Daulah, into their camp. By late July Shuja-ud-Daulah made the decision to join the Afghan-Rohilla coalition, preferring to join what was perceived as the "army of Islam".
This was strategically a major loss for the Marathas, since Shuja provided much-needed finances for the long Afghan stay in North India. It is doubtful whether the Afghan-Rohilla coalition would have the means to continue their conflict with the Marathas without Shuja's support. Grant Duff, describing the Maratha army: The Marathas had gained control of a considerable part of India in the intervening period. In 1758 they nominally occupied Delhi, captured Lahore and drove out Timur Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Abdali; this was the high-water mark of Maratha expansion, where the boundaries of their empire extended north of the Sindhu river all the way down south to northern Kerala. This territory was ruled through the Peshwa, who talked of placing his son Vishwasrao on the Mughal throne. However, Delhi still remained under the control of Mughals, key Muslim intellectuals including Shah Waliullah and other Muslim clergies in India were frightened at these developments.
In desperation they appealed to the ruler of Afghanistan, to halt the threat. The Marathas brought the symbols of the Hindu Swastika into battle. Ahmad Shah Durrani, angered by the news from his son and his allies, was unwilling to allow the Marathas' spread go unchecked. By the end of 1759 Abdali with his Afghan tribes and his Rohilla ally Najib Khan had reached Lahore as well as Delhi and defeated the smaller en
The Punjab spelled Panjab, is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region focus on historical accounts; until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south; the people of the Punjab today are called Panjabis, their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Hinduism; the main religions of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Other religious groups are Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Ravidassia; the Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Scythians, has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Kushans, Timurids, Pashtuns and others.
Historic foreign invasions targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions. The Punjab region is referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The origin of the word Punjab can be traced to the Sanskrit "pancha-nada", which means "five rivers", is used as the name of a region in the Mahabharata; the name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words, Panj and āb, introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India, more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire. Punjab thus means "The Land of Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Ravi and Beas. All are tributaries of the Sutlej being the largest; the Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamia. There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.
The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh. Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert. Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore and Ludhiana; the older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
In India the wider definition includes parts of Jammu Division. Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas: the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir; the formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres per year; the upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains; the Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are young, are eroding rapidly; the Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which are fertile. According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu and parts of Delhi.
The third definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region; the climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance. There are two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C; the monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing
The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri; the "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar.
All Mughal emperors were Muslims. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in native societies during most of its existence, rather co-opting and pacifying them through concilliatory administrative practices and a syncretic, inclusive ruling elite, leading to more systematic and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline.
By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. During the following century Mughal power had become limited, the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon; the last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1858 to enable the Crown formally to displace the rights of the East India Company and assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj. At its height, the Mughal Empire stretched from Kabul, Afghanistan in the west to Arakan, Myanmar in the east, from Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, it was the third largest empire in the Indian subcontinent, spanning four million square kilometers at its zenith, 122% of the size of the modern Republic of India.
The maximum expansion was reached during the reign of Aurangzeb, who ruled over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 25% of the world's population at the time. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic and manufacturing power, responsible for 25% of global industrial output until the 18th century; the Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires. The reign of Shah Jahan represented the height of Mughal architecture, with famous monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Lahore Fort being constructed during his reign. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves; the Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani. The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.
The term remains disputed by Indologists. Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Babur's ancestors were distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. Another name for the empire was Hindustan, documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and, described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, by extension, the empire as a whole; the Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler, descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in C
The Topkapı Palace, or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey. In the 15th century, it served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the Ottoman sultans. Construction began in 1459, ordered by Mehmed the Conqueror, six years after the conquest of Constantinople. Topkapı was called the "New Palace" to distinguish it from the Old Palace in Beyazıt Square, it was given the name Topkapı. The complex was expanded over the centuries, with major renovations after the 1509 earthquake and the 1665 fire; the palace complex consists of many smaller buildings. Female members of the Sultan's family lived in the harem, leading state officials, including the Grand vizier, held meetings in the Imperial Council building. After the 17th century, Topkapı lost its importance; the sultans of that period preferred to spend more time in their new palaces along the Bosphorus. In 1856, Sultan Abdulmejid. Topkapı retained some of its functions including the imperial treasury and mint. Following the end of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, Topkapı was transformed into a museum by a government decree dated April 3, 1924.
