Grave Creek Mound

The Grave Creek Mound in the Ohio River Valley in West Virginia is one of the largest conical-type burial mounds in the United States, now standing 62 feet high and 240 feet in diameter. The builders of the site, members of the Adena culture, moved more than 60,000 tons of dirt to create it about 250–150 BC. Present-day Moundsville has developed around it near the banks of the Ohio River; the first recorded excavation of the mound took place in 1838, was conducted by local amateurs Abelard Tomlinson and Thomas Biggs. The largest surviving mound among those built by the Adena, this was designated a National Historic Landmark in the mid-20th century. In 1978 the state opened the Delf Norona Museum at the site, it interprets the ancient Adena Culture. In 2010, under an agreement with the state, the US Army Corps of Engineers gave nearly 450,000 artifacts to the museum for archival storage; these were recovered in archeological excavations at the site of the Marmet Lock, represent 10,000 years of indigenous habitation in the area.

Grave Creek Mound is the largest conical type of any of the mound builder structures. Construction of the earthwork mound took place in successive stages from about 250–150 B. C. as indicated by the multiple burials at different levels within the structures. In 1838, road engineers measured its height at its base as 295 feet. A moat of about 40 feet in width and five feet in depth, with one causeway across it, encircled the mound for defensive purposes. Inside the mound, archaeological researchers have discovered Adena ornaments. In addition, they discovered a small sandstone tablet, the Grave Creek Stone, which modern scholars believe to be a hoax. Grave Creek mound was created during the Woodland time period; the people who lived in West Virginia during this time are among those groups classified as Mound Builders. This particular tumulus or burial mound was built in successive stages over a period of a hundred years; the Grave Creek Mound was believed first seen by a European American in 1770, when Joseph Tomlinson and his brother built a log cabin at Grave Creek Flats.

Joseph discovered the mound accidentally while hunting. Two years he built a cabin for his family 300 feet from the mound; this was 33 years. It was visited in 1775 by the young Englishman Nicholas Cresswell on his canoe expedition down the Ohio River, he describes its history and surrounding structures in his journal. On March 19, 1838, the landowner Jesse Tomlinson's nephew, Abelard Tomlinson, Abelard's brother-in-law Thomas Briggs began excavation on the first of three shafts into Grave Creek Mound; the first shaft was begun 4 feet feet up on the north face of the mound so that the excavated soil could be deposited in the ditch rather than be carted away. At 111 feet into the mound a burial chamber was discovered, dug into the original ground surface; the burial chamber was reported to have been a cuboid measuring 8 feet by 12 feet aligned north-south and dug 7–8 ft into the natural ground surface. While contemporary reports indicate that the lower burial was central to the mound, given the 295 feet diameter of the mound recorded in 1838, the 111 feet tunnel, this may have been a simplification, with the burial "central", rather than in the exact center.

The lower tomb contained one on the eastern side and the other on the western. The western was found with 650 beads of either shell or ivory depending on the historical accounting; the second two tunnels were dug following the discovery of the lower vault, one vertical from the top into the mound and the second halfway up on the northern face. These two shafts intersected at a second burial chamber, containing a single burial, discovered June 9, 1838. Among the artifacts reported were 1700 ivory beads, 500 sea shells, five copper bracelets; the tunnels they made destroyed valuable evidence that could have been used by researchers to compare with data from other mounds. Once the mound was excavated, Tomlinson expanded the lower burial chamber and opened a museum inside the mound, charging an admission fee for visitors though it was abandoned in 1847. In 1843, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, an early ethnologist of Native Americans, mapped the area, he was appointed as the US Indian Agent along the northern frontier and based in Michigan.

In 1908 the mound was saved from demolition for development by local women of the Wheeling Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, who raised funds to acquire an option on the property. In 1909 the state of West Virginia purchased the site for preservation, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1964. Further archaeological investigation led to the discovery that the appearance of the earth of the mound is quite different underneath the surface compared to the land around it. Although it was built of the same dirt, the remains of dead bodies that were burned changed the color of some dirt to blue; the Delf Norona Museum displays many artifacts found at the site. It is operated by the West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Opened in 1978, the museum has exhibits that interpret the culture of the Adena people and theories about how the mound was constructed. In the 21st century, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers transferred nearly 450,000 artifacts t

