The Red Chapel of Hatshepsut or the Chapelle Rouge was constructed as a barque shrine during the reign of Hatshepsut. She was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt and ruled from 1479 to 1458 BC. Although it had been demolished and parts were reused in antiquity, following rediscovery, the chapel has been reconstructed using its original materials, its original location is thought to have been in the central court of the temple of Amun at Karnak, near Thebes. Alternatively, it might have been situated between the two obelisks of Hatshepsut, it is thought that Hatshepsut erected several smaller chapels and the Chambers of Hatshepsut behind the Red Chapel. Ancient Egyptians believed that a sacred barque was used in a nightly journey of the sun deity, traveling from the western horizon at sunset behind the earth to the eastern horizon where the sunrise would occur. During the early eighteenth dynasty, the sun deity was Amun. During religious ceremonies the deity would be transported from one temple or section of a temple complex to another in a model which the pharaoh and other religious leaders kept for such religious ceremonies.
The chapel would have been its sacred temple. A barque was believed to transport the dead to the afterlife and royal ones would carry the pharaoh on a journey to become a deity. In addition to the reliefs and paintings of barques, model copies were placed in the tombs of pharaohs and all who could afford to provide one for their burial; the chapel consists of two open courts and is 18 metres long, 6 m wide, 5.5 m high. Its upper portion is made of red quartzite. Black granite and grey diorite were used in its construction. In the center of the first of three courts contained in the building, is a basin used to hold a model of a barque. In the center of the inner court, two rectangular stone slabs mark places where statues or barques might have been placed, it was erected at the temple of Karnak in the sanctuary of Amun-Ra and placed in front of a mud-brick and limestone temple remaining from the Middle Kingdom. To the north and south of the Red Chapel stood a collection of smaller sandstone cult shrines known as the Hatshepsut Suite, whose decorations showed Hatshepsut making offerings to the deities.
The chapel consisted of two rooms, a vestibule, a sanctuary, which were raised on a diorite platform and could be accessed using short ramps on either side. The purpose of the chapel was to house the Userhat-Amun, the barque believed to be used by the deity Amun to travel about on festival days; the Userhat-Amun was a small-scale wooden boat covered in gold that bore an enclosed shrine in which the Amun statue was placed to be protected from the public view. On holy days, the statue of Amun would be placed on the barque and carried in procession from Karnak on the shoulders of priests; when the statue of Amun was not traveling, the barque rested in its own shrine. During the early New Kingdom, the barque had become an important aspect of Egyptian theology and barque shrines were built for many temples. During the reign of Hatshepsut, the Red Chapel was the prominent barque shrine of Amun at Karnak; the structure and complex history of the Red Chapel divulge secrets about the reign of Hatshepsut and the Egypt of the eighteenth dynasty.
All of the New Kingdom rulers built at Karnak. Successive pharaohs added various structures. Although Hatshepsut made many contributions to Karnak, one of her largest was the Red Chapel. Hatshepsut began construction on the chapel in the seventeenth year of her reign; the chapel was placed within the Palace of Ma’at, the sanctuary constructed for Karnak by Hatshepsut honoring one of the oldest of deities. There is some debate, over whether or not the sanctuary had to be modified to accommodate the chapel; because the space where the chapel was thought to stand once was occupied by a suite of three rooms that were built around the same time as the Red Chapel, Hatshepsut may have built the walls and had them torn down to make room for the introduction of the chapel. It is probable that Hatshepsut did not complete the decoration of the chapel before her death because the upper blocks show only Thutmose III, her successor, the upper registers of the southern outer wall bear a dedication inscription with his name alone.
