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Vizier

A vizier is a high-ranking political advisor or minister. The Abbasid caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister called katib, at first a helper but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir of the Sassanian kings. In modern usage, the term has been used for government ministers in much of the Middle East and beyond. Several alternative spellings are used in English, such as vizir and vezir; the word entered into English in 1562 from the Turkish vezir, derived from the Arabic وزير wazīr . Wazir itself has two possible etymologies: The most accepted etymology is that it is derived from the Arabic wazara, from the Semitic root W-Z-R; the word is mentioned in the Quran, where Aaron is described as the wazir of Moses, as well as the word wizr, derived from the same root. It was adopted as a title, in the form of wazīr āl Muḥammad by the proto-Shi'a leaders al-Mukhtar and Abu Salama. Under the Abbasid caliphs, the term acquired the meaning of "representative" or "deputy". On the other hand, the presence of a Middle Persian word vizīr or vicīr, cognate to the Avestan vīcira, meaning "decreer" or "arbitrator", could indicate an Indo-European origin.

The office of vizier arose under the first Abbasid caliphs, spread across the Muslim world. The vizier stood between sovereign and subjects, representing the former in all matters touching the latter; the 11th-century legal theorist al-Mawardi defined two types of viziers: wazīr al-tanfīdh, who had limited powers and served to implement the caliph's policies, the far more powerful wazīr al-tafwīd, with authority over civil and military affairs, enjoyed the same powers as the caliph, except in the matter of the succession or the appointment of officials. Al-Mawardi stressed that the latter, as an effective viceroy, had to be a Muslim well versed in the Shari'a, whereas the former could be a non-Muslim or a slave, although women continued to be expressly barred from the office; the term has been used to describe two different ways: either for a unique position, the prime minister at the head of the monarch's government, or as a shared'cabinet rank', rather like a British secretary of state. If one such vizier is the prime minister, he may hold the title of another title.

The title was first used in cf. Vizier. In Muslim Persia, the prime minister under the political authority of the Shahanshah was styled Vazīr-e Azam, various Ministers held cabinet rank as vazir, including a Vazir-i-Daftar and a Vazir-i-Lashkar. In al-Andalus, the Umayyad Caliphs of Córdoba appointed a varying number of viziers, as heads of departments in the bureaucracy, ministers with specific tasks, royal councillors. Unlike the Islamic east, the senior office of the Umayyad state was that of the chamberlain. Under the Taifa kingdoms the title became a generic court title. During the Umayyads, viziers were appointed outside the capital as provincial governors or commanders, a practic which continued until the fall of the Emirate of Granada in the 15th century; the Spanish word alguacil derives from this. In Muslim Egypt, the most populous Arab country: Vizier under the Fatimid Caliphs. Again since the effective end of Ottoman rule, remarkably since 1857 (i.e. before the last Wali, Isma`il Pasha, was raised Khedive, exchanged for the western prime ministers on 28 August 1878.

During the days of the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier was the—often de facto ruling—prime minister, second only to the Sultan and was the leader of the Divan, the Imperial Council. "Vizier" was the title of some Ottoman provincial governors, use of the title indicating a greater degree of autonomy for the province involved and the greater prestige of the title holder. In the Sherifian kingdom of Morocco, a Sadr al-A'zam was in office until 22 November 1955, replaced since 7 December 1955 a Prime Minister. In the Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz, the sole Vizier was the future second king Ali ibn Hussein al-Hashimi, under his father Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, maintained after the assumption of the Caliphal style In the'regency' of Tunisia, under the Husainid Dynasty, various ministers of the Bey, including: Wazir al-Akbar:'great minister', i.e. grand vizier, chief minister or prime minister. Wazir al-'Amala: Minister for the Interior. Wazir al-Bahr: Minister'of the Se

Joe Pritchard (American football)

Joseph Gibson "Beersheba" Pritchard was an American football player and coach. Pritchard played for the Vanderbilt Commodores of Vanderbilt University, he was selected All-Southern in 1905 and 1906. He stood 6 weighed 185 pounds. Pritchard served as the head coach at Louisiana State University for part of one season in 1909, compiling a record is 4–1, he graduated from Vanderbilt in 1906 with a dental degree. A member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity, he was a Presbyterian dental missionary at Luebo in the Congo until he was forced to return to the United States due to poor health sometime before 1915. In 1912, Pritchard married Annie Milicent Landrey of Jeanerette, Louisiana

Edward John Peake

Edward John Peake was a winemaker, land agent, magistrate Member of Parliament and a prominent member of the Catholic Church in the early days of South Australia. Born in Gloucestershire, he arrived in Australia around 1852 and spent several years touring the country before settling in Adelaide around 1855 and in 1858 purchased from John Morphett a farm in Clarendon, which he developed as a vineyard and winery. On his travels he made several sketches, his knowledge of English Gothic Revival style of architecture influenced the design of St Francis Xavier's Cathedral, Adelaide. He was granted an auctioneer's licence in 1855, he was Chairman of Adelaide City Council in 1856He was appointed J. P. in 1857, elevated to Special Magistrate in 1860, based at Willunga and Stipendiary Magistrate January to September 1868 when he was removed from the list. But reinstated, it was only a few years ago that the Government made Mr. Peake a Magistrate, the other Magistrates objected so much to the appointment that they refused to sit with him.

William Townsend, MHA He was elected to the South Australian House of Assembly seat of The Burra and Clare in March 1857 and resigned in October 1859 when he was appointed manager of the Traffic Branch of the South Australian Railways. He was a member of the Southern Rifle Association and in 1862 its President He was Chairman of the Duryea Mining Company, he left Clarendon in 1870 and served as Stipendiary Magistrate at Port Adelaide until late 1874, when he was forced by increasing ill health to resign. His mother Mary Peake died at Clarendon, he married Elizabeth Newman on 29 June 1867 Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of James Chambers, was the widow of John Holden Newman. Her son John Holden Newman jnr. was born on 13 March 1864, married Beatrice Emma Tate and died 29 August 1911 in England. His winery, built in 1858, was developed as the Old Clarendon Inn, refurbished in the late 20th century as a restaurant and accommodation,Peake Creek was named for him by John McDouall Stuart in June 1859 and hence Peake Station, or The Peake, acquired by Kidman Holdings in 1898.

The Peake telegraph station was built in 1870