Great Depression in Canada

The worldwide Great Depression of the early 1930s was a social and economic shock that left millions of Canadians unemployed and homeless. Few countries were affected as as Canada during what became known as the "Dirty Thirties," due to Canada's heavy dependence on raw material and farm exports, combined with a crippling Prairies drought known as the Dust Bowl. Widespread losses of jobs and savings transformed the country by triggering the birth of social welfare, a variety of populist political movements, a more activist role for government in the economy. Significant results By 1930, 30% of the labour force was out of work, one fifth of the population became dependent on government assistance. Wages fell, as did prices. Gross National Expenditure had declined 42% from the 1929 levels. In some areas, the decline was far worse. In the rural areas of the prairies, two thirds of the population were on relief. Further damage was the reduction of investment: both large companies and individuals were unwilling and unable to invest in new ventures.

In 1932, industrial production was only at 58% of the 1929 level, the second lowest level in the world after the United States, well behind nations such as Britain, which only saw it fall to 83% of the 1929 level. Total national income fell to 55% of the 1929 level, again worse than any nation other than the U. S. Canada's economy at the time was just starting to shift from primary industry to manufacturing. Exports of raw materials plunged, employment and profits fell in every sector. Canada was the worst-hit because of its economic position, it was further affected as its main trading partners were Britain and the U. S. both of which were badly affected by the worldwide depression. One of the areas not affected was bush flying, thanks to a mining and exploration boom, continued to thrive throughout this period. So, most bush flying companies lost money, impacted by the government's cancellation of airmail contracts in 1931-2. Urban unemployment nationwide was 19%. Farmers who stayed on their farms were not considered unemployed.

By 1933, 30% of the labour force was out of work, one-fifth of the population became dependent on government assistance. Wages fell. In some areas, such as mining and lumbering areas, the decline was far worse; the Prairie Provinces and Western Canada were the hardest-hit. In the rural areas of the prairies, two thirds of the population were on relief; the region recovered after 1939. The fall of wheat prices drove many farmers to the cities, such as Calgary, Alberta. Population in the prairie provinces fell below natural replacement level. There was migration from the southern prairies affected by Dust Bowl conditions such as the Palliser's Triangle to aspen parkland in the north. During the depression, there was a rise of working class militancy organized by the Communist Party; the labour unions retreated in response to the ravages of the depression at the same time that significant portions of the working class, including the unemployed, clamoured for collective action. Numerous strikes and protests were led by the Communists, many of which culminated in violent clashes with the police.

Some notable ones include a coal miners strike that resulted in the Estevan Riot in Estevan, Saskatchewan that left three strikers dead by RCMP bullets in 1931, a waterfront strike in Vancouver that culminated with the "Battle of Ballantyne Pier" in 1935, numerous unemployed demonstrations up to and including the On-to-Ottawa Trek that left one Regina police constable and one protester dead in the "Regina Riot." Although the actual number of Communist Party militants remained small, their impact was far disproportionate to their numbers, in large part because of the anticommunist reaction of the government the policies of Prime Minister R. B. Bennett who vowed to crush Communism in Canada with an "iron heel of ruthlessness."These conflicts diminished after 1935, when the Communist Party shifted strategies and Bennett's Conservatives were defeated. Agitation and unrest nonetheless persisted throughout the depression, marked by periodic clashes, such as a sit-down strike in Vancouver that ended with "Bloody Sunday."

These developments had far-reaching consequences in shaping the postwar environment, including the domestic cold war climate, the rise of the welfare state, the implementation of an institutional framework for industrial relations. Women's primary role were as housewives; the birthrates fell everywhere, as children were postponed until families could financially support them. The average birthrate for 14 major countries fell 12% from 19.3 births per thousand population in 1930, to 17.0 in 1935. In Canada, half of Roman Catholic women defied Church teachings and used contraception to postpone births. Among the few women in the labor force, layoffs were less common in the white-collar jobs and they were found in light manufacturing work. However, there was a widespread demand to limit families to one paid job, so that wives might lose employment if their husband was employed. Housewives updated strategies their mothers used. Cheap foods were used, such as soups and noodles, they purchased the cheapest cuts of meat—sometimes horse meat—and recycled the Sunday roast into sandwiches and soups.

They sewed and patched clothing, traded with their neighbors for outgrown items, made do with colder homes. New furniture and appliances were postponed until better days; these strate

Selenographic coordinates

Selenographic coordinates are used to refer to locations on the surface of Earth's moon. Any position on the lunar surface can be referenced by specifying two numerical values, which are comparable to the latitude and longitude of Earth; the longitude gives the position east or west of the Moon's prime meridian, the line passing from the lunar north pole through the point on the lunar surface directly facing Earth to the lunar south pole. This can be thought of as the midpoint of the visible Moon; the latitude gives the position south of the lunar equator. Both of these coordinates are given in degrees. Astronomers defined the fundamental location in the selenographic coordinate system by the small, bowl-shaped satellite crater'Mösting A'; the coordinates of this crater are defined as: The coordinate system has become defined due to the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment. Anything past 90°E or 90°W would not be seen from Earth, except for libration, which makes 59% of the Moon visible. Longitude on the Moon is measured both west from its prime meridian.