These signs imply. Thutmose III had been the co-regent of Hatshepsut—the royal wife to his father and thereby his aunt and "stepmother"—who became pharaoh during his youth and ruled until her death. Thutmose III married the daughter of Hatshepsut to continue the royal lineage, but she and their offspring failed to survive his reign. During the majority of Thutmose's reign as pharaoh, none of the construction by Hatshepsut was harmed, in fact, he continued to enhance this structure; the destruction of the works of Hatshepsut seems to have begun after his remaining son became co-regent to him in his old age. Some of these blocks were reused in the shrine of Amun, erected in the heart of Karnak temple. Much of the chapel was covered in relief and inscriptions describing the events that occurred during the reign of Hatshepsut; some of the relief on the shrine depicts priests carrying the barque of Amun through the temples and streets of Thebes during religious festivals. Some of the blocks show Hatshepsut in the royal garb, running with the Apis bull between the markers of her Heb-Sed festival.
The blocks of the building have been numbered. Decorations on the Red Chapel may help archeologists pinpoint the coron
In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof, supported by columns. The word hypostyle comes from the Ancient Greek ὑπόστυλος hypóstȳlos meaning "under columns"; the roof may be constructed of with bridging lintels of stone, wood or other rigid material such as cast iron, steel or reinforced concrete. There may be a ceiling; the columns may be all the same height or, as in the case of the Great Hypostyle Hall at Karnak, the columns flanking the central space may be of greater height rather than those of the side aisles, allowing openings in the wall above the smaller columns, through which light is admitted over the aisle roof, through clerestory windows. The architectural form has many applications, occurring in the cella of Ancient Greek temples and in many Asian buildings of wood construction. With a combination of columns and arches, the hypostyle hall became one of the two main types of mosque construction. In many mosques the early congregational mosques, the prayer hall has the hypostyle form.
One of the finest examples of the hypostyle-plan mosques is the Great Mosque of Kairouan in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia. The hypostyle is used in modern architecture. Ancient Egyptian architecture Apadana Peristyle Portico This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Hypostyle". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Festival Hall of Thutmose III
The Festival Hall of Thutmose III is an ancient shrine in Luxor, Egypt. It is located in the Karnak Temple Complex; the edifice is translated as "the most glorious of monuments", but "monument to living spirit" is an alternative translation since akh can mean either glory or blessed/living spirit. The Festival Hall of Thutmose III is situated at the end of the Middle Kingdom court, with its axis at right-angles to the main east–west axis of the temple, it was built to celebrate the jubilee of the 18th dynasty Pharaoh, Thutmose III, became used as part of the annual Opet Festival. It is decorated to echo a huge tent shrine, complete with awnings and tent poles. Located in this temple, the Karnak king list shows Thutmose III with some of the earlier kings that built parts of the temple complex. Built at the eastern end of Karnak's main axis, enclosed in its own walls, this building is little understood and its exact purpose is still unclear, it consists of three main parts, a suite of rooms dedicated to Sokar to the south-east, a solar complex to the north-east and the festival hall itself, from which the other areas of the building can be reached.
This is known as the'Hry-ib', or that, at the heart of it. The only original entrance was in the south-west corner; the walls contain the Botanical garden of Thutmosis III. In a small room off of the main hall, there is a room referred to as the Chamber of Ancestors, where a large inscription, the Karnak king list, shows Thutmose III making offerings to his 61 ancestors; the originals of these are now located in the Louvre in Paris. List of lists of ancient kings Blyth, Elizabeth. Karnak: Evolution of a Temple. Oxford: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40487-8. Strudwick, Nigel & Helen. Thebes in Egypt A Guide to the Tombs and Temples of Ancient Luxor. Ithaca, New York. ISBN 0-8014-8616-5. Kemp, Barry. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. Oxford: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06346-9
Ramesses II known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom, his successors and Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor". He is known as Ozymandias in Greek sources, from the first part of Ramesses' regnal name, Usermaatre Setepenre, "The Maat of Ra is powerful, Chosen of Ra". Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan, he led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities and monuments, he established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and used it as the main base for his campaigns in Syria. At fourteen, he was appointed prince regent by his father, Seti I, he is believed to have taken the throne in his late teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1213 BC. Manetho attributes Ramesses II a reign of 2 months.
