Vanity Fair (UK magazine)
The second Vanity Fair was a British weekly magazine, published from 1868 to 1914. Subtitled "A Weekly Show of Political and Literary Wares", it was founded by Thomas Gibson Bowles, who aimed to expose the contemporary vanities of Victorian society; the first issue appeared in London on 7 November 1868. It offered its readership articles on fashion, current events, the theatre, social events and the latest scandals, together with serial fiction, word games and other trivia. Bowles wrote much of the magazine himself under various pseudonyms, such as "Jehu Junior", but contributors included Lewis Carroll, Arthur Hervey, Willie Wilde, P. G. Wodehouse, Jessie Pope and Bertram Fletcher Robinson. Thomas Allinson bought the magazine in 1911 from Frank Harris, by which time it was failing financially, he failed to revive it and the final issue of Vanity Fair appeared on 5 February 1914, after which it was merged into Hearth and Home. A full-page, colour lithograph of a contemporary celebrity or dignitary appeared in most issues, it is for these caricatures that Vanity Fair is best known and today.
Subjects included artists, royalty, scientists, actors, religious personalities, business people and scholars. More than two thousand of these images appeared, they are considered the chief cultural legacy of the magazine, forming a pictorial record of the period, they were produced by an international group of artists, including Max Beerbohm, Sir Leslie Ward, the Italians Carlo Pellegrini, Melchiorre Delfico, Liborio Prosperi, the Florentine artist and critic Adriano Cecioni, the French artist James Tissot, the American Thomas Nast. List of Vanity Fair artists List of Vanity Fair caricatures The Rowers of Vanity Fair Wikibook gives a history of the magazine with focus on sportsmen Vanity fair cartoons, UK: National Portrait Gallery
Carlo Pellegrini (caricaturist)
Carlo Pellegrini, who did much of his work under the pseudonym of Ape, was an artist who served from 1869 to 1889 as a caricaturist for Vanity Fair magazine, a leading journal of London society. He was born in Capua in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, his father came from an ancient land-owning family, while his mother was descended from the Medici. His work for the magazine made his reputation and he became its most influential artist. Pellegrini was educated at the Collegio Barnibiti, at Sant' Antonio in Maddaloni, near Naples; as a young man he caricatured Neapolitan society, modelling his portraits on those of Melchiorre Delfico and Daumier and other French and British artists of the period. Pellegrini claimed to have fought with Garibaldi. Deciding to leave Italy in 1864 after a series of personal crises, including the death of his sister, he travelled to England via Switzerland and France, he arrived in London in November 1864. However, this claim may have been another fantasy designed to make.
In London he became a friend of the Prince of Wales. It is not recorded how Pellegrini met Thomas Bowles, the owner of Vanity Fair magazine, but he found himself employed by that publication and became its first caricaturist signing his work as'Singe' and and more famously, as'Ape'. Pellegrini's work for the magazine made his reputation and he became its most influential artist, in which his caricatures were to be printed for over twenty years, from January 1869 to April 1889, his 1869 caricature of Benjamin Disraeli was the first colour lithograph to appear in the magazine, proved immensely popular. It was the first of a successful series of more than two thousand caricatures published by Vanity Fair. Although the caricatures by Sir Leslie Ward are now more well known, those by'Ape' are regarded by many collectors as being artistically and technically superior. Apart from drawing his caricatures for the magazine, Pellegrini attempted to set himself up as a portrait painter, but this venture met with limited success.
Pellegrini met Degas in London in the 1870s, in about 1876–77 painted his portrait, inscribed'à vous/Pellegrini'. In return, Degas painted Pellegrini's portrait inscribed. Pellegrini was a member of the Beefsteak Club in London and there met Whistler, who became a great influence on his work. Pellegrini was a member of The Arts Club from 1874 until 1888. Pellegrini was careful about his appearance, would wear immaculate white spats with polished boots, he grew long Mandarin-like fingernails, would never walk when he could ride, had a limitless fund of amusing stories and eccentricities. He spoke broken-English, flaunted his homosexuality, would bring macaroni dishes to elegant dinner parties, he would refuse invitations to country houses out of fear of strange beds, had a habit of keeping a cigar in his mouth as he slept. He died of lung disease at 53 Mortimer Street, near Cavendish Square in London, he is buried in St. Mary's Roman Catholic Cemetery, Kensal Green, London. Vanity Fair caricatures Some of his caricatures at the National Portrait GalleryThis article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed..
