Great White Fleet

The Great White Fleet was the popular nickname for the powerful United States Navy battleships which completed a journey around the globe from 16 December 1907, to 22 February 1909, by order of United States President Theodore Roosevelt. Its mission was to make friendly courtesy visits to numerous countries, while displaying new U. S. naval power to the world. It consisted of 16 battleships divided into two squadrons, along with various escorts. Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing blue-water navy capability. Hoping to enforce treaties and protect overseas holdings, the United States Congress appropriated funds to build American naval power. Beginning in the 1880s with just 90 small ships, over one-third of them wooden and therefore obsolete, the navy grew to include new steel fighting vessels; the hulls of these ships were painted a stark white, giving the armada the nickname "Great White Fleet". In the twilight of his administration, United States President Theodore Roosevelt dispatched 16 U.

S. Navy battleships of the Atlantic Fleet on a worldwide voyage of circumnavigation from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909; the hulls were painted white, the Navy's peacetime color scheme, decorated with gilded scrollwork with a red and blue banner on their bows. These ships would come to be known as the Great White Fleet; the purpose of the fleet deployment was multifaceted. Ostensibly, it served as a showpiece of American goodwill, as the fleet visited numerous countries and harbors. In this, the voyage was not unprecedented. Naval courtesy calls, many times in conjunction with the birthdays of various monarchs and other foreign celebrations, had become common in the 19th century. Port calls showcased pomp and militarism during a period of rising pre-war nationalism. In 1891, a large French fleet visited Kronstadt, Russia, in conjunction with negotiations between the two nations. Although France and Russia had been hostile to each other for at least three decades prior, the significance of the call was not lost on Russia, Tsar Nicholas II signed a treaty of alliance with France in 1894.

As navies grew larger, naval pageants grew longer, more elaborate, more frequent. The United States began participating in these events in 1902 when Roosevelt invited Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to send a squadron for a courtesy call to New York City. Invitations for U. S. Navy ships to participate in fleet celebrations in the United Kingdom and Germany followed. Additionally, the voyage of the Great White Fleet demonstrated both at home and on the world stage that the U. S. had become a major sea power in the years after its triumph in the Spanish–American War, with possessions that included Guam, the Philippines, Puerto Rico. This was not the first demonstration of naval power however. Since Japan had arisen as a major sea power with the 1905 annihilation of the Russian fleet at Tsushima, the deployment of the Great White Fleet was therefore intended, at least in part, to send a message to Tokyo that the American fleet could be deployed anywhere from its Atlantic ports, would be able to defend American interests in the Philippines and the Pacific.

That gesture capitalized on diplomatic trouble that had resulted from anti-Japanese riots in San Francisco. Those problems had been resolved by the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907 and the fleet visit was a friendly gesture to Japan; the Japanese welcomed it. Roosevelt saw the deployment as one that would encourage patriotism, give the impression that he would teach Japan "a lesson in polite behavior", as historian Robert A. Hart phrased it. After the fleet had crossed the Pacific, Japanese statesmen realized that the balance of power in the East had changed since the Root–Takahira Agreement that defined relevant spheres of interest of the United States and Japan; the voyage provided an opportunity to improve the sea- and battle-worthiness of the fleet. While earlier capital ship classes such as the Kearsarge and Maine were designed for coastal defense classes such as the Virginia and Connecticut incorporated lessons learned from the Spanish–American War and were conceived as ships with "the highest practicable speed and the greatest radius of action", in the words of the appropriation bills approved by the United States Congress for their construction.

They were intended as modern warships capable of long-range operations. The experience gained in the recent war with Spain had been limited. Roosevelt's stated intent was to give the navy practice in navigation, coal consumption and fleet maneuvering. In light of what had happened to the Russian Baltic Fleet, they were concerned about sending their own fleet on a long deployment since part of the intent was to impress a modern, battle-tested navy that had not known defeat; the fleet was untested in making such a voyage, Tsushima had proven that extended deployments had no place in practical strategy. The Japanese Navy was close to repair facilities. An extended stop on the West Coast of the United States during the voyage for overhaul and refurbishment in dry dock would be a necessity. Planning for the voyage, showed a dearth of adequate facilities there, as well; the main sea channel of the Mare Island Navy Yard near San Francisco was too shallow for battleships, which left only the Puget Sound Navy Yard in Brem


LEMO is both the name of an electronic and fibre optic connector manufacturer, based in Écublens and the name used to refer to push-pull connectors made by that company. LEMO connectors are used in medical, audio/visual, telecommunications, scientific research and measurement applications; the company, founded in 1946, started as a manufacturer of contacts in rare metals. The company took its name from engineer Léon Mouttet. LEMO has set several connector standards; the 3K.93C connector has been adopted by the American and European standards organisations for HDTV fibre links for the broadcast market. While LEMO connectors were developed as proprietary designs, the legal status of many of the older designs is not clear. For example, the LEMO website itself shows a standardisation date of 1970 for the LEMO 00 model; the "chocolate plate" design of the connector's shell grip is, trademarked. In July 2014, LEMO acquired Northwire Inc. a US specialty cable manufacturer of wire and multi-conductor cable and retractiles for the medical and defense, industrial markets.

The acquisition of Northwire allows LEMO to provide a complete cable-connector solution. LEMO holds 2 addresses in Japan, another one in Singapore, two in the USA. LEMO holds offices in Budapest. In 1994, LEMO entered into Chinese market through a distributor. In 2004 LEMO set up a subsidiary company in Shanghai. Besides Shanghai, LEMO China has offices in more than 14 cities, such as Beijing, Shenzhen, Changsha, Wuhan, Harbin, Shenyang, Xi'an, Nanjing and Zhengzhou. In Écublens, one of 3 offices in Switzerland, R&D is performed in a test laboratory with a climatic chamber. LEMO Group company website


Jataur is a small panchyat village situated on the bank of SH-47, comes under Guthani Block and Siwan in District-Siwan, India. There are 11 villages in Jataur Panchyat; as its history is not so old, its population is around 1500 people who use to speak Bhojpuri and Hindi. Around 5% of its population doing business in Thailand, 10% population doing service and others are depend on agriculture and some other local business. Due to the improvement of source of income of village its literacy rate improving and reached to around 65%. With time this village improve the source of education as it has one government school and around 5 private school till eighth standard. Students of this village still going 3 km far for secondary school and 8 km far for college. Jataur is situated at 26 ° 11' 44 "N 84 ° 5' 17 "E on the bank of SH-47 in India, it is 6.8 km distance from its Tehsil Darauli, 29.4 km from its district Siwan and 173 km from state capital city Patna. Its surrounded by 75 Acre long pond family in North, a heritage of Rajput and a canal in south.

Due to the good geography, big pond and canal, the villagers earn good income from agriculture and fishery. According to the villagers this village is established by a Rajput Zamindar with his two sons, Kadam Singh and Dehal Singh, in 1805. According to their need they colonise Harijan, Gond and Kumbhar in village and Bramhan in nearby village Kareji, they all live a happy life with living together in this village. Http://