Constantine I of Greece
Constantine I was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. He was commander-in-chief of the Hellenic Army during the unsuccessful Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and led the Greek forces during the successful Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, in which Greece expanded to include Thessaloniki, doubling in area and population, he succeeded to the throne of Greece on 18 March 1913, following his father's assassination. His disagreement with Eleftherios Venizelos over whether Greece should enter World War I led to the National Schism. Constantine forced Venizelos to resign twice, but in 1917 he left Greece, after threats of the Entente forces to bombard Athens. After Alexander's death, Venizelos' defeat in the 1920 legislative elections, a plebiscite in favor of his return, Constantine was reinstated, he abdicated the throne for the second and last time in 1922, when Greece lost the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, was succeeded by his eldest son, George II. Constantine died in exile four months in Sicily.
Born on 2 August 1868 in Athens, Constantine was the eldest son of King George I and Queen Olga of Greece. His birth was met with an immense wave of enthusiasm: the new heir apparent to the throne was the first Greek-born member of the family; as the ceremonial cannon on Lycabettus Hill fired the royal salute, huge crowds gathered outside the Palace shouting what they thought should rightfully be the newborn prince's name: "Constantine". This was not only the name of his maternal grandfather, Grand Duke Konstantin Romanov of Russia, but the name of the "King who would reconquer Constantinople", the future "Constantine XII, legitimate successor to the Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos", according to popular legend, he was christened "Constantine" on 12 August, his official style was the Diádochos. An additional nickname adopted by the royalists for Constantine was "the son of the eagle"; the most prominent university professors of the time were handpicked to tutor the young Crown Prince: Ioannis Pantazidis taught him Greek literature.
On 30 October 1882 he enrolled in the Hellenic Military Academy. After graduation he was sent to Berlin for further military education, served in the German Imperial Guard. Constantine studied political science and business in Heidelberg and Leipzig. In 1890 he became a Major General, assumed command of the 3rd Army Headquarters in Athens. In January 1895, Constantine caused political turmoil when he ordered army and gendarmerie forces to break up a street protest against tax policy. Constantine had addressed the crowd and advised them to submit their grievances to the government. Prime Minister Charilaos Trikoupis asked the King to recommend that his son avoid such interventions in politics without prior consultation with the government. King George responded that the Crown Prince was, in dispersing protesters obeying military orders, that his conduct lacked political significance; the incident caused a heated debate in Parliament, Trikoupis resigned as a result. In the following elections Trikoupis was defeated, the new Prime Minister, Theodoros Deligiannis, seeking to downplay hostility between government and the Palace, regarded the matter closed.
The organization of the first modern Olympics in Athens was another issue which caused a Constantine-Trikoupis confrontation, with Trikoupis opposed to hosting the Games. After Deligiannis's electoral victory over Trikoupis in 1895, those who favored a revival of the Olympic Games, including the Crown Prince, prevailed. Subsequently, Constantine was instrumental in the organization of the 1896 Summer Olympics. Coubertin assured that "the King and the Crown Prince will confer their patronage on the holding of these Games." Constantine conferred more than that. At the Crown Prince's request, wealthy businessman George Averoff agreed to pay one million drachmas to fund the restoration of the Panathinaiko Stadium in white marble. Constantine was the commander-in-chief of the Army of Thessaly in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, which ended in a humiliating defeat. In its aftermath, the popularity of the monarchy fell, calls were raised in the army for reforms and the dismissal of the royal princes, Constantine, from their command posts in the armed forces.
The simmering dissent culminated in the Goudi coup in August 1909. In its aftermath and his brothers were dismissed from the armed forces, only to be reinstated a few months by the new Prime Minister, Eleftherios Venizelos, keen on gaining the trust of King George. Venizelos was ingenious in his argumentation: "All Greeks are rightly proud to see their sons serve in the army, so is the King". What was left unsaid was that the royal princes' commands were to be on a tight leash. In 1912 with the formation of the Balkan League, Greece was ready for war against the Ottoman empire and Prince Constantine became Chief of the Hellenic Army. Ottoman planning anticipated a two-prong Greek attack east and west of the impassable Pindus mountain range, they accordingly allotted their resources divided, in a defensive posture to fortify the approaches to Ioannina, capital of Epirus, the mountain passes lea
Constantine II of Greece
Constantine II reigned as the King of Greece, from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973. He acceded as king following the death of his father King Paul in March 1964; that year he married Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark with whom he had five children. Although the accession of the young monarch was regarded auspiciously, his reign soon became controversial: Constantine's involvement in the Apostasia of July 1965 created unrest among sections of the population and aggravated the ongoing political instability that culminated in the Colonels' Coup of 21 April 1967; the coup was successful, leaving Constantine, as the head of state, little room to maneuver since he had no loyal military forces on which to rely. As a result, he reluctantly agreed to inaugurate the Greek military junta of 1967–1974 on the condition that it be made up of civilian ministers. On 13 December 1967, Constantine was forced to flee the country, following an unsuccessful countercoup against the junta, he remained the head of state in exile until the junta conducted the 1 June 1973 Greek republic referendum which abolished the monarchy.
