Grand Duchy of Finland
The Grand Duchy of Finland was the predecessor state of modern Finland. It existed between 1917 as an autonomous part of the Russian Empire. Originating in the 16th century as a titular grand duchy held by the King of Sweden, it became autonomous after the Russian annexation in the Finnish War; the Grand Duke of Finland was the Romanov Emperor of Russia, represented by the Governor-General. Due to the governmental structure of the Russian Empire and Finnish initiative, the grand duchy's autonomy expanded until the end of the 19th century; the Senate of Finland was founded in 1809, which became the most important governmental organ and the precursor to the modern Government of Finland, Supreme Court of Finland and the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland. The economic and political changes in the Grand Duchy of Finland were connected with those in the Russian Empire and the rest of Europe; the economy grew during the first half of the 19th century. The reign of Alexander II after 1855 saw significant cultural and intellectual progress and an industrializing economy.
Tensions increased after the Russification policies were enacted in 1889, which saw the introduction of limited autonomy and reduction of Finnish cultural expression. The unrest in Russia and Finland during World War I and the subsequent collapse of the Russian Empire resulted in the Finnish Declaration of Independence and the end of the Grand Duchy. An extended Southwest Finland was made a titular grand duchy in 1581, when King Johan III of Sweden, who as a prince had been the Duke of Finland, extended the list of subsidiary titles of the Kings of Sweden considerably; the new title Grand Duke of Finland did not result in any Finnish autonomy, as Finland was an integrated part of the Kingdom of Sweden with full parliamentary representation for its counties. During the next two centuries, the title was used by some of Johan's successors on the throne, but not all, it was just a subsidiary title of the King, used only on formal occasions. However, in 1802, as an indication of his resolve to keep Finland within Sweden in the face of increased Russian pressure, King Gustav IV Adolf gave the title to his new-born son, Prince Carl Gustaf, who died three years later.
During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of occupied Finland were assembled at the Diet of Porvoo on 29 March 1809 to pledge allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia, who in return guaranteed that the area's laws and liberties as well as religion would be left unchanged. Following the Swedish defeat in the war and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on 17 September 1809, Finland became a true autonomous grand duchy within the autocratic Russian Empire; the title "Grand Duke of Finland" was added to the long list of titles of the Russian Tsar. After his return to Finland in 1812, the Finnish-born Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt became counsellor to the Russian emperor. Armfelt was instrumental in securing the Grand Duchy as an entity with greater autonomy within the Russian realm, restoring the so-called Old Finland, lost to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721; the formation of the Grand Duchy stems from the Treaty of Tilsit between Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon Bonaparte of France.
The treaty mediated peace between Russia and France and allied the two countries against Napoleon's remaining threats: Great Britain and Sweden. Russia invaded Finland in February 1808, claimed as an effort to impose military sanctions against Sweden, but not a war of conquest, that Russia decided to only temporarily control Finland. Collectively, the Finnish were predominately Anti-Russian, Finnish guerillas and peasant uprisings were a large obstacles for the Russians, forcing Russia to use various tactics to quash armed Finnish rebellion. Thus, in the beginning of the war, General Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden, with permission of the Tsar, issued an oath of fealty on Finland, in which Russia would honor Finland's Lutheran faith, the Finnish Diet, the Finnish estates as long as the Finns would remain loyal to the Russian crown; the oath dubbed anyone person who gave aid to the Swedish or Finnish armies a rebel. The Finns complied, bitter over Sweden abandoning the country for their war against Denmark and France, begrudgingly embraced Russian conquest.
The Diet of Finland was now to only meet whenever requested, was never mentioned in the manifesto published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Further on, Alexander I requested a deputation of the four Finnish estates, as he expressed concern over continued Finnish resistance; the deputation refused to act without the Diet, to which Alexander agreed with, promised the Diet would shortly be summoned. By 1809, all of Finland had been conquered and The Diet was summoned in March. Finland was united through Russia via crown, Finland was able to keep the majority of its own laws, giving it autonomy; the earlier years of the Grand Duchy can be seen as uneventful. In 1812, the area of Old Finland, known as the Viipuri Province was returned to Finland after being annexed by Russia in the Great Northern War and the Russo-Swedish War; this surprising action by the Tsar was met with anger from certain parts of the Russian government and aristocracy, who wished to either return to the previous border or annex the communities west of St. Petersburg.