The Topkapı Palace Museum is administered by the Ministry of Tourism. The palace complex has hundreds of rooms and chambers, but only the most important are accessible to the public today, including the Ottoman imperial harem and the treasury, called hazine where the Spoonmaker's Diamond and Topkapi Dagger are on display; the museum collection includes Ottoman clothing, armor, religious relics, illuminated manuscripts like the Topkapi manuscript. The complex is guarded by officials of the ministry as well as armed guards of the Turkish military. Topkapı Palace is part the Historic Areas of Istanbul, a group of sites in Istanbul that were added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985; the name of the palace was Saray-i Cedid-i Amire until the 18th century. The palace received its current name during Mahmud I's reign. In Turkish the current name of the palace, Topkapı, means Cannon Gate; the palace complex is located on the Seraglio Point, a promontory overlooking the Golden Horn, where the Bosphorus Strait meets the Marmara Sea.
The terrain is hilly and the palace of the highest points close to the sea. During Greek and Byzantine times, the acropolis of the ancient Greek city of Byzantion stood here. After Sultan Mehmed II's conquest of Istanbul in 1453, the Great Palace of Constantinople was in ruins; the Ottoman court was set up in the Old Palace, today the site of Istanbul University in Beyazit Square. Mehmed II ordered that construction of Topkapı Palace begin in 1459. According to an account of the contemporary historian Critobulus of Imbros the sultan "took care to summon the best workmen from everywhere – masons and stonecutters and carpenters... For he was constructing great edifices which were to be worth seeing and should in every respect vie with the greatest and best of the past." Accounts differ as to when construction of the inner core of the palace was finished. Kritovolous gives the dates 1459–1465. Mehmed II established the basic layout of the palace, his private quarters would be located at the highest point of the promontory.
Various buildings and pavilions surrounded the innermost core and winded down the promontory towards the shores of the Bosphorus. The entire complex was surrounded by high walls; this basic layout governed the pattern of future extensions. The layout and appearance of Topkapı Palace was unique amongst not only European travellers, but Islamic or oriental palaces. European travellers described it as "irregular, non-axial, un-monumental proportions". Ottomans called it "The Palace of Felicity". A strict, codified daily life ensured imperial seclusion from the rest of world. One of the central tenets was the observation of silence in the inner courtyards; the principle of imperial seclusion is a tradition, codified by Mehmed II in 1477 and 1481 in the Kanunname Code, which regulated the rank order of court officials, the administrative hierarchy, protocol matters. This principle of increased seclusion over time was reflected in the construction style and arrangements of various halls and buildings.
The architects had to ensure that within the palace, the sultan and his family could enjoy a maximum of privacy and discretion, making use of grilled windows and building secret passageways. Sultans made various modifications to the palace, though Mehmed II's basic layout was preseved; the palace was expanded between 1520 and 1560, during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent. The Ottoman Empire had expanded and Suleyman wanted his residence to reflect its growing power; the chief architect in this period was the Persian Alaüddin known as Acem Ali. He was responsible for the expansion of the Harem. In 1574, after a great fire destroyed the kitchens, Mimar Sinan was entrusted by Sultan Selim II to rebuild the damaged parts of the palace. Mimar Sinan restored and expanded not only the damaged areas, but the Harem, the Privy Chamber and various shoreline pavilions. By the end of the 16th century, the palace had acquired its present appearance
Ahmad Shah Bahadur
Ahmad Shah Bahadur, Mirza Ahmad Shah, Mujahid-ud-Din Ahmad Shah Ghazi was born to Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah. He succeeded his father to the throne as the 13th Mughal Emperor in 1748 at the age of 22; when Ahmed Shah Bahadur came to power the Mughal Empire was collapsing, furthermore his administrative weaknesses led to the rise of the usurping Feroze Jung III. Ahmed Shah Bahadur inherited a much weakened Mughal state, he left all affairs of state to rivalling factions. He was deposed by the Vizier Feroze Jung III and blinded along with his mother, he spent the remaining years of his life in prison and died of natural causes in January 1775. Prince Ahmad was born in 1725 to his consort Qudsia Begum. Decentralization during his father's reign, the Maratha Wars and the blow from Nadir Shah's invasion had initiated the decline of the Mughal Empire; as a young Prince Ahmad developed a weakness for women, though this was restricted under his father's supervision. He is known to have been an illiterate and never took part in military training due to the attitude of his miserly father, who stinted him and used to browbeat him, never giving him a sufficient allowance requisite of imperial princes, despite the fact that at that time there was still no shortage of funds for the imperial household.