This abolition was confirmed after the fall of the junta by the 1974 Greek republic referendum on 8 December, which established the Third Hellenic Republic. Constantine, not allowed to return to Greece to campaign, accepted the results of the plebiscite. Constantine was born at the Psychiko Palace in a suburb of Athens, he was the nephew of King George II, the second child and only son of the king's brother and heir presumptive, Prince Paul. His mother was Princess Frederica of Hanover. Constantine's older sister Queen Sofía of Spain is the wife of the retired King Juan Carlos I of Spain, while his younger sister, Princess Irene, has never been married. Constantine was just one year old when Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany invaded Greece, he spent the next four years in exile in Egypt and Cape Town, South Africa with his family, he returned to Greece with his family in 1946. King George died in 1947, Constantine's father became the new king, making Constantine the crown prince, he was educated at a preparatory school and a boarding school.
A fellow student recalled him as "a young man with all the right instincts. He was at his best on the playing fields."Constantine served in all three branches of the Hellenic Armed Forces, attending the requisite military academies. He attended the NATO Air Force Special Weapons School in Germany, as well as the University of Athens, where he took courses in the school of law. Constantine was an able sportsman. In 1960, aged 20, he won an Olympic gold medal in sailing, the first Greek gold medal in sailing since the Stockholm 1912 Summer Olympics, he was a strong swimmer and had a black belt in karate, with interests in squash, track events and riding. In 1963 Constantine became a member of the International Olympic Committee, he resigned in 1974 because he was no longer a Greek resident, was made an Honorary IOC Member. In March 1964, King Paul died of cancer, the 23-year-old Constantine succeeded him as king. Prior to this, Constantine had been appointed as regent for his ailing father. King Paul's long-time prime minister Konstantinos Karamanlis regarded him responsible for his fall from leadership in 1963.
However, due to his youth, he was perceived as a promise of change. The accession of Constantine coincided with the recent election of Centrist George Papandreou as prime minister in February 1964, which ended 11 years of right-wing rule by the National Radical Union. Greece was still feeling the effects of the Civil War of 1944–49 between communists and monarchists, society was polarised between the royalist/conservative right and the liberal/socialist center-left, it was hoped that the new young king and the new prime minister would be able to overcome past dissensions. Relations between the king and Papandreou seemed good, but by 1965, they had deteriorated; the conservative establishment feared the rising influence of Papandreou's left-leaning son Andreas, the outbreak of the purported ASPIDA scandal seemed to confirm their suspicions. The name of Andreas Papandreou was implicated in the case, when the defence minister, Petros Garoufalias tried to form a committee of inquiry into the alleged scandal, the prime minister forced his resignation.
George Papandreou assigned the defence portfolio to himself, which caused alarm in the palace and the conservative security circles, which interpreted this move as an attempt by Papandreou to control the army. Constantine refused to accept the self-appointment, a new political issue resulted. Constantine proposed the appointment of any other person of the prime minister's choosing as defence minister because, as the king argued, there was a conflict of interest: the prime minister's son was involved in the scandal. Papandreou rejected the king's proposition, although he had shown some willingness to accept it, submitted his own resignation, stating that it was well within his constitutional powers as the elected prime minister commanding a Parliamentary majority to appoint his ministers at his pleasure, it was beyond the constitutional powers of the king to refuse him this right. A short time after his resignation, Constantine appointed a new government led by Georgios Athanasiadis-Novas, who failed to ensure the Parliament's confidence.