Despite the outcry, the borders remained set until 1940. The gesture can b
Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander
Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander was a German astronomer. He is known for his determinations of stellar brightnesses and distances. Argelander was born in Memel in the Kingdom of Prussia, the son of a father of Finnish descent, Johann Gottlieb Argelander, German mother, Dorothea Wilhelmina Grünlingen, he studied with Friedrich Bessel, obtained his Ph. D. in 1822 at University of Königsberg. From 1823 until 1837, Argelander was the head of the Finnish observatory, first in Turku and in Helsinki, he moved to Bonn, Germany. There he designed and built a new observatory at the University of Bonn with funding approved directly by King Frederick William IV whom Argelander had become friends with in his childhood. Argelander excelled in developing effective and fast methods for measuring star positions and magnitudes, thereby making a pioneering work for modern astronomy, he measured star distances with heliometers. His, his collaborators', great practical works of star cataloging and variable star research were made possible by the systematic usage of newly developed techniques.
Argelander was the first astronomer to begin a careful study of variable stars. Only a handful were known when he began, he was responsible for introducing the modern system of identifying them, he made a rough determination of the direction in which the Sun was moving. In 1842, he discovered that Groombridge 1830 had a high proper motion. For many decades its proper motion was the highest known. For a time, it was known as Argelander's Star. Together with Adalbert Krüger and Eduard Schönfeld, Argelander was responsible for the star catalogue known as the Bonner Durchmusterung, published between 1859 and 1862, which gave the positions and brightness of more than 324,000 stars, although it did not cover much of the southern half of the sky; this was the last star map to be published without the use of photography. In 1863, Argelander helped lead in the founding of an international organization of astronomers named the Astronomische Gesellschaft. Elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1846.
Elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1855. Elected Member of the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium. Was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1863. Orden Pour le Mérite für Wissenschaften und Künste in 1874; the three astronomical institutes of the Bonn University were merged and renamed as the Argelander-Institut für Astronomie in 2006. The crater Argelander on the Moon and the asteroid 1551 Argelander are named for him. Argelander, Friedrich Wilhelm. Untersuchung über die Bahn des grossen Cometen vom Jahre 1811, 4, Königsberg Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Technology. Doubleday & Co. Inc. ISBN 0-385-17771-2. Sticker, Bernhard. "Argelander, Friedrich Wilhelm August". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 240–243. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. Variable star designation Citations Works written by or about Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander at WikisourceGünther, Siegmund, "Argelander, Friedrich", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 46, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 36–38 W.
T. L.. "Obituary". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 36: 151–155. Bibcode:1876MNRAS..36..151.. Doi:10.1093/mnras/36.4.151. Retrieved 2008-05-20. Neue Uranometrie, 1843 - Full digital facsimile, Linda Hall Library. Uranometria nova, Berlin 1843
Turku Cathedral is the previous catholic cathedral of Finland, today the Mother Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. It is the central church of the Lutheran Archdiocese of Turku and the seat of the Lutheran Archbishop of Finland, Kari Mäkinen, it is regarded as one of the major records of Finnish architectural history. Considered to be the most important religious building in Finland, the cathedral has borne witness to many important events in the nation's history and has become one of the city's most recognizable symbols; the cathedral is situated in the heart of Turku next by the river Aura. Its presence extends beyond the local precinct by having the sound of its bells chiming at noon broadcast on national radio, it is central to Finland's annual Christmas celebrations. The cathedral was built out of wood in the late 13th century, was dedicated as the main cathedral of Finland in 1300, the seat of the Catholic bishop of Turku, it was expanded in the 14th and 15th centuries using stone as the construction material.
The cathedral was badly damaged during the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, was rebuilt to a great extent afterwards. As the town of Turku began to emerge in the course of the 13th century as the most important trading centre in Finland, the Bishop's see of the Diocese of Finland was transferred from its previous location at Koroinen, some distance further up on the bank of Aura river, to the middle of the town. By the end of the 13th century, a new stone church had been completed on the site of the former wooden-built parish church on Unikankare Mound, it was consecrated in 1300 as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Henry, the first Bishop of Finland. At its earliest the cathedral was smaller than the present building, its east front was where the pulpit stands now, its roof was lower than at the moment. Extensions were made to the cathedral throughout the Middle Ages. During the 14th century a new choir was added, from which the octagonal Gothic pillars in the present chancel originate.