He was supported by his step-mother, Badshah Begum, who adopted him as her own son, after the lost of her biological child. After the death of the Mughal viceroy of Lahore, Zakariya Khan Bahadur, his two sons, Yahya Khan Bahadur and Mian Shah Nawaz Khan, the Emir of Multan, fought each other during for succession. After defeating his elder brother Mian Shah Nawaz Khan declared himself the Mughal viceroy of Punjab; this weakness was exploited by Ahmad Shah Durrani who initiated another campaign with 30,000 cavalry to assist Shah Nawaz Khan, resented for tax-evasion in the Mughal imperial court and opposed by the Grand Vizier, Qamaruddin Khan, the father-in-law of Yahya Khan. In April 1748, Ahmad Shah Abdali joined by Shah Nawaz Khan invaded the Indus River Valley, prompting Muradyab Khan Kalhoro the Subedar of Sindh to dispatch reinforcements to assist the Mughal Army along the river banks. Prince Ahmad and Qamaruddin Khan, Hafiz Rahmat Khan, Intizam-ud-Daula, Nasir Khan the former Subedar of Ghazni and Kabul, Yahya Khan and Ali Muhammad Khan Rohilla were dispatched by Muhammad Shah to command a large army of 75,000 to confront the 12,000 advancing Durrani's.
During the Battle of Manipur, in Sirhind by the river Sutlej both forces fought a decisive battle and Prince Ahmad was nominally victorious, he was thereupon conferred with the title Bahadur, after a Durrani wagon filled with gunpowder exploded. However, the Muhammad Shah mourned the fall of Qamaruddin Khan, killed by a stray artillery shell during the battle. After Ahmad Shah Durrani's retreat the Mughal aligned Khanate of Kalat, Nawab Amir of Bhawalpur remained aligned to Alamgir II. Only before the prelude to the Third Battle of Panipat became subjects of the Durrani Empire. However, Qamaruddin Khan's son Muin ul-Mulk a recognised war hero from the Battle of Manipur, was placed as the Mughal viceroy of Punjab, by the new Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur; the Battle of Manipur had a considerable impact on the tactical prowess of Ahmad Shah Bahadur. When he became emperor, he is known to have introduced and organised the Purbiya artillerymen corps in the years 1754-51 to combat the invading Durranis and the rebellious Sikhs in the North-West regions of his empire.
Qamaruddin Khan died during the Sirhind conflict. This news led to Muhammad Shah becoming gravely sick and he died soon afterwards. Prince Ahmad ascended the throne on 18 April 1748 and on 29 April 1748 his coronation was held at Red Fort in Delhi, he assumed the title Abu Nasir Mujahid-ud-Din Ahmad Shah Ghazi. The new emperor now began to enjoy his life with women in his harem, he appointed Safdarjung, the Nawab of Oudh, as Grand Vizier, Feroze Jung III as Mir Bakshi, Muin ul-Mulk, the son of Qamaruddin Khan, as the governor of PunjabThe main servant of the Mughal court, Javed Khan, was given the official title of Nawab Bahadur and an army of 5000. Together with the emperor's mother, given a force of 50,000, Javed Khan became effective regent. Javed Khan's rise to power and his authority was seen as an affront to the nobility and the aristocracy of the empire, in particular to the emperor's soldiers. Qudsia Begum made every effort to protect the high authority, granted to Javed Khan and authorised him to use force against those who opposed and resented both him and her.
After Safdarjung survived an assassination attempt in 1749, due to his response tensions erupted in the Mughal court when he tried to de-legitimise any relatives of his predeceasing Grand Viziers he tried to drive out all the members of the imperial Afghan faction from positions of authority due to the stipends they received from the eunuch. These policies brought Safdarjung in conflict with the principal members of the Turani Faction and Javed Khan. In 1750, Javed Khan arrested the Mughal commander Salabat Khan, who had demanded pay for his 18,000 troops who had bene recalled to Delhi after completing the assigned expedition against Marwar. While imprisoned, Salabat Khan sold all his property to pay his troops in order to halt a possible revolt and thenceforth lived in po
Köprülü Mehmed Pasha
Köprülü Mehmed Pasha was the founder of the Köprülü political dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, a family of viziers and statesmen who dominated the administration of the Ottoman Empire during the last half of the 17th century, an era known as the Köprülü era. He helped rebuild the power of the empire by rooting out corruption and reorganizing the Ottoman army; as he introduced these changes, Köprülü expanded the borders of the empire, defeating the Cossacks, the Hungarians, most impressively, the Venetians. Köprülü's effectiveness was matched by his reputation, he founded the city of Köprülü in Rumelia, where Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed, was born. He was born in the village of Rudnik in the Sanjak of Berat, he was trained in the palace school. Köprülü began as a kitchen boy in the imperial kitchen before transferring to the imperial treasury and the offices of the palace chamberlain. Other officials found it difficult to work with Köprülü, he was transferred to the sipahi corps in the provinces, he was first stationed in the town of Köprü in northern Turkey, named Vezirköprü in his honour.