Estimates of his age at death vary. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented fourteen Sed festivals during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on numerous campaigns to restore possession of held territories lost to the Nubians and Hittites and to secure Egypt's borders, he was responsible for suppressing some Nubian revolts and carrying out a campaign in Libya. Although the Battle of Kadesh dominates the scholarly view of the military prowess and power of Ramesses II, he enjoyed more than a few outright victories over the enemies of Egypt. During Ramesses II's reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men. In his second year, Ramesses II decisively defeated the Sherden sea pirates who were wreaking havoc along Egypt's Mediterranean coast by attacking cargo-laden vessels travelling the sea routes to Egypt; the Sherden people came from the coast of Ionia, from southwest Anatolia or also from the island of Sardinia.
Ramesses posted troops and ships at strategic points along the coast and patiently allowed the pirates to attack their perceived prey before skillfully catching them by surprise in a sea battle and capturing them all in a single action. A stele from Tanis speaks of their having come "in their war-ships from the midst of the sea, none were able to stand before them". There was a naval battle somewhere near the mouth of the Nile, as shortly afterward, many Sherden are seen among the pharaoh's body-guard where they are conspicuous by their horned helmets having a ball projecting from the middle, their round shields, the great Naue II swords with which they are depicted in inscriptions of the Battle of Kadesh. In that sea battle, together with the Sherden, the pharaoh defeated the Lukka, the Šqrsšw peoples; the immediate antecedents to the Battle of Kadesh were the early campaigns of Ramesses II into Canaan. His first campaign seems to have taken place in the fourth year of his reign and was commemorated by the erection of what became the first of the Commemorative stelae of Nahr el-Kalb near what is now Beirut.
The inscription is totally illegible due to weathering. Additional records tell us that he was forced to fight a Canaanite prince, mortally wounded by an Egyptian archer, whose army subsequently, was routed. Ramesses carried off the princes of Canaan as live prisoners to Egypt. Ramesses plundered the chiefs of the Asiatics in their own lands, returning every year to his headquarters at Riblah to exact tribute. In the fourth year of his reign, he captured the Hittite vassal state of the Amurru during his campaign in Syria; the Battle of Kadesh in his fifth regnal year was the climactic engagement in a campaign that Ramesses fought in Syria, against the resurgent Hittite forces of Muwatallis. The pharaoh wanted a victory at Kadesh both to expand Egypt's frontiers into Syria, to emulate his father Seti I's triumphal entry into the city just a decade or so earlier, he constructed his new capital, Pi-Ramesses. There he built factories to manufacture weapons and shields producing some 1,000 weapons in a week, about 250 chariots in two weeks, 1,000 shields in a week and a half.
After these preparations, Ramesses moved to attack territory in the Levant, which belonged to a more substantial enemy than any he had faced in war: the Hittite Empire. Ramesses's forces were caught in a Hittite ambush and outnumbered at Kadesh when they counterattacked and routed the Hittites, whose survivors abandoned their chariots and swam the Orontes river to reach the safe city walls. Ramesses, logistically unable to sustain a long siege, returned to Egypt. Egypt's sphere of influence was now restricted to Canaan. Canaanite princes encouraged by the Egyptian incapacity to impose their will and goaded on by the Hittites, began revolts against Egypt. In the seventh year o
The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East; the Assyrians emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Hittite language was a distinct member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family, along with the related Luwian language, is the oldest attested Indo-European language.
Hittites referred to their native language as nešili "in the language of Nesa" but called their native land as Kingdom of Hattusa. The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology. Despite their use of the name Hattusa for their state, the Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians, an earlier people who inhabited the region of Hattusa and spoke an unrelated language known as Hattic; the history of the Hittite civilization is known from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom, from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Assyria, Babylonia and the Middle East, the decipherment of, a key event in the history of Indo-European linguistics. The Hittite military made successful use of chariots, although belonging to the Bronze Age, the Hittites were the forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the manufacture of iron artifacts from as early as the 18th century BC; the Hittites were the first of the Indo-European people to make use of iron.
