Greek numerals

Greek numerals known as Ionic, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet. In modern Greece, they are still used for ordinal numbers and in contexts similar to those in which Roman numerals are still used elsewhere in the West. For ordinary cardinal numbers, Greece uses Arabic numerals; the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations' Linear A and Linear B alphabets used a different system, called Aegean numerals, which included specialised symbols for numbers: = 1, = 10, = 100, = 1000, = 10000. Attic numerals was another system that came into use in the 7th century BC, they were acrophonic. They ran = 1, = 5, = 10, = 100, = 1,000, = 10,000; the numbers 50, 500, 5,000, 50,000 were represented by the letter with minuscule powers of ten written in the top right corner:, and. One-half was represented by ⊂; the same system was used outside of Attica, but the symbols varied with the local alphabets: in Boeotia, was 1,000. The present system developed around Miletus in Ionia.

19th-century classicists placed its development in the 3rd century BC, the occasion of its first widespread use. More thorough modern archaeology has caused the date to be pushed back at least to the 5th century BC, a little before Athens abandoned its pre-Euclidean alphabet in favour of Miletus's in 402 BC, it may predate that by a century or two; the present system uses the 24 letters adopted by Euclid as well as three Phoenician and Ionic ones that were not carried over: digamma and sampi. The position of those characters within the numbering system imply that the first two were still in use while the third was not; the exact dating for sampi, is problematic since its uncommon value means the first attested representative near Miletus does not appear until the 2nd century BC and its use is unattested in Athens until the 2nd century AD. Greek numerals are decimal, based on powers of 10; the units from 1 to 9 are assigned to the first nine letters of the old Ionic alphabet from alpha to theta.

Instead of reusing these numbers to form multiples of the higher powers of ten, each multiple of ten from 10 to 90 was assigned its own separate letter from the next nine letters of the Ionic alphabet from iota to koppa. Each multiple of one hundred from 100 to 900 was assigned its own separate letter as well, from rho to sampi; this alphabetic system operates on the additive principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to obtain the total. For example, 241 was represented as. In ancient and medieval manuscripts, these numerals were distinguished from letters using overbars: α, β, γ, etc. In medieval manuscripts of the Book of Revelation, the number of the Beast 666 is written as χξϛ. Fractions were indicated as the denominator followed by a keraia; as an exception, special symbol ∠ʹ indicated one half, γ°ʹ or γoʹ was two-thirds. These fractions were additive. Although the Greek alphabet began with only majuscule forms, surviving papyrus manuscripts from Egypt show that uncial and cursive minuscule forms began early.

These new letter forms sometimes replaced the former ones in the case of the obscure numerals. The old Q-shaped koppa simplified; the numeral for 6 changed several times. During antiquity, the original letter form of digamma came to be avoided in favour of a special numerical one. By the Byzantine era, the letter was written as or; this merged with the sigma-tau ligature stigma ϛ. In modern Greek, a number of other changes have been made. Instead of extending an over bar over an entire number, the keraia is marked to its upper right, a development of the short marks used for single numbers and fractions; the modern keraia is a symbol similar to the acute accent, the tonos and the prime symbol, but has its own Unicode character as U+0374. Alexander the Great's father Philip II of Macedon is thus known as Φίλιππος Βʹ in modern Greek. A lower left keraia is now standard for distinguishing thousands: 2019 is represented as ͵ΒΙΘʹ; the declining use of ligatures in the 20th century means that stigma is written as the separate letters ΣΤʹ, although a single keraia is used for the group.

The art of assigning Greek letters being thought of as numerals and therefore giving words and phrases a numeric sum that has meaning through being connected to words and phrases of similar sum is called isopsephy. Alternatively, sub-sections of manuscripts are sometimes numbered by lowercase characters. In Ancient Greek, myriad

Shiawassee Street School

The Shiawassee Street School known as the Corunna Union School or the Corunna High School, is a former school building located at 106 South Shiawassee Street in Corunna, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017, it has been redeveloped into an apartment building known as Cavalier Greene. The Corunna School District was organized in 1842, a single-story frame school was built at this site; as Corunna grew, more room was needed, in 1851 a two-story brick school was built to replace the earlier frame structure. A larger, three-story brick school was constructed nearby in 1866, but in 1882, both buildings burned; that year, a fourth school building, three stories high, was constructed on the same site, serving children from kindergarten through twelve grade. In 1908, this school too burned; that year, the school board hired architect Edwyn A. Bowd of Lansing, Michigan to design the present building, the firm of Rickman and Son to construct it; this school opened in January 1909.