"article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne
William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone was a British statesman and Liberal Party politician. In a career lasting over sixty years, he served for twelve years as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, spread over four terms beginning in 1868 and ending in 1894, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer four times. Gladstone was born in Liverpool to Scottish parents, he first entered the House of Commons in 1832, beginning his political career as a High Tory, a grouping which became the Conservative Party under Robert Peel in 1834. Gladstone served as a minister in both of Peel's governments, in 1846 joined the breakaway Peelite faction, which merged into the new Liberal Party in 1859, he was Chancellor under Lord Palmerston and Lord Russell. Gladstone's own political doctrine—which emphasised equality of opportunity, free trade, laissez-faire economic policies—came to be known as Gladstonian liberalism, his popularity amongst the working-class earned him the sobriquet "The People's William". In 1868, Gladstone became Prime Minister for the first time.
Many reforms were passed during his first ministry, including the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland and the introduction of secret voting. After electoral defeat in 1874, Gladstone resigned as leader of the Liberal Party, his Midlothian Campaign of 1879–80 was an early example of many modern political campaigning techniques. After the 1880 general election, Gladstone formed his second ministry, which saw the passage of the Third Reform Act as well as crises in Egypt and Ireland, where his government passed repressive measures but improved the legal rights of Irish tenant farmers. Back in office in early 1886, Gladstone proposed home rule for Ireland but was defeated in the House of Commons; the resulting split in the Liberal Party helped keep them out of office—with one short break—for twenty years. Gladstone formed his last government in 1892, at the age of 82; the Second Home Rule Bill passed through the Commons but was defeated in the House of Lords in 1893. Gladstone left office in March 1894, aged 84, as both the oldest person to serve as Prime Minister and the only Prime Minister to have served four terms.
He died three years later. Gladstone was known affectionately by his supporters as "The People's William" or the "G. O. M.". Historians call him one of Britain's greatest leaders. Born in 1809 in Liverpool, at 62 Rodney Street, William Ewart Gladstone was the fourth son of the merchant John Gladstone, his second wife, Anne MacKenzie Robertson. In 1835, the family name was changed from Gladstones to Gladstone by royal licence, his father was made a baronet, of Fasque and Balfour, in 1846. Although born and brought up in Liverpool, William Gladstone was of purely Scottish ancestry, his grandfather Thomas Gladstones was a prominent merchant from Leith, his maternal grandfather, Andrew Robertson, was Provost of Dingwall and a Sheriff-Substitute of Ross-shire. His biographer John Morley described him as "a highlander in the custody of a lowlander", an adversary as "an ardent Italian in the custody of a Scotsman". One of his earliest childhood memories was being made to stand on a table and say "Ladies and gentlemen" to the assembled audience at a gathering to promote the election of George Canning as MP for Liverpool in 1812.
In 1814, young "Willy" visited Scotland for the first time, as he and his brother John travelled with their father to Edinburgh and Dingwall to visit their relatives. Willy and his brother were both made freemen of the burgh of Dingwall. In 1815, Gladstone travelled to London and Cambridge for the first time with his parents. Whilst in London, he attended a service of thanksgiving with his family at St Paul's Cathedral following the Battle of Waterloo, where he saw the Prince Regent. William Gladstone was educated from 1816–1821 at a preparatory school at the vicarage of St. Thomas' Church at Seaforth, close to his family's residence, Seaforth House. In 1821, William followed in the footsteps of his elder brothers and attended Eton College before matriculating in 1828 at Christ Church, where he read Classics and Mathematics, although he had no great interest in the latter subject. In December 1831, he achieved the double first-class degree. Gladstone served as President of the Oxford Union, where he developed a reputation as an orator, which followed him into the House of Commons.
At university, Gladstone was a denounced Whig proposals for parliamentary reform. Following the success of his double first, William travelled with his brother John on a Grand Tour of Europe, visiting Belgium, France and Italy. Upon his return to England, William was elected to Parliament in 1832 as a Tory Member of Parliament for Newark through the influence of the local patron, the Duke of Newcastle. Although Gladstone entered Lincoln's Inn in 1833, with intentions of becoming a barrister, by 1839 he had requested that his name should be removed from the list because he no longer intended to be called to the Bar. In the House of Commons, Gladstone was a disciple of High Toryism and, as a scion of one of the largest slave-holding families in the world, he opposed both the abolition of slavery and factory legislation. Gladstone's father was a slave owner.
Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater
Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater, known as Viscount Brackley from 1687 to 1701 and as the Earl of Bridgewater from 1701 to 1720, was a British peer and pioneering landowner. Born of the Egerton family, he succeeded as 4th Earl of Bridgewater in 1701, before being created Duke of Bridgewater on 18 June 1720, with subsidiary titles including Marquess of Brackley. Scroop Egerton was born on 11 August 1681, the third son of John Egerton, 3rd Earl of Bridgewater and his second wife Lady Jane Paulet, his maternal grandparents were Charles Paulet, 1st Duke of Bolton and his second wife Mary Scrope, natural daughter of Emanuel Scrope, 1st Earl of Sunderland. Scroop Egerton is recorded as being educated at the Whitgift Croydon. Bridgwater served twice as Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire, first from 1702 to 1711 and next from 1714 to 1728, being a Whig, he was first appointed to the household of Prince George as Gentleman of the Bedchamber and Master of the Horse. He served as Lord Chamberlain to Caroline, Princess of Wales, subsequently as Lord of the Bedchamber to her husband as King George II.
Scroop Egerton commissioned the building of Brackley's new Town Hall in 1704. On 9 February 1703, Bridgewater married his first wife Lady Elizabeth, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, he was buried on 5 February 1718/19 at Little Gaddesden, England. He was styled as Viscount Brackley between 1704 and 1719. Lady Anne Egerton, married first Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford and, secondly William Villiers, 3rd Earl of Jersey. On 4 August 1722, Bridgewater married his second wife Lady Rachel, daughter of Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford, by his wife Elizabeth née Howland. Lady Caroline Egerton. Charles Egerton, Marquess of Brackley. John Egerton, 2nd Duke of Bridgewater. Lord William Egerton. Lady Diana Egerton, who married Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore on 9 March 1753; the union was not a success, the couple spent most of their married life apart. They had no children, in May 1756 they were formally separated, due to an "incompatibility of temper".
In 1758, Lady Diana "died from a hurt she received by a fall out of a Phaethon carriage", while accompanied by her husband. Although Lord Baltimore was suspected of foul play, no charges were brought. Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. Egerton family Manchester Coalfield Peerage of Great Britain BibliographyMosley, Charles. Burke's Baronetage. London: Cassells. Kidd, Charles. Debrett's Baronetage. London: Debretts Publishing Ltd. Collins' Peerage www.thePeerage.com www.epsomandewellhistoryexplorer.org Retrieved August 2012 www.ashridgehouse.org.uk
Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head. Founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII, it is one of the larger colleges of the University of Oxford with 629 students in 2016, it is the second wealthiest college with an endowment of £550m as of 2018. Christ Church has a number of architecturally significant buildings including Tom Tower, Tom Quad, the Great Dining Hall, the seat of the parliament assembled by King Charles I during the English Civil War; the buildings have inspired replicas throughout the world in addition to being featured in films such as Harry Potter and The Golden Compass. This has helped Christ Church become the most popular Oxford college for tourists with half a million visitors annually. Christ Church has many notable alumni including thirteen British prime ministers, King Edward VII, King William II of the Netherlands, seventeen Archbishops, writers Lewis Carroll and W.
H. Auden, philosopher John Locke, scientist Robert Hooke. Christ Church is partly responsible for the creation of University College Reading, which gained its own Royal Charter and became the University of Reading; the first female undergraduates matriculated at Christ Church in 1980. In 1525, at the height of his power, Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal Archbishop of York, suppressed the Priory of St Frideswide in Oxford and founded Cardinal College on its lands, using funds from the dissolution of Wallingford Priory and other minor priories, he planned the establishment on a magnificent scale, but fell from grace in 1529, with the buildings only three-quarters complete, as they were to remain for 140 years. In 1531 the college was itself suppressed, but it was refounded in 1532 as King Henry VIII's College by Henry VIII, to whom Wolsey's property had escheated. In 1546 the King, who had broken from the Church of Rome and acquired great wealth through the dissolution of the monasteries in England, refounded the college as Christ Church as part of the reorganisation of the Church of England, making the demolished priory church the cathedral of the created Diocese of Oxford.