Kerman, California

Kerman is a city at the intersection of State Route 180 and State Route 145 in Fresno County, California, USA. The population was 13,544 at the 2010 census. Kerman is located 15 miles west at an elevation of 220 feet. Around 1891, the Southern Pacific Railroad constructed a new line between Fresno. A watering tank and pump on that line was the beginning of Kerman, christened Collis in honor of the President of the road, Collis Potter Huntington; the first inhabitant, the caretaker of the pump and tank, kept the tank full of water for the thirsty engines with their long and lumbering trains. After some months, he resigned his job, not because of the work, he said, but because it was too lonesome and he was tired of being a hermit, he said he never saw anyone but the train crews and they were always in too big a hurry to carry on a conversation. On August 3, 1892, the train bandits Chris Evans, John Sontag, George Contant robbed a Southern Pacific train at Collis. Contant went to Folsom State Prison for the crime.

Evans and John Sontag became fugitives for ten months before they were captured in 1893 in what is called the Battle of Stone Corral. John Sontag died of his wounds in custody, Chris Evans was sent to Folsom upon his conviction of the crime; as a speculative venture, the old and rich Bank of California purchased a huge tract of land in every County of California. The arid, barren land around Kerman seemed to be a good venture, so that happened to be the allotment for Fresno County. After the death of its promoter, the bank became insolvent and its property was liquidated; the property here attracted the attention of two Los Angeles capitalists, William G. Kerckhoff and Jacob Mansar, who saw a chance to purchase a plentiful water supply from the newly constructed Enterprise Canal, which had its source in the Kings River; the men combined the first three letters of each of their names and christened the area "Kerman." They pitched the property to Germans settled in the Midwest. The Collis post office was opened in 1894, closed in 1899, re-established in 1904, renamed Kerman in 1906.

Kerman incorporated in 1946. The independent Kerman Telephone company retired its four-position manual telephone switchboard, described by a state telephone association as the last of its kind in California, in 1991. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.2 square miles, all of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Kerman had a population of 13,544; the population density was 4,189.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Kerman was 6,860 White, 68 African American, 173 Native American, 1,091 Asian, 14 Pacific Islander, 4,675 from other races, 663 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9,711 persons; the Census reported that 13,537 people lived in households, 2 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 5 were institutionalized. There were 3,692 households, out of which 2,160 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,248 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 615 had a female householder with no husband present, 272 had a male householder with no wife present.

There were 285 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 25 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 460 households were made up of individuals and 208 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.67. There were 3,135 families; the population was spread out with 4,648 people under the age of 18, 1,469 people aged 18 to 24, 3,870 people aged 25 to 44, 2,580 people aged 45 to 64, 977 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males. There were 3,908 housing units at an average density of 1,209.0 per square mile, of which 3,692 were occupied, of which 2,165 were owner-occupied, 1,527 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.3%. 8,215 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 5,322 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,551 people, 2,389 households, 1,994 families residing in the city.

The population density was 1,528.5/km². There were 2,462 housing units at an average density of 440.1/km². The racial makeup of the city was 42.50% White, 0.36% Black or African American, 1.95% Native American, 8.29% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 42.38% from other races, 4.49% from two or more races. 64.93 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 2,389 households out of which 51.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.4% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.5% were non-families. 13.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.57 and the average family size was 3.91. In the city, the population was spread out with 35.3% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 16.5% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,188, the median income for a family was $34,120. Male

Blackburn High School

Blackburn High School is a public secondary school for both girls and boys in years 7 to 12 in Blackburn North, a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, founded in 1956. The school has performed in music events such as The Victorian School Music Festival, The Royal South Street Competition and Generations in Jazz Competition in Mount Gambier, which they have won a number of times. Christos Tsiolkas - Novelist Ross Irwin - Trumpet player in Melbourne based band'The Cat Empire'. Shannon Barnett - Trombonist, Bell Awards winner for Young Australian Jazz Artist of the Year 2007 Daniel Merriweather - R&B Singer/Songwriter. Reuben Morgan - Singer/Songwriter at the Hillsong Church Darren James - 3AW Radio Announcer Don Scott - Former Hawthorn AFL Football Club Captain & Premiership Player & South Adelaide coach. Dee Ryall MP - Member for Mitcham Jenny Donnet - Olympic and Commonwealth Games diving athlete Steve Irons - Federal Member for Swan 2007