Due to the widespread availability of iron ore, this allowed them to create weapons that were much stronger and cheaper. The Hittite empire fell victim to the Bronze Age Collapse around the beginning of the 12th century BC. Ethnic Hittite dynasties survived in small kingdoms scattered around modern Syria and Israel. Lacking a unifying continuity, their descendants are scattered and have merged into the modern populations of the Levant and Mesopotamia. During the 1920s, interest in the Hittites increased with the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey and attracted the attention of Turkish archaeologists such as Halet Çambel and Tahsin Özgüç. During this period, the new field of Hittitology influenced the naming of institutions, such as the state-owned Etibank, the foundation of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, located 200 kilometers west of the Hittite capital and housing the most comprehensive exhibition of Hittite art and artifacts in the world. Before the archeological discoveries that revealed the Hittite civilization, the only source of information about the Hittites had been the Old Testament.
Francis William Newman expressed the critical view, common in the early 19th century, that, "no Hittite king could have compared in power to the King of Judah...". As the discoveries in the second half of the 19th century revealed the scale of the Hittite kingdom, Archibald Sayce asserted that, rather than being compared to Judah, the Anatolian civilization " worthy of comparison to the divided Kingdom of Egypt", was "infinitely more powerful than that of Judah". Sayce and other scholars noted that Judah and the Hittites were never enemies in the Hebrew texts. Uriah the Hittite was a captain in King David's army and counted as one of his "mighty men" in 1 Chronicles 11. French scholar Charles Texier found the first Hittite ruins in 1834 but did not identify them as Hittite; the first archaeological evidence for the Hittites appeared in tablets found at the karum of Kanesh, containing records of trade between Assyrian merchants and a certain "land of Hatti". Some names in the tablets were neither Hattic nor Assyrian, but Indo-European.
The script on a monument at Boğazkale by a "People of Hattusas" discovered by William Wright in 1884 was found to match peculiar hieroglyphic scripts from Aleppo and Hama in Northern Syria. In 1887, excavations at Amarna in Egypt uncovered the diplomatic correspondence of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. Two of the letters from a "kingdom of Kheta"—apparently located in the same general region as the Mesopotamian references to "land of Hatti"—were written in standard Akkadian cuneiform, but in an unknown language. Shortly after this, Sayce proposed that Hatti or Khatti in Anatolia was identical with the "kingdom of Kheta" mentioned in these Egyptian texts, as well as with the biblical Hittites. Others, such as Max Müller, agreed that Khatti was Kheta, but proposed connecting it with Biblical Kittim rather than with the Biblical Hittites. Sayce's identification came to be accepted over the course of the early 20th century.
Usermaatre Ramesses III was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt. He is thought to have reigned from 1186 to 1155 BC and is considered to be the last great monarch of the New Kingdom to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, his long reign saw the decline of Egyptian political and economic power, linked to a series of invasions and internal economic problems that plagued pharaohs before him. He has been described as "warrior Pharaoh" due to his strong military strategies, he has lead the way by defeating the invaders known as "the Sea People" who have caused destruction in other civilizations and empires. He was able to save Egypt from collapsing at the time when many other Empires fell during the Late Bronze Age, however the damage of the invasions took a toll on Egypt. Ramesses III was the son of Queen Tiy-Merenese, he was assassinated in the Harem conspiracy led by one of his secondary wives, her son Pentawer, a group of high officials. Ramesses' two main names transliterate as wsr-mꜢʿt-rʿ–mry-ỉmn rʿ-ms-s–ḥḳꜢ-ỉwnw.
