SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Great Australian Bight

The Great Australian Bight is a large oceanic bight, or open bay, off the central and western portions of the southern coastline of mainland Australia. Two definitions of the extent are in use – one used by the International Hydrographic Organization and the other used by the Australian Hydrographic Service; the IHO defines the Great Australian Bight as having the following limits: On the North. The south coast of the Australian mainland. On the South. A line joining West Cape Howe Australia to South West Cape, Tasmania. On the East. A line from Cape Otway, Victoria to King Island and thence to Cape Grim, the northwest extreme of Tasmania; the AHS defines the bight with a smaller area, from Cape Pasley, Western Australia, to Cape Carnot, South Australia - a distance of 1,160 kilometres. Much of the bight lies due south of the expansive Nullarbor Plain, which straddles South Australia and Western Australia; the Eyre Highway passes close to the cliffs of the bight between the Head of the Eucla. Outside of Australia, the Great Australian Bight is considered part of the Indian Ocean.

The AHS considers it to be part of the Southern Ocean, using the expanded Australian definition used for this ocean. The IHO in its Limits of Oceans and Seas includes the bight with the Indian Ocean, while Bass Strait and the Tasman Sea are included by IHO with the South Pacific Ocean in the 2002 draft. In the 1953 edition, IHO includes Bass Strait as part of the Indian Ocean; the Great Australian Bight was first encountered by European explorers in 1627 when Dutch navigator François Thijssen sailed along its western margins. The coast was first charted by the English navigator Matthew Flinders in 1802, during his circumnavigation of the Australian continent. A land-based survey was accomplished by the English explorer Edward John Eyre; the bight came into existence when Gondwana broke apart and separated Antarctica from Australia around 50 million years ago. The coastline of the Great Australian Bight is characterised by cliff faces, surfing beaches and rock platforms, ideal for whale-watching.

This is a popular activity during the southern hemisphere winter, when increasing numbers of southern right whales migrate to the region from their summer feeding grounds in the Antarctic. The whales come to the Bight region to the Head of Bight, to calve and breed, do not feed until they return to the Antarctic, their numbers were depleted by whaling during the 19th Century, but have since recovered to some extent. The Nullarbor Plain, which borders much of the length of the Bight's coastline, is a former seabed, uplifted during the Miocene. Consisting of limestone, it is flat, has an arid or semi-arid climate with little rainfall, high summer temperatures and high evaporation rates, it has no surface drainage, but has a karst drainage system through cave formation in the underlying limestone. North of the Nullarbor lies the Great Victoria Desert, which has an internal drainage system terminating in numerous small salt lakes; the lack of surface runoff and terrestrial nutrients results in the shallow waters of the Great Australian Bight being low in nutrients, therefore oligotrophic, compared with many other continental shelves which support major fisheries.

Seasonal upwelling of deep ocean water along the coast of the Eyre Peninsula in the eastern part of the Bight brings nutrients to the surface waters, with the resulting fertility creating an important marine hotspot. The waters of the Great Australian Bight are biodiverse in zooplankton, due to a particular series of ocean currents. A literature review undertaken by SARDI on the Benthic Protection Zone of the Great Australian Bight Marine Park in 2003 states: "Upwelling events during summer and autumn produce cool patches of surface water along the coast of the southern Eyre Peninsula; these patches contain elevated nutrient concentrations and support enhanced levels of primary productivity. High densities of zooplankton to the northwest of the patches indicate that the prevailing southeasterly winds transport the products of this enhanced biological production into the central GAB; these plankton communities support the highest densities of small planktivorous fishes, including sardine and anchovy, in Australian waters.

Juvenile southern bluefin tuna migrate into the GAB annually to feed on these rich pelagic resources." As the nutrients are swept up from the deep water ocean floor and pushed in towards the coast, the food chain is injected with a massive influx of the bottom rung. There is not enough known about the full scope of species that dwell in or migrate to the Great Australian Bight, so more studies are required. "The Interim Marine and Coastal Regionalisation of Australia classification suggests that high biodiversity in the GAB may be explained by the presence of temperate species with eastern and western affinities, as well as “tropical stragglers” from northern regions. However, patterns of diversity vary between taxa. Mangroves are poorly represented due to the lack of estuaries. Seagrasses are confined to sheltered bays and the lees of reefs and islands due to the frequent disturbance of inshore habitats by large swells. In contrast, the macroalgal assemblage of the GAB is one of the world’s most diverse and includes >1200 species.