This appointment, which became known as the "Royal Coup", evoked much criticism as being unconstitutional. According to the critics, the appoi
Princess Maria of Greece and Denmark
Princess Maria of Greece and Denmark was the fifth child and second daughter of King George I of Greece and Olga Constantinovna of Russia, thus a member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. She was the king's only surviving daughter after the death of her older sister Grand Duchess Alexandra Georgievna of Russia in 1891, she was born in Athens as a younger sister to the future King Constantine I of Greece, Prince George of Greece and Denmark, Princess Alexandra of Greece and Denmark and Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark. Maria was an elder sister of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Prince Christopher of Greece and Denmark as well as the short-lived Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, her family called her "Minnie", like her paternal aunt, Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia. She and her aunt Minnie's eldest daughter, Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna, were close. On 30 April 1900, Maria was married in Corfu to Grand Duke George Mikhailovich of Russia, a maternal cousin.
He had chased after Maria, nicknamed "Greek Minnie" to tell her apart from the elder "Minnie". She refused to marry unless her place in the line of succession to the Greek and Danish thrones was secured, made it clear that she was not in love with the Grand Duke when she married him, but George hoped that her feelings would grow in time; the couple had two daughters: Nina, born 7 June 1901. As they grew older, Maria seized the opportunity to spend more time abroad, ostensibly for her daughters' health, but to spend more time away from her husband, she was in Great Britain when World War I broke out and chose not return to Russia, living in Harrogate where she was patron of three military hospitals, funding them generously and nursing patients herself. She became a widow on 30 January 1919. On 16 December 1922, Maria was remarried to Admiral Pericles Ioannides in Wiesbaden. Grand Duchess Maria Georgievna died in her native Athens during the Greco-Italian War, her daughter Xenia lived for years in Long Island and was for a time married to millionaire William Leeds, son of Nancy Stewart Worthington Leeds and the stepson of Maria's brother Christopher.
She took in for a few months a woman found to be an impostor, Anna Anderson. Anderson fraudulently claimed to be Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II, was forced to leave Xenia's house at the demand of William Leeds. Grand Duchess George never recognised Anderson. Media related to Grand Duchess Maria Georgievna of Russia at Wikimedia Commons
Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece
Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece, RE is the eldest son and second child of Constantine II, the last King of Greece from 1964 to 1973 and his wife, Anne-Marie of Denmark. Pavlos was heir apparent to the throne of Greece and was its crown prince from birth, remaining so during his father's reign until the monarchy's abolition; as a male-line descendant of Christian IX of Denmark, he is a Danish prince. Pavlos was born on 20 May 1967 at Tatoi Palace in Athens, to King Constantine II and Queen Anne Marie, his mother is the youngest sister of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and his father is a brother of Queen Sophia of Spain. His maternal grandparents were his wife Princess Ingrid of Sweden, he displaced his older sister, born in 1965, as heir to the throne, Greece's order of succession adhering to male-preference primogeniture. Pavlos was born into a turbulent era in Greek politics, his father, King Constantine II, ascended to the throne on 6 March 1964, aged 23, following the death of his father, King Paul.
His mother, the 20 year-old Queen Anne-Marie, gave birth to Pavlos a month after the coup d'état which ended democratic rule in Greece over the King's objections on 21 April 1967, ushering in the "Regime of the Colonels", led by Georgios Papadopoulos. In December of that year, King Constantine attempted a counter-coup, but could not rally sufficient military support. Pursued by supporters of the junta, the King fled with his wife, children and sister to Rome. From Rome they went to Copenhagen, lived with Queen Anne-Marie's mother, Queen Ingrid. During the years 1967–1973, Greece remained a monarchy, with a regency appointed while the King lived in exile. On 1 June 1973, Constantine II was declared deposed and Georgios Papadopoulos became the self-appointed President of Greece. On 17 November 1974, the Greek legislative election, 1974 was held, resulting in a victory for Constantine Karamanlis and his New Democracy party. Less than a month on 8 December, the Greek plebiscite of 1974 confirmed a referendum of the previous year: the majority of Greek voters preferred a republican constitution to restoration of the monarchy.