Christ Church's sister college in the University of Cambridge is Trinity College, founded the same year by Henry VIII. Since the time of Queen Elizabeth I the college has been associated with Westminster School; the dean remains to ex officio member of the school's governing body. Major additions have been made to the buildings through the centuries, Wolsey's Great Quadrangle was crowned with the famous gate-tower designed by Sir Christopher Wren. To this day the bell in the tower, Great Tom, is rung 101 times at 9 pm at the former Oxford time every night, for the 100 original scholars of the college. In former times this was done at midnight, signalling the close of all college gates throughout Oxford. Since it took 20 minutes to ring the 101, Christ Church gates, unlike those of other colleges, did not close until 12:20; when the ringing was moved back to 9:00 pm, Christ Church gates still remained open until 12.20, 20 minutes than any other college. Although the clock itself now shows GMT/BST, Christ Church still follows Oxford time in the timings of services in the cathedral.
King Charles I made the Deanery his palace and held his Parliament in the Great Hall during the English Civil War. In the evening of 29 May 1645, during the second siege of Oxford, a "bullet of IX lb. weight" shot from the Parliamentarians warning-piece at Marston fell against the wall of the north side of the Hall. Several of Christ Church's deans achieved high academic distinction, notably Owen under the Commonwealth and Fell in the Restoration period and Gaisford in the early 19th century and Liddell in the high Victorian era. For over four centuries Christ Church admitted men only. Christ Church, formally titled "The Dean and Students of the Cathedral Church of Christ in Oxford of the Foundation of King Henry the Eighth", is the only academic institution in the world, a cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Oxford; the Visitor of Christ Church is the reigning British sovereign, the Bishop of Oxford is unique among English bishops in not being the Visitor of his own cathedral. The head of the college is the Dean of Christ Church, an Anglican cleric appointed by the crown as dean of the cathedral church.
There are a senior and a junior censor the former of whom is responsible for academic matters, the latter for undergraduate discipline. A censor theologiae is appointed to act as the dean's deputy; the form "Christ Church College" is considered incorrect, in part because it ignores the cathedral, an integral part of the unique dual foundation. The governing body of Christ Church consists of the dean and chapter of the cathedral, together with the "Students of Christ Church", who are not junior members but rather the equivalent of the fellows of the other colleges; until the 19th century, the students differed from fellows in that they had no governing powers in their own college, these residing with the dean and chapter. Christ Church si
Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford
Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford PC, known as Viscount Trentham from 1746 to 1754 and as The Earl Gower from 1754 to 1786, was a British politician from the Leveson-Gower family. Stafford was a son of 1st Earl Gower and his wife Lady Evelyn Pierrepont, his maternal grandparents were Evelyn Pierrepont, 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull and his first wife Lady Mary Feilding. Mary was 3rd Earl of Denbigh and his wife Mary King, his father was a prominent Tory politician who became the first major Tory to enter government since the succession of George I of Great Britain, joining the administration of John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville in 1742. Gower was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Stafford was elected to parliament in 1744. With the death of his elder brother in 1746, he became known by the courtesy title of Viscount Trentham until he succeeded his father as Earl Gower in 1754, he built the earlier Lilleshall Hall, converting a 17th-century house located in the village of Lilleshall into a country residence around the late 1750s.
Stafford was associated with the faction of the John Russell, Duke of Bedford, his brother-in-law, as a member of that faction, called the "Bloomsbury Gang", was given many governmental positions. Following Bedford's death in 1771, Gower became leader of the group, as Lord President in the administration of Frederick North, Lord North, he was a key supporter of a hard-line policy towards the American colonists. Between 1775-1778, Stafford proceeded to make substantial alterations to his home at Trentham Hall based on the designs by Henry Holland. By 1779, Gower resigned from the cabinet being frustrated by what he saw as the North administration's inept handling of the American Revolutionary War, and when North resigned in March 1782, Gower was approached to form a ministry, but he refused, he refused subsequent overtures from both Lord Shelburne and the Fox-North coalition to enter the government. Instead, he became a key figure in bringing about the fall of the Fox-North coalition, was rewarded with the position of Lord President once again in the new administration of William Pitt the Younger.