He rose in rank, keeping the name Köprülü, meaning from Köprü. Köprülü's former mentor, Hüsrev Pasha, rose in the imperial service and promoted Köprülü to important offices; when Hüsrev was assassinated, however, Köprülü built up his own following. He held important offices as head of the market police in Constantinople, supervisor of the Imperial Arsenal, chief of the Sipahi corps, head of the corps armorers. Köprülü managed to attach himself to powerful men and somehow survived their falls without being destroyed himself. Köprülü continued to hold important offices, he rose to the rank of pasha and was appointed the beylerbey of the Trebizond Eyalet in 1644. He was to rule the provinces of Eğri in 1647, of Karaman in 1648, of Anatolia in 1650, he served as vizier of the divan for one week in 1652 before being dismissed due to the constant power struggle within the palace. Over the years, Köprülü had cultivated many friendships at the sultan's court with the Queen Mother Turhan Hatice Sultan, mother of the minor sultan Mehmed IV.
In 1656, the political situation in Ottoman Empire was critical. The war in Crete against the Venetians was still continuing; the Ottoman Navy under Kapudan Pasha Kenan Pasha, in May 1656, was defeated by the Venetian and Maltese navy at the Battle of Dardanelles and the Venetian navy continued the blockade of the Çanakkale Straits cutting the Ottoman army in Crete from Constantinople, the state capital. There was a political plot to unseat the reigning Sultan Mehmed IV led by important viziers including the Grand Mufti Hocazade Mesut Efendi; this plot was discovered, the plotters were executed or exiled. The Mother Sultana Turhan Hatice conducted consultations and the most favored candidate for the post of Grand Vizier came out as the old and retired but experienced Köprülü Mehmed Pasha. Mehmed Efendi, the chief of scribes, the chief architect convinced the sultan that only Köprülü Mehmed Pasha could avert disaster. Köprülü was called to Istanbul, where he accepted the position of Grand Vizier on 14 September 1656.
As a condition of his acceptance, Köprülü demanded that the sultan decree only what Köprülü approved, allow him to make all the appointments and dismissals, refuse to hear or accept any malicious stories that might be spread about him. He was given extraordinary powers and political rule without interference from the highest authority of the Sultan. Köprülü had acquired the reputation of being an honest and able administrator, but he was 80 years old when he assumed office; as the Grand Vizier, his first task was to advise Sultan Mehmed IV to conduct a life of hunts and traveling around the Balkans and to reside in the old capital of Edirne, thus stopping his direct political involvement in the management of the state. On 4 January 1657, the household cavalry Sipahi troops in Constantinople started a rebellion and this was cruelly suppressed by Köprülü Mehmed Pasha with the help of Janissary troops; the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople was proven to be in treasonous contacts with the enemies of Ottoman state and Köprülü Mehmed Pasha approved of his execution.
Rivals and unfriendly religious leaders were executed. The support of the Janissaries was obtained. Köprülü centralized power in the empire, reviving traditional Ottoman methods of governing, he ordered those who were suspected of abusing their positions or who proved to be corrupt to be removed or executed. Those who failed at their tasks were punished and unsuccessful military commanders paid the supreme price; when Grand Admiral Topal Mehmed Pasha failed to break the Venetian blockade of the Dardanelles on 17 July 1657, Köprülü executed him and his principal officers on the spot. When rivals complained to Mehmed IV about the Grand Vizier's methods, Köprülü resigned, complaining that the Sultan had violated their agreement. Mehmed asked Köprülü to return as Grand Vizier, because his methods showed such success at restoring Ottoman power. Since the resurgence of the Republic of Venice was the immediate crisis that had prompted Köprülü's appointment as grand vizier, it was important that he demonstrate his effectiveness as a leader against the Venetians.
He started on a military expeditions against the Venetian blockade of Dardanelles Strai