When no direction is specified, east is positive and west is negative. Speaking, the Moon's prime meridian lies near the center of the Moon's disc as seen from Earth. For precise applications, many coordinate systems have been defined for the Moon, each with a different prime meridian; the IAU recommends the "mean Earth/polar axis" system, in which the prime meridian is the average direction of the Earth's center. The selenographic colongitude is the longitude of the morning terminator on the Moon, as measured in degrees westward from the prime meridian; the morning terminator forms a half-circle across the Moon. As the Moon continues in its orbit, this line advances in longitude; the value of the selenographic colongitude increases from 0° to 359° in the direction of the advancing terminator. Sunrise occurs at the prime meridian when the Lunar phase reaches First Quarter, after one fourth of a lunar day. At this location the selenographic colongitude at sunrise is defined as 0°. Thus, by the time of the Full Moon the colongitude increases to 90°.

Note that the Moon is nearly invisible from the Earth at New Moon phase except during a solar eclipse. The low angle of incidence of arriving sunlight tends to pick out features by the sharp shadows they cast, thus the area near the terminator is the most favorable for viewing or photographing lunar features through a telescope; the observer will need to know the location of the terminator to plan observations of selected features. The selenographic colongitude is useful for this purpose; the selenographic longitude of the evening terminator is equal to the colongitude plus 180°. "A Unified Lunar Control Network — The Near Side", Merton E. Davies, Tim R. Colvin, & Donald L. Mayer, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, 1987

Edward Rosenbaum

Edward E Rosenbaum, was an American physician and author. He is best known for the autobiographical chronicle of his experience with throat cancer, The Doctor, the basis of the movie The Doctor, starring William Hurt as a physician modeled on Dr. Rosenbaum, he was the founder of the Division of Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases at the Oregon Health & Science University, where a chair of medicine is named in his honor. Rosenbaum was born in Nebraska to Bessie Mittleman Rosenbaum and Sam Rosenbaum, he graduated from Omaha Central High School. Rosenbaum attended Creighton University and, in 1934, transferred to a combined bachelor and medical degree program at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine, where he earned an M. D. in 1938. He interned at Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, did a residency in metabolic disease at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, began a fellowship in internal medicine at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester. After army service in World War II, he returned to the Mayo Clinic where he trained in rheumatology under future Nobel laureate Phillip Hench.

While in medical training, Rosenbaum joined the US Army Reserve. In 1941, he was called to active duty, he was assigned to a mobile surgical unit, deployed in the invasions of Africa and Normandy. In late 1944, Dr. Rosenbaum, who had suffered from burns and hepatitis, was transferred back to the United States and hospitalized for six months, he awarded the Bronze Star. He finished his Army service as chief of medical services for the Women’s Army Corps. Rosenbaum moved to Portland, Oregon in January, 1948 where he joined Dr. Isadore Brill to practice internal medicine and rheumatology. Rosenbaum was soon joined in practice by his brother William M. Rosenbaum, M. D. and, a few years by John Flanery. M. D. Over the years, a number of other physicians joined Rosenbaum's practice, including his nephew, Robert A. Rosenbaum, M. D. and his son, Richard B. Rosenbaum, M. D. Edward Rosenbaum was on the volunteer faculty of the University of Oregon Medical School where he established the Division of Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases in 1950.

He headed the division for thirty years. In 1979 he wrote Rheumatology: New Directions in Therapy. Rosennbaum retired from the practice of medicine in 1986. In 1963, Rosenbaum began to collaborate with Dr. Stanley Jacob in research on medical uses of dimethyl sulfoxide; the drug showed promise in the treatment of many conditions and the popular press brought the researchers into the public limelight, but safety concerns limited the drug’s use. In 1985, Rosenbaum was diagnosed with throat cancer, he kept a diary of experiences as a cancer patient, which Random House published as A Taste of My Own Medicine. The book became the basis of the 1991 movie The Doctor and was issued as a paperback under that name. With the publicity from the movie, the paperback became a best-seller. Rosenbaum appears in a brief scene in the movie; the success of the book and movie led Rosenbaum to embark on a second career as a writer and speaker. He advocated for more humane practices in medicine, he was a columnist for New Choices magazine served as a medical advisor to the 1995 movie Roommates, a collection of his essays was used in an English language instruction text for Japanese medical students.

Rosenbaum married Davida Naftalin, daughter of Rose Naftalin, in 1942. They had six grandchildren, he suffered from Parkinson's disease in his final years and his illness was chronicled in a book written by his eldest son. Rosenbaum died in Portland, Oregon, on May 31, 2009, six weeks after the birth of his first great-grandchild. In 1992, Rosenbaum was the commencement speaker at the College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, which for a time presented an annual Edward E. Rosenbaum Humanism in Medicine award. A chair of medicine at the Oregon Health and Science University is named after Rosenbaum, his son, James T. Rosenbaum holds the chair; the Edward E. Rosenbaum Hospice Life Award from the Pacific NW Hospice Foundation is named after him