Throughout the Middle Ages, the High Altar was located opposite the easternmost pillars of the nave, until it was transferred to its present location in the apse, in what had been the Chapel of All Saints, in the mid-17th century. During the 15th century, side-chapels were added along the north and south sides of the nave, containing altars dedicated to various saints. By the end of the Middle Ages these numbered 42 in total; the roof-vaults were raised during the latter part of the 15th century to their present height of 24 meters. Thus, by the beginning of the Modern era, the church had taken on its present shape; the major addition to the cathedral is the tower, rebuilt several times, as a result of repeated fires. The worst damage was caused by the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, when most of the town was destroyed, along with the interior of both the tower and the nave and the old tower roof; the present spire of the tower, constructed after the great fire, reaches a height of 101 meters above sea level, is visible over a considerable distance as the symbol of both the cathedral and the city of Turku itself.
In the reformation the cathedral was taken by the Lutheran Church of Finland. Most of the present interior dates from the restoration carried out in the 1830s, following the Great Fire; the altarpiece, depicting the Transfiguration of Jesus, was painted in 1836 by the Swedish artist Fredrik Westin. The reredos behind the High Altar, the pulpit in the crossing both date from the 1830s, were designed by german architect Carl Ludvig Engel, known in Finland for his several other regarded works; the walls and roof in the chancel are decorated with frescos in the Romantic style by the court painter Robert Wilhelm Ekman, which depict events from the life of Jesus, the two key events in the history of the Finnish Church: the baptism of the first Finnish Christians by Bishop Henry by the spring at Kupittaa, the presentation to King Gustav Vasa by the Reformer Michael Agricola of the first Finnish translation of the New Testament. The Cathedral houses three organs; the current main organ of the Cathedral was built by Veikko Virtanen Oy of Espoo, Finland, in 1980 and features 81 ranks with a mechanical action.
Blessed Bishop Hemming, Bishop of Turku Paulus Juusten, Bishop of Viipuri and Bishop of Turku Karin Månsdotter, Queen of Sweden Princess Sigrid of Sweden, Swedish princess Samuel Cockburn, Scottish mercenary leader Torsten Stålhandske, officer in the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War Åke Henriksson Tott, Swedish soldier and politician Archdiocese of Turku Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland Great Fire of Turku Helena Escholin List of tallest churches in the world Turku Frog coffin Official website Virtual Turku – sound and images from the cathedral Medieval Turku Turku Cathedral – photos Turku church organs
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most known as Norden. The term includes Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, as well as Greenland and the Faroe Islands—which are both part of the Kingdom of Denmark—and the Åland Islands and Svalbard and Jan Mayen archipelagos that belong to Finland and Norway whereas the Norwegian Antarctic territories are not considered a part of the Nordic countries, due to their geographical location. Scandinavians, who comprise over three quarters of the region's population, are the largest group, followed by Finns, who comprise the majority in Finland; the native languages Swedish, Norwegian and Faroese are all North Germanic languages rooted in Old Norse. Native non-Germanic languages are Finnish and several Sami languages; the main religion is Lutheran Christianity. The Nordic countries have much in common in their way of life, religion, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure.
The Nordic countries have a long history of political unions and other close relations, but do not form a separate entity today. The Scandinavist movement sought to unite Denmark and Sweden into one country in the 19th century, with the indepedence of Finland in the early 20th century, Iceland in the mid 20th century, this movement expanded into the modern organised Nordic cooperation which includes the Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers. In English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, but that term more properly refers to the three monarchies of Denmark and Sweden. Geologically, the Scandinavian Peninsula comprises the mainland of Norway and Sweden as well as the northernmost part of Finland; the combined area of the Nordic countries is 3,425,804 square kilometres. Uninhabitable icecaps and glaciers comprise about half of this area in Greenland. In January 2013, the region had a population of around 26 million people; the Nordic countries cluster near the top in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life and human development.
With only four language groups, the common linguistic heterogeneous heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity. The languages of Danish, Swedish and Faroese are all rooted in Old Norse and Danish and Swedish are considered mutually intelligible; these three dominating languages are taught in schools throughout the Nordic region. For example, Swedish is a mandatory subject in Finnish schools, since Finland by law is a bilingual country. Danish is mandatory in Faroese and Greenlandic schools, as these insular states are a part of the Danish Realm. Iceland teaches Danish, since Iceland too was a part of the Danish Realm until 1918. Beside these and the insular Scandinavian languages Faroese and Icelandic, which are North Germanic languages, there are the Finnic and Sami branches of the Uralic languages, spoken in Finland and in northern Norway and Finland, respectively. All the Nordic countries have a North Germanic official language called a Nordic language in the Nordic countries.