Although he soon exchanged this office for that of Lord Privy Seal, began to withdraw from public affairs, he remained a cabinet minister until his retirement in 1794. He was elected F. S. A. on 28 April 1784. In 1786, he was created Marquess of Stafford as a reward for his services, he died at Trentham Hall, Staffordshire, on 26 October 1803. He was the last surviving member of the Bloomsbury Gang. Stafford married three times, he married firstly Elizabeth Fazakerley, daughter of Nicholas Fazakerley, in 1744. Elizabeth died of smallpox two years later, they had no children. Stafford married secondly Lady Louisa Egerton, daughter of the Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater, in 1748, she died in 1761. They were parents to four children: 1st Duke of Sutherland. Lady Louisa Leveson-Gower, she married Sir Archibald MacDonald, 1st Baronet. Lady Margaret Caroline Leveson-Gower, she married Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of Carlisle and was the mother of George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle. Lady Anne Leveson-Gower.
She married the Right Reverend Archbishop of York. Stafford married thirdly Lady Susanna Stewart, daughter of Alexander Stewart, 6th Earl of Galloway, in 1768, they were parents to four children: Lady Georgiana Augusta Leveson-Gower. She married William Eliot, 2nd Earl of St Germans. Lady Charlotte Sophia Leveson-Gower, she married Henry Somerset, 6th Duke of Beaufort and was mother of Henry Somerset, 7th Duke of Beaufort and Lord Granville Somerset. Lady Susanna Leveson-Gower, she married 1st Earl of Harrowby. Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville; when Lord Stafford died at the age of 82, he was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son George from his second marriage, created Duke of Sutherland in 1833. The Marchioness of Stafford died in August 1805. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Barker, George Fisher Russell. "Leveson-Gower, Granville". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 33. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury
James Brownlow William Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury, styled Viscount Cranborne until 1823, was a British Conservative politician. He held office under the Earl of Derby as Lord Privy Seal in 1852 and Lord President of the Council between 1858 and 1859, he was the father of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, grandfather of Arthur Balfour, who served as Prime Minister. Salisbury was the son of James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury, Lady Emily Mary Hill, daughter of Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire. Salisbury entered the House of Commons in 1813 as Member of Parliament for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis, a seat he held until 1817, sat for Hertford between 1817 and 1823. In the latter year he entered the House of Lords, he served in the Earl of Derby's first two cabinets as Lord Privy Seal in 1852 and as Lord President of the Council between 1858 and 1859. He was sworn of the Privy Council in 1826 and made a Knight of the Garter in 1842.
Apart from his political career he served as titular Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex between 1841 and 1868. Lord Salisbury was married twice, his first marriage was on 2 February 1821 to Frances Mary Gascoyne, daughter of Bamber Gascoyne of Childwall Hall and his wife Sarah Bridget Frances Price. A biography of her by Carola Oman appeared in 1966; the couple had six children, including: James Emilius William Evelyn Gascoyne-Cecil, Viscount Cranborne, died unmarried. Lady Mildred Arabella Charlotte Gascoyne-Cecil had children. Lord Arthur Gascoyne-Cecil died in infancy. Lady Blanche Mary Harriet married mother of Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom three times between 1885 and 1902, married Georgina Alderson and had children. Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Eustace Brownlow Henry Gascoyne-Cecil, married Lady Gertrude Louisa Scott and had children. Lord Salisbury's second marriage, on 29 April 1847, was to Lady Mary Catherine Sackville-West, daughter of George Sackville-West, 5th Earl De La Warr and Elizabeth Sackville-West, Countess De La Warr, with whom he had five children: Lord Sackville Arthur Cecil died unmarried.
Lady Mary Arabella Arthur Cecil married Alan Stewart, 10th Earl of Galloway. Lady Margaret Elizabeth Cecil died unmarried. Lord Arthur Cecil had children. Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Lionel Cecil died unmarried. Lord Salisbury died in April 1868, aged 76, was succeeded as marquess by his third, eldest surviving son, Robert; the Marchioness of Salisbury died in December 1900. 1791–1813: Viscount Cranborne 1813–1823: Viscount Cranborne MP 1823–1826: The Most Honourable The Marquess of Salisbury 1826–1842: The Most Honourable The Marquess of Salisbury PC 1842–1868: The Most Honourable The Marquess of Salisbury KG PC Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Marquess of Salisbury "Archival material relating to James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury". UK National Archives