They are realised as Usermaatre-Meryamun Rameses-Heqaiunu, meaning "The Ma'at of Ra is strong, Beloved of Amun, Born of Ra, Ruler of Heliopolis". Ramesses III is believed to have reigned from March 1186 to April 1155 BC; this is based on his known accession date of I Shemu day 26 and his death on Year 32 III Shemu day 15, for a reign of 31 years, 1 month and 19 days. Alternative dates for his reign are 1187–1156 BC. In a description of his coronation from Medinet Habu, four doves were said to be "dispatched to the four corners of the horizon to confirm that the living Horus, Ramses III, is in possession of his throne, that the order of Maat prevails in the cosmos and society". During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Greek Dark Ages, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders and experienced the beginnings of increasing economic difficulties and internal strife which would lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea.
Ramesses III defeated them in two great sea battles. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen, they fought tenaciously. Rameses lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up a continuous volley of arrows into the enemy ships when they attempted to land on the banks of the Nile; the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. In the brutal hand-to-hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated; the Harris Papyrus states: As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever. As for those who came forward together on the seas, the full flame was in front of them at the Nile mouths, while a stockade of lances surrounded them on the shore, prostrated on the beach and made into heaps from head to tail. Ramesses III settled them in Southern Canaan, their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia.
Ramesses III was compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 5 and Year 11 respectively. The heavy cost of these battles exhausted Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia; the severity of these difficulties is stressed by the fact that the first known labour strike in recorded history occurred during Year 29 of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for the favoured and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Set Maat her imenty Waset, could not be provisioned. Something in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and arrested global tree growth for two full decades until 1140 BC; the result in Egypt was a substantial increase in grain prices under the reigns of Ramesses VI–VII, whereas the prices for fowl and slaves remained constant. Thus the cooldown affected Ramesses III's final years and impaired his ability to provide a constant supply of grain rations to the workmen of the Deir el-Medina community.
These difficult realities are ignored in Ramesses' official monuments, many of which seek to emulate those of his famous predecessor, Ramesses II, which present an image of continuity and stability. He built important additions to the temples at Luxor and Karnak, his funerary temple and administrative complex at Medinet-Habu is amongst the largest and best-preserved in Egypt. No temple in the heart of Egypt prior to Ramesses' reign had needed to be protected in such a manner. Thanks to the discovery of papyrus trial transcripts, it is now known that there was a plot against his life as a result of a royal harem conspiracy during a celebration at Medinet Habu; the conspiracy was instigated by Tiye, one of his three known wives, over whose son would inherit the throne. Tyti's son, Ramesses Amenherkhepshef, was the eldest and the successor chosen by Ramesses III in preference to Tiye's son Pentaweret; the trial documents show. Chief among them were Queen Tiye and her son Pentaweret, Ramesses' chief of the chamber, seven royal butlers, two Treasury overseers
Temple of Ptah (Karnak)
The Temple of Ptah is a shrine located within the large Precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak, in Luxor, Egypt. It lies to the north of the main Amun temple, just within the boundary wall; the building was erected by the Pharaoh Thutmose III on the site of an earlier Middle Kingdom temple. The edifice was enlarged by the Ptolemaic Kingdom; this temple is a shrine located within the large Precinct of Amun-Re at the Temple of Karnak in Luxor, Egypt. This temple is dedicated to the ancient Egyptian god Ptah, his wife Sekhmet the goddess of war, his son Nefertum; the god’s cult started in Memphis, which explains why he have a temple there dedicated to the god as well. The temple was built approximated around the Middle Kingdom, 18th century B. C. and located in Karnak complex in Luxor upper Egypt. The temple’s reconstruction were restored by king Shabaka during the 25th Dynasty and by the Romans as well as the Ptolemies; the Ptolemies repaired damages but did not replace the original builder’s names with theirs but rather fix the missing areas on the cartouches and in some cases enlarged things.