The working languages of the Nordic region's two political bodies are Danish and Swedish. Each of the Nordic countries has its own economic and social models, sometimes with large differences from its neighbours, but to varying degrees the Nordic countries share the Nordic model of economy and social structure: a market economy is combined with strong labour unions and a universalist welfare sector financed by heavy taxes. There is a high degree of income redistribution and little social unrest and these include support for said "universalist" welfare state aimed at enhancing individual autonomy and promoting social mobility; the Nordic countries consists of historical territories of the Scandinavian countries, areas that share a common history and culture with Scandinavia. It is meant to refer to this larger group, since the term Scandinavia is narrower and sometimes ambiguous; the Nordic countries are considered to refer to Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, including their associated territories.
The term "Nordic countries" found mainstream use after the advent of Foreningen Norden. The term is derived indirectly from the local term Norden, used in the Scandinavian languages, which means "The North". Unlike "the Nordic countries", the term Norden is in the singular; the demonym is nordbo meaning "northern dweller". Scandinavia refers to either the cultural and linguistic group formed by the three monarchies Denmark and Sweden, or the Scandinavian peninsula, formed by mainland Norway and Sweden as well as the northwesternmost part of Finland. Outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia is used incorrectly as a synonym for the Nordic countries. First recorded use of the name by Pliny the Elder about a "large, fertile island in the North". Fennoscandia refers to the area that includes the Scandinavian peninsula, Kola Peninsula and Karelia; this term is
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
The grid plan, grid street plan, or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. The infrastructure cost for regular grid patterns is higher than for patterns with discontinuous streets. Costs for streets depend on four variables: street width, street length, block width and pavement width. Two inherent characteristics of the grid plan, frequent intersections and orthogonal geometry, facilitate pedestrian movement; the geometry helps with orientation and wayfinding and its frequent intersections with the choice and directness of route to desired destinations. In ancient Rome, the grid plan method of land measurement was called centuriation; the grid plan originated in multiple cultures. By 2600 BC, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, were built with blocks divided by a grid of straight streets, running north–south and east–west; each block was subdivided by small lanes. The cities and monasteries of Gandhara, dating from the 1st millennium BC to the 11th century AD had grid-based designs.
Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan since 1959, was founded on the grid-plan of the nearby ruined city of Sirkap. A workers' village at Giza, housed a rotating labor force and was laid out in blocks of long galleries separated by streets in a formal grid. Many pyramid-cult cities used a common orientation: a north–south axis from the royal palace and an east–west axis from the temple, meeting at a central plaza where King and God merged and crossed. Hammurabi king of the Babylonian Empire in the 17th century BC, ordered the rebuilding of Babylon: constructing and restoring temples, city walls, public buildings, irrigation canals; the streets of Babylon were wide and straight, intersected at right angles, were paved with bricks and bitumen. The tradition of grid plans is continuous in China from the 15th century BC onward in the traditional urban planning of various ancient Chinese states. Guidelines put into written form in the Kaogongji during the Spring and Autumn period stated: "a capital city should be square on plan.
Three gates on each side of the perimeter lead into the nine main streets that crisscross the city and define its grid-pattern. And for its layout the city should have the Royal Court situated in the south, the Marketplace in the north, the Imperial Ancestral Temple in the east and the Altar to the Gods of Land and Grain in the west." Teotihuacan, near modern-day Mexico City, is the largest ancient grid-plan site in the Americas. The city's grid covered 21 square kilometres; the most well-known grid system is that spread through the colonies of the Roman Empire. The archetypal Roman Grid was introduced to Italy first by the Greeks, with such information transferred by way of trade and conquest. Although the idea of the grid was present in Hellenic societal and city planning, it was not pervasive prior to the 5th century BC. However, it gained primacy through the work of Hippodamus of Miletus, who planned and replanned many Greek cities in accordance with this form; the concept of a grid as the ideal method of town planning had become accepted by the time of Alexander the Great.
His conquests were a step in the propagation of the grid plan throughout colonies, some as far-flung as Taxila in Pakistan, that would be mirrored by the expansion of the Roman Empire. The Greek grid had its streets aligned in relation to the cardinal points and looked to take advantage of visual cues based on the hilly landscape typical of Greece and Asia Minor; this was best exemplified in Priene, in present-day western Turkey, where the orthogonal city grid was based on the cardinal points, on sloping terrain that struck views out towards a river and the city of Miletus. The Etruscan people, whose territories in Italy encompassed what would become Rome, founded what is now the city of Marzabotto at the end of the 6th century BC, its layout was based on Greek Ionic ideas, it was here that the main east–west and north–south axes of a town could first be seen in Italy. According to Stanislawski, the Romans did use grids until the time of the late Republic or early Empire, when they introduced centuriation, a system which they spread around the Mediterranean and into northern Europe on.