The building served as an elementary school between 1952 and 1976 became the home of Community Education courses and the Corunna Public Schools Administrative Offices. The building was closed in 2014. In 2016, redevelopment began to turn the school into apartments; the Shiawassee Street School is a two-story brick Georgian Revival style school trimmed in limestone. It has a bell tower topped with a cupola

Send In the Clowns

"Send In the Clowns" is a song written by Stephen Sondheim for the 1973 musical A Little Night Music, an adaptation of Ingmar Bergman's film Smiles of a Summer Night. It is a ballad from Act Two, in which the character Desirée reflects on the ironies and disappointments of her life. Among other things, she looks back on an affair years earlier with the lawyer Fredrik, in love with her but whose marriage proposals she had rejected. Meeting him after so long, she realizes she is in love with him and ready to marry him, but now it is he who rejects her: he is in an unconsummated marriage with a much younger woman. Desirée proposes marriage to rescue him from this situation, but he declines, citing his dedication to his bride. Reacting to his rejection, Desirée sings this song; the song is reprised as a coda after Fredrik's young wife runs away with his son, Fredrik is free to accept Desirée's offer. Sondheim wrote the song for Glynis Johns, who created the role of Desirée on Broadway; the song is structured with four verses and a bridge, uses a complex compound meter.

It became Sondheim's most popular song after Frank Sinatra recorded it in 1973 and Judy Collins' version charted in 1975 and 1977. Subsequently, numerous other artists recorded the song, it has become a jazz standard; the "clowns" in the title do not refer to circus clowns. Instead, they symbolize fools, as Sondheim explained in a 1990 interview: I get a lot of letters over the years asking what the title means and what the song's about. I wanted to use theatrical imagery in the song, because she's an actress, but it's not supposed to be a circus t's a theater reference meaning "if the show isn't going well, let's send in the clowns". I always want to know, when I'm writing a song, what the end is going to be, so "Send in the Clowns" didn't settle in until I got the notion, "Don't bother, they're here", which means that "We are the fools." In a 2008 interview, Sondheim further clarified: As I think of it now, the song could have been called "Send in the Fools". I knew I was writing a song in which Desirée is saying, "aren't we foolish" or "aren't we fools?"

Well, a synonym for fools is clowns. Judi Dench, who performed the role of Desirée in London, commented on the context of the song during an interview with Alan Titchmarsh; the play is "a dark play about people who, at the beginning, are with wrong partners and in the end it is going to become right, she mistimes her life in a way and realizes when she re-meets the man she had an affair with and had a child by, that she loves him and he is the man she wants."Some years before the play begins, Desirée was a young, attractive actress, whose passions were the theater and romance. She lived her life flitting from man to man. Fredrik was one of her many lovers and fell in love with Desirée, but she declined to marry him; the play implies. A few months before the play begins, Fredrik married a beautiful young woman who at 18 years old was much younger than he. In Act One, Fredrik meets Desirée again, is introduced to her daughter, a precocious adolescent suggestively named Fredrika. Fredrik explains to Desirée that he is now married to a young woman he loves much, but that she is still a virgin, continuing to refuse to have sex with him.

Desirée and Fredrik make love. Act Two begins days and Desirée realizes that she loves Fredrik, she tells Fredrik that he needs to be rescued from his marriage, she proposes to him. Fredrik explains to Desirée that he has been swept off the ground and is "in the air" in love with his beautiful, young wife, apologizes for having misled her. Desirée remains sitting on the bed. Desirée – feeling both intense sadness and anger, at herself, her life and her choices – sings "Send in the Clowns", she is, in effect. Midway through the second Act she has deviated from her usual script by suggesting to Fredrik the possibility of being together and permanently, having been rejected, she falters as a show-person, finds herself bereft of the capacity to improvise and wittily cover. If Desirée could perform at this moment – revert to the innuendos, one-liners and blithe self-referential humour that constitutes her normal character – all would be well, she cannot, what follows is an exemplary manifestation of Sondheim’s musico-dramatic complexity, his inclination to write music that performs drama.

That is, what needs to be covered over is the intensity, ragged emotion and utter vulnerability that comes forward through the music and singing itself, a display protracted to six minutes, wrought with exposed silences, a shocked Fredrik sitting so uncomfortably before Desirée while something much too real emerges in a realm where he – and his audience – felt assured of performance."Not long thereafter, Fredrik's young wife runs away with his son, so he is free to accept Desirée's proposal, the song is reprised as a coda. Sondheim wrote the lyrics and music over a two-day period during rehearsals for the play's Broadway debut for the actress Glynis Johns, who created the role of Desirée. According to Sondheim, "Glynis had a lovely, crystal voice. I wanted to write short phrases, so I wrote a song full of questions" and the song's melody is within a small music range: We hired Glynis Joh