Building ware erected by the Pharaoh Thutmose III on the site of earlier Middle Kingdom temple. The temple was on enlarged as well throughout the reign of Emperor Tiberius; the Temple of Ptah serves as the city’s former power and was associated with the Egyptian town of Memphis. Notably, two important statues reside in this temple; the first one is a statue of the god Ptah with his head missing and the second one is Sekhmet. The temple consists of six small gateways built together; the first, to the west, was constructed by the Ptolemies. The gates date from the Eighteenth Dynasty with the first erected by Hatshepsut and the rest by Thutmose III. To enter the Temple of Ptah, you must enter through the first gateway that leads up to the other five gateways; the first gateway can be viewed from the exterior as well as the interior. Once you have entered the Temple of Ptah through the first gateway, the second gateway is a replica of the first gateway but much more enclosed; the third gateway consist of Ptolemy XIII cartouche with two engaged columns that connects with the fourth gateway.
The fifth gateway serves as the entrance to the portico of four composite columns. The sixth gateway crosses through the pylons and runs through directly into the central sanctuary where the statue of Ptah is situated. Once you have passed through the altar, this is the most sacred part of the temple; the sanctuary of Ptah and Sekhmet are situated here. Inside the pylons the two sanctuaries are divided into sections, with the sanctuary of Ptah situated in the center and the sanctuary of Sekhmet situated on the far left; the first gateway crosses an enclosed cartouche of Ptolemy VI. On the interior façade of the first gateway are passages of Ptolemy XI and Ptolemy XIII; the jambs next to the first gateway depict. The second and fourth gateways contain cartouches in the name of Shabaka; the third gateway cartouche is in the name of Ptolemy XIII. The fifth gateway leading to the portico columns of Ptolemy III contains the title of Tuthmosis III and on the gate contains the name of Ptolemy III; the sixth gateway is the entrance to the sanctuary.
This is. There is a scene of the king wearing the white crown as he gestures for you to enter the sanctuary of Ptah and Sekhmet, only after being purified as much as four times. On the north side the king wears the red crown. On the south wall of the main central chamber scenes in sunk relief can be seen. On the right is a scene of the scepter of Amun with four vertical lines and more inscriptions. Inside the sanctuary stands two statues; the sanctuary is the most sacred place of the temple, why statues of Ptah and another of Sekhmet stand here. Sekhmet's statue in the chapel is dedicated to the goddess Hathor. Below the statue of Sekhmet is a guide holding a burning piece of cardboard to illuminate the statue. Behind the statue of Ptah, Khonsu in Thebes Neferhotep wears, he holds scepters in his hand: the djed pillar, "was" scepter, heka scepter, nekhakha scepter. With the addition of, the menat necklace. There are numerous painting of scenes of the king, showing offering with the sign of Ma'at to the god Amun Re.
And last but not least the back outside walls contains reliefs. "The back, outside wall of the temple is noteworthy. Here, at two different levels going from left to right, are a representation of Ptah in light relief, whose head must have been sculpted on a stone, now missing, one of Hathor, followed by two deified scribes from the Old and New Kingdom. Majority of the transformations were done under the reigns of Ptolemy III and Ptolemy IV who were concerned with the changes on the courtyard. Ptolemy VI built on the westward way between Northern precincts of Karnak. Constructions were done under the reign of Ptolemy XIII, who added a door between the two twenty-fifth dynasty gates, in turn decorated by King Shabaka, may explain why his name were on doors two and four. Excavations have found figurines of Osiris, statuettes of baboons, Mut and more stele marked with the name of the god Ptah; the size and quality of the objects gave us a stepping stone into reconstructing the pieces through technologies.
This shed light on surroundings of the Temple of Ptah. The Temple of Ptah is used more for tourist purposes. Since October 2008 an interdisciplinary program has been dedicated to the temple, located on the northern end of the temple of Amun-Re. In addition, "Hieroglyphic and demotic graffiti are being studied to complete the global approach to researches on the Ptah temple." Excavation program of the