Over 90% of species in most invertebrate groups are endemic to southern Australia, but the proportion, confined to the GAB is unknown."There is still much research needed to understand the complex ecosystems of the Great Australian Bight and h

Tolentino order of battle

This is an order of battle for the Battle of Tolentino, fought on 2 May – 3 May 1815. Commander-in-chief: Lieutenant Field Marshal Baron Bianchi Total strength: 11,938 men – 1,452 horses – 28 guns Commander: Lieutenant Field Marshal Baron Mohr General staff: Colonel Baron Fleischer, Major Kunerth, Captain Auer, Captain Muhlruer, Captain Potier Commander: General Count Staheremberg General staff: Captain Spanoghi, Lieutenant Moker Pioneers Company No. 1 "Radinski" Tyrolean Jäger Battalion No. 9 4¾ Squadrons, Hungarian Hussar Regiment No. 5 "Prince Regent of England" 1 Battalion, Grenz Infantry Regiment No. 61 "Saint-Julien" Artillery Total: 2,147 men – 540 horses – 6 guns Commander: General Baron Senitzer General Staff: General Staab, Major Startenthal, Captain Weingarten 2 Battalions, Line Infantry Regiment No. 2 "Hiller" 2 Battalions, Line Infantry Regiment No. 43 "Simbschen" 1 Battalion, Grenz Infantry Regiment No. 62 "Wacquant-Geozelles" Artillery Total: 4,920 men – 70 horses – 8 guns Commander: General Baron Ekhardt 3 Battalions, Line Infantry Regiment No. 3 "Archduke Charles" 2 Battalions, Line Infantry Regiment No. 27 "Chasteler" Artillery Total: 4,048 men – 70 horses – 8 guns Commander: General Baron Taxis 5½ Squadrons, Royal Tuscan Dragoon Regiment "Grand Duke Ferdinand" Artillery Total: 823 men – 772 horses – 6 guns Commander-in-chief: King Joachim Murat of Naples General staff: General Prince Campana, General Costa, General De Medici, Captain Caselli Total strength: 25,588 men – 4,790 horses – 58 guns Captain of the Guard: Lieutenant General Millet de Villeneuve Commander: General Prince Pignatelli Strongoli 1st Velites Regiment 2nd Velites Regiment Voltigeurs 2nd Artillery Regiment 540 men Artillery Baggage Train Total: 4,044 men – 250 horses – 10 guns Commander: General Livron Hussars of the Guard Mounted Chasseurs of the Guard Chevau-légers of the Guard Lancers of the Guard Artillery Baggage Train Total: 1,576 men – 1,894 horses – 10 guns Commander: General Ambrosio 3rd Light Infantry Regiment 2nd Line Infantry Regiment 6th Line Infantry Regiment 9th Line Infantry Regiment Artillery Baggage Train Total: 8,229 men – 210 horses – 10 guns Commander: General Lechi 1st Light Infantry Regiment 4th Line Infantry Regiment 7th Line Infantry Regiment 8th Line Infantry Regiment Artillery Baggage Train Total: 8,010 men – 220 horses – 10 guns Commander: General Pignatelli Cerchiara 4th Light Infantry Regiment 10th, 11th and 12th Line Infantry Regiments Cavalry Reserve Total: 1,900 men – 500 horses Commander: General Rossetti 1st Chevau-légers Regiment 2nd Chevau-légers Regiment 3rd Chevau-légers Regiment 4th Chevau-légers Regiment Total: 1,849 men – 1,716 horses Scheid, Frederick C.

Appendix IV, Napoleon's Italian Campaigns: 1805-1815, Praeger/Greenwood. Order of Battle at Tolentino 815

Kenyapithecus

Kenyapithecus wickeri is a fossil ape discovered by Louis Leakey in 1961 at a site called Fort Ternan in Kenya. The upper jaw and teeth were dated to 14 million years ago. One theory states. More recent investigations suggest Kenyapithecus is more primitive than that and is only more modern than when Proconsul is considered to be an ape. Evidence suggests that Kenyapithecus wickeri was one of the species that started a radiation of apes out of Africa. Impressed by Kenyapithecus's modern-looking teeth, Leakey declared Kenyapithecus to be "a early ancestor of man himself."Kenyapithecus possessed craniodental adaptations for hard object feeding including thicker molar enamel, a large mandible, large premolars and upper incisors that are similar to those seen in living pitheciine monkeys. Kenyapithecus possessed macaque-like limbs adapted for a knuckle-walking mode of semi-terrestrial locomotion; this could show. Kenyapithecus wickeri has distinct features details in the canine teeth and is similar to modern apes