The military expansion of this period facilitated the adoption of the grid form as standard: the Romans established castra first as military centres. The Roman grid was similar in form to the Greek version of a grid, but allowed for practical considerations. For example, Roman castra were sited on flat land close to or on important nodes like river crossings or intersections of trade routes; the dimensions of the castra were standard, with each of its four walls having a length of 660 metres. Familiarity was the aim of such standardisation: soldiers could be stationed anywhere around the Empire, orientation would be easy within established towns if they had a standard layout; each would have the aforementioned decumanus maximus and cardo maximus at its heart, their intersection would form the forum, around which would be sited important public buildings. Indeed, such was the degree of similarity between towns that Higgins states that soldiers "would be housed at the same address as they moved from castra to castra".
Pompeii has been cited by both Laurence as the best preserved example of the Roman grid. Outside of the castra, large tra
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people gather for the purchase and sale of provisions and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a souk, bazaar, a fixed mercado, or itinerant tianguis, or palengke; some markets operate daily and are said to be permanent markets while others are held once a week or on less frequent specified days such as festival days and are said to be periodic markets. The form that a market adopts depends on its locality's population, culture and geographic conditions; the term market covers many types of trading, as market squares, market halls and food halls, their different varieties. Due to this, marketplaces can be situated both indoors. Markets have existed for as long; the earliest bazaars are believed to have originated in Persia, from where they spread to the rest of the Middle East and Europe. Documentary sources suggest that zoning policies confined trading to particular parts of cities from around 3,000 BCE, creating the conditions necessary for the emergence of a bazaar.
Middle Eastern bazaars were long strips with stalls on either side and a covered roof designed to protect traders and purchasers from the fierce sun. In Europe, unregulated markets made way for a system of formal, chartered markets from the 12th century. Throughout the Medieval period, increased regulation of marketplace practices weights and measures, gave consumers confidence in the quality of market goods and the fairness of prices. Around the globe, markets have evolved in different ways depending on local ambient conditions weather and culture. In the Middle East, markets tend to be covered, to protect shoppers from the sun. In milder climates, markets are open air. In Asia, a system of morning markets trading in fresh produce and night markets trading in non-perishables is common. In many countries, shopping at a local market is a standard feature of daily life. Given the market's role in ensuring food supply for a population, markets are highly regulated by a central authority. In many places, designated market places have become listed sites of historic and architectural significance and represent part of a town or nation's cultural assets.
For these reasons, they are popular tourist destinations. The term market comes from the Latin mercatus; the earliest recorded use of the term market in English is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 963, a work, created during the reign of Alfred the Great and subsequently distributed, copied throughout English monasteries. The exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun,” which translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town.” Markets have existed since ancient times. Some historians have argued that a type of market has existed since humans first began to engage in trade. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, Phoenecia, Egypt and on the Arabian peninsula. However, not all societies developed a system of markets; the Greek historian, Herodotus noted. Across the Mediterranean and Aegean, a network of markets emerged from the early Bronze Age. A vast array of goods were traded including: salt, lapiz-lazuli, cloth, pots, statues and other implements. Archaeological evidence suggests that Bronze Age traders segmented trade routes according to geographical circuits.
Both produce and ideas travelled along these trade routes. In the Middle-East, documentary sources suggest that a form of bazaar first developed around 3,000 BCE. Early bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city; the bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world. Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised; the Greek historian, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth. He described a The Babylonian Marriage Market. In antiquity, markets were situated in the town's centre; the market was surrounded by alleyways inhabited by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers, leather workers and carpenters. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days.
Across ancient Greece market places were to be found in most city states, where they operated within the agora. Between 550 and 350 BCE, Greek stallholders clustered together according to the type of goods carried - fish-sellers were in one place, clothing in another and sellers of more expensive goods such as perfumes and jars were located in a separate building; the Greeks organised trade into all located near the city centre and known as stoa. A freestanding colonnade with a covered walkway, the stoa was both a place of commerce and a public promenade, situated within or adjacent to the agora. At the market-place in Athens, officials were employed by the government to oversee weights and coinage to ensure that the people were not cheated in market place transactions; the rocky and mountainous terrain in Greece made it difficult for producers to transport goods or surpluses to local markets, giving rise to a specialised type of retailer who operated as an intermediary purchasing produce from farmers