Constantine II accepted. He and Anne Marie had been living with their family in London for several years. Pavlos' youngest siblings were born in London, Theodora in 1983 and Philippos in 1986. Pavlos was educated in London at the Hellenic College of London, founded by his parents, he attended the Armand Hammer United World College of the American West, New Mexico, USA, from 1984 to 1986. After training at the British Army's Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards in 1987 on a three-year short service commission, he was promoted to lieutenant in April 1989, relinquished his commission in April 1990. In 1993 he completed his BA at Georgetown University School of Foreign Service and while sharing a house in Washington, DC he and his cousin, Felipe VI of Spain Prince of Asturias, attended Georgetown University where each obtained a Master of Science in Foreign Service in 1995; as an adult he has lived in London, working as an investment consultant.
He is an experienced bluewater yachtsman and crews on the multi-record-breaking monohull Mari-Cha IV owned by businessman and father-in-law, Robert W. Miller. Pavlos married British-born heiress Marie-Chantal Miller, whom he had met at a party three years earlier in New Orleans, on 1 July 1995; the Greek Orthodox rite wedding at St Sophia's Cathedral, London drew a rare modern panoply of royalty, but the ceremony proved to be invalid and had to be repeated civilly in Chelsea because of an obscure law requiring that marriages in England be conducted in English. After their marriage, the couple took up residence in Greenwich, the job that Pavlos obtained with the Charles R. Weber ship-broking company being headquartered there, he went to work at a New York City firm as an investment portfolio manager, before relocation to London for their children's education in 2004. The couple have five children: Maria-Olympia, Constantine-Alexios, Achileas-Andreas, Prince Odysseas-Kimon, Prince Aristidis-Stavros.
From birth, Pavlos was the heir apparent to the throne of Greece and as such he was referred to as the Crown Prince of Greece with the style of Royal Highness. Following the deposition of the Greek monarchy in 1973, these titles and styles are no longer recognised by the government of the Hellenic Republic. Through his male-line descent from Christian IX of Denmark, he is a Danish prince with the style of Highness. Greece Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Redeemer Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Saints George and Constantine Knight Grand Cross of the Order of George I Knight Grand Cross of Order of the Phoenix Recipient of the Commemorative Badge of the Centenary of the Royal House of Greece Knight of the Order of the Elephant Recipient of the Commemorative Badge of the 50th Birthday Medal of King Carl XVI Gustaf Pavlos was a direct descendant of three reigning sovereign monarchs at birth, he was the eldest son of the King of Greece, grandson of the King of Denmark and great-grandson of the King of Sweden, all living and enthroned when he was born.
His paternal aunt, Queen Sofía of Spain, was Queen Consort of Spain. His maternal aunt, Margrethe II of Denmark, is the reigning Queen of Denmark. By male-line descent, he is a member of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg branch of the House of Oldenburg. Pavlos is a scion multiple times of the "Grandparents of Europe", due to royal
George II of Greece
George II reigned as King of Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947. George was born at the royal villa at Tatoi, near Athens, the eldest son of Prince Constantine of Greece and his wife, Princess Sophia of Prussia. George pursued a military career, training with the Prussian Guard at the age of 18 serving in the Balkan Wars as a member of the 1st Greek Infantry; when his grandfather was assassinated in 1913, his father became King Constantine I and George became the crown prince. After a coup deposed King Constantine during the First World War, Crown Prince George, by a Major, followed his father into exile in 1917. George's younger brother, was installed as king by prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos, an avowed Republican; when Alexander I died following an infection from a monkey bite in 1920, Venizelos was voted out of office, a plebiscite restored Constantine to the throne. Crown Prince George served as a colonel, a major general in the war against Turkey. During this time he married his second cousin, on 27 February 1921 in Bucharest, Princess Elisabeth of Romania, daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Marie of Romania.
When the Turks defeated Greece at the Battle of Dumlupınar, the military forced the abdication of Constantine, George succeeded to the Greek throne on 27 September 1922. Following a failed royalist coup in October 1923, the Revolutionary Committee asked him to depart Greece while the National Assembly considered the question of the future form of government, he complied and, although he refused to abdicate, he left on 19 December 1923 for exile in his wife's home nation of Romania. When a republic was proclaimed on 25 March 1924, he was deposed and stripped of his Greek nationality, his property was confiscated, his wife stayed in Bucharest whilst he spent more and more time abroad visiting Britain, his mother in Florence. In 1932 he moved to Britain. Elisabeth and he had no children, were divorced on 6 July 1935. In Greece between 1924 and 1935 there were 23 changes of government, a dictatorship, 13 coups. General Georgios Kondylis, a former Venizelist who had decided to throