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Graphophone

The Graphophone was the name and trademark of an improved version of the phonograph. It was invented at the Volta Laboratory established by Alexander Graham Bell in Washington, D. C. United States, its trademark usage was acquired successively by the Volta Graphophone Company the American Graphophone Company, the North American Phonograph Company, by the Columbia Phonograph Company, all of which either produced or sold Graphophones. It took five years of research under the directorship of Benjamin Hulme, Harvey Christmas, Charles Sumner Tainter and Chichester Bell at the Volta Laboratory to develop and distinguish their machine from Thomas Edison's Phonograph. Among their innovations, the researchers experimented with lateral recording techniques as early as 1881. Contrary to the vertically-cut grooves of Edison Phonographs, the lateral recording method used a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a "zig zag" pattern across the record. While cylinder phonographs never employed the lateral cutting process commercially, this became the primary method of phonograph disc recording.

Bell and Tainter developed wax-coated cardboard cylinders for their record cylinder. Edison's grooved mandrel covered with a removable sheet of tinfoil was prone to damage during installation or removal. Tainter received a separate patent for a tube assembly machine to automatically produce the coiled cardboard tube cores of the wax cylinder records; the shift from tinfoil to wax resulted in increased sound record longevity. Besides being far easier to handle, the wax recording medium allowed for lengthier recordings and created superior playback quality. Additionally the Graphophones deployed foot treadles to rotate the recordings wind-up clockwork drive mechanisms, migrated to electric motors, instead of the manual crank on Edison's Phonograph. In 1885, when the Volta Laboratory Associates were sure that they had a number of practical inventions, they filed patent applications and began to seek out investors; the Volta Graphophone Company of Alexandria, was created on January 6, 1886 and incorporated on February 3, 1886.

It formed to control the patents and to handle the commercial development of their sound recording and reproduction inventions, one of which became the first Dictaphone. After the Volta Associates gave several demonstrations in Washington, D. C. businessmen from Philadelphia created the American Graphophone Company on March 28, 1887, to produce and sell the machines for the budding phonograph marketplace. The Volta Graphophone Company merged with American Graphophone, which itself evolved into Columbia Records; the Howe Machine Factory in Bridgeport, Connecticut became American Graphophone manufacturing plant. Tainter resided there for several months to supervise manufacturing before becoming ill, but went on to continue his inventive work for many years; the small Bridgeport plant, which produced three or four machines a day became the Dictaphone Corporation. Shortly after American Graphophone creation, Jesse H. Lippincott used nearly $1 million of an inheritance to gain control of it, as well as the rights to the Graphophone and the Bell and Tainter patents.

He directly invested $200,000 into American Graphophone, agreed to purchase 5,000 machines yearly, in return for sales rights to the Graphophone. Soon after, Lippincott purchased the Edison Speaking Phonograph Company and its patents for US$500,000, exclusive sales rights of the Phonograph in the United States from Ezrah T. Gilliand for $250,000, leaving Edison with the manufacturing rights.. He created the North American Phonograph Company in 1888 to consolidate the national sales rights of both the Graphophone and the Edison Speaking Phonograph. Jesse Lippincott set up a sales network of local companies to lease Phonographs and Graphophones as dictation machines. In the early 1890s Lippincott fell victim to the unit's mechanical problems and to resistance from stenographers, resulting in the company's bankruptcy. A coin-operated version of the Graphophone, U. S. Patent 506,348, was developed by Tainter in 1893 to compete with nickel-in-the-slot entertainment phonograph U. S. Patent 428,750 demonstrated in 1889 by manager of the Pacific Phonograph Company.

In 1889, the trade name Graphophone began to be utilized by Columbia Phonograph Company as the name for their version of the Phonograph. Columbia Phonograph Company established by a group of entrepreneurs licensed by the American Graphophone Company to retail graphophones in Washington DC acquired American Graphophone Company in 1893. In 1904, Columbia Phonograph Company established itself in Canada. Two years in 1906, the American Graphophone company reorganized and changed its name to Columbia Graphophone Company to reflect its association with Columbia. In 1918, Columbia Graphophone Company reorganized to form a retailer, Columbia Graphophone Company—and a manufacturer, Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company. In 1923, Louis Sterling bought Columbia Phonograph Co. and reorganized it yet again, giving birth to the future record giant Columbia Records. Early machines compatible with Edison cylinders were modified treadle machines; the upper-works connected to a spring or electric motor in a boxy case, which could record and play back the old Bell and Tainter cylinders.

Some models, like the Type G, had new upper-works that were not designed to play Bell and Tainter cylinders. The name Graphophone was used by Columbia into the 1920s or 1930

Washington County Jail (Fayetteville, Arkansas)

The Washington County Jail is a historic former civic building at 90 South College Avenue in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Built in 1896, this building was the fourth to serve as county jail, was in use until 1973, making it the longest tenured in county history; the Romanesque Revival building was designed by W. B. Reese, is locally unusual and distinctive for its medieval appearance, it is built out of load-bearing stone, square cut and laid in irregular courses, with a rough quarry-cut finish. Most of the building is of darker shades with trim in lighter shades. Nominally two stories in height, the rightmost bay has a square tower with crenellated parapet; the building, now in private hands, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Arkansas

Morris, Pennsylvania

Morris is an unincorporated community in Morris Township, Tioga County, in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. It lies at the junction of Pennsylvania Route 414 and Pennsylvania Route 287 between Williamsport and Wellsboro. Babb Creek, a tributary of Pine Creek, flows through Morris. Activities in Morris include an annual Rattlesnake Round-Up; the village is about 25 minutes by car from the Pine Creek Gorge and the Pine Creek Rail Trail, to the west. Campgrounds in the area—Twin Streams in Morris, Stony Fork Creek near the village of Stony Fork, Leonard Harrison State Park west of Wellsboro, Pettecote Junction in Cedar Run—offer a variety of sites for tents and recreational vehicles

New production

In biological oceanography, new production is supported by nutrient inputs from outside the euphotic zone upwelling of nutrients from deep water, but from terrestrial and atmosphere sources. New production depends on vertical advective processes associated with the circulation. Bio-available nitrogen occurs in the ocean in several forms, including simple ionic forms such as nitrate and ammonium, more complex organic forms such as urea; these forms are utilised by autotrophic phytoplankton to synthesise organic molecules such as amino acids. Grazing of phytoplankton by zooplankton and larger organisms transfers this organic nitrogen up the food chain and throughout the marine food-web; when nitrogenous organic molecules are metabolised by organisms, they are returned to the water column as ammonium. This is known as regeneration, since the ammonium can be used by phytoplankton, again enter the food-web. Primary production fuelled by ammonium in this way is thus referred to as regenerated production.

However, ammonium can be oxidised to nitrate, by the process of nitrification. This is performed by different bacteria in two stages: NH3 + O2 → NO2− + 3H+ + 2e−NO2− + H2O → NO3− + 2H+ + 2e−Crucially, this process is believed to only occur in the absence of light. In the ocean, this leads to a vertical separation of nitrification from primary production, confines it to the aphotic zone; this leads to the situation whereby any nitrate in the water column must be from the aphotic zone, must have originated from organic material transported there by sinking. Primary production fuelled by nitrate is, making use of a "fresh" nutrient source rather than a regenerated one. Production by nitrate is thus referred to as new production. To sum up, production based on nitrate is using nutrient molecules newly arrived from outside the productive layer, it is termed new production; the rate of nitrate utilization remains a good measure of the new production. While if the organic matter is eaten and the nitrogen excreted as ammonia, its subsequent uptake and re-incorporation in organic matter by phytoplankton is termed recycled production.

The rate of ammonia utilization is, in the same sense, a measure of recycled production. The use of 15N-compounds makes it possible to measure the fractions of new nitrogen and regenerated nitrogen associated with the primary production in the sea. F-ratio Primary production

2016 Philippine House of Representatives election in Northern Mindanao

Election will be held in Northern Mindanao for seats in the House of Representatives of the Philippines on May 9, 2016. Each of Bukidnon's four legislative districts will elect each representative to the House of Representatives; the candidate with the highest number of votes wins the seat. Ma. Lourdes O. Acosta-Alba is the incumbent. Florencio T. Flores Jr is the incumbent and running unopposed. Jose Ma. F. Zubiri III is the ineligible for reelection due to term limit. Rogelio Neil Roque is the incumbent; each of Cagayan de Oro City's two legislative districts will elect each representative to the House of Representatives. The candidate with the highest number of votes wins the seat. Rolando Uy is the incumbent. Rufus Rodriguez is the ineligible for reelection, he is running for city mayor instead. Xavier Jesus D. Romualdo is the incumbent Vicente Belmonte, Jr. is the incumbent. However, he is on his last term and ineligible for reelection. Instead, he decided to run for mayor. However, he dropped his candidacy.

Each of Lanao del Norte's two legislative districts will elect each representative to the House of Representatives. The candidate with the highest number of votes wins the seat. Imelda D. C. Quibranza-Dimaporo is the incumbent but not seeking for reelection, she is running for governor instead. His party nominated incumbent governor Khalid Dimaporo. Abdullah D. Dimaporo is the incumbent; each of Misamis Occidental's two legislative districts will elect each representative to the House of Representatives. The candidate with the highest number of votes wins the seat. Jorge T. Almonte is the incumbent. Henry S. Oaminal is the incumbent and running unopposed; each of Misamis Oriental's two legislative districts will elect each representative to the House of Representatives. The candidate with the highest number of votes wins the seat. Peter M. Unabia is the incumbent. Juliette T. Uy is the incumbent. COMELEC - Official website of the Philippine Commission on Elections NAMFREL - Official website of National Movement for Free Elections PPCRV - Official website of the Parish Pastoral Council forResponsible Voting

North Kitsap School District

North Kitsap School District 400 is the school district serving the northern portion of Kitsap County, including the communities of Poulsbo, Port Gamble, Indianola and Kingston, Washington. Poulsbo is home to a handful of elementary schools, two middle schools, two high schools; the elementary schools located in Poulsbo include Richard Gordon Elementary, Pearson Elementary, Poulsbo Elementary and Vinland Elementary. Poulsbo Middle School and Kingston Middle School, North Kitsap High School and Kingston High School are located in this region of the North Kitsap School District. North Kitsap High School finished undergoing renovations in spring 2009, now provides students with a beautiful campus that features a brand new cafeteria, repaved walkways and decorative touches and other plants, more. There are 74 teachers and three counselors; the school is home to about 1,100 students. Kingston is home to many public schools such as Wolfle Elementary, Gordon Elementary, Kingston Middle School, Kingston High School and Spectrum Community School.

These are all a part of North Kitsap School District. Richard F. Gordon Elementary School is a Kindergarten through 5th grade public school in Kingston, Washington. Richard Gordon Elementary is the location of the regular and two additional programs that students from the North Kitsap School District can attend; the school is named after retired NASA astronaut Richard F. Gordon, an alumnus of nearby North Kitsap High School. Options is a parent involved, alternative learning program for grades K-8, it is located at Gordon Elementary. There is a large drama component, including multiple student plays each year; the Options program was founded in 1989. David H. Wolfle is a Kindergarten through 5th grade public school in Washington. Kingston Middle School is a middle school located in Washington. Located on West Kingston Road, the school was established in 1990; the school has sixth and eighth grade classes. In 2007, this school was changed from a junior high into a middle school. Kingston High School is a public high school in Washington.

The school opened as the second High school in the North Kitsap School District. The school holds grades 9-12. Suquamish is home to one elementary school. Suquamish Elementary is the only school in this region of the North Kitsap School District. Http://www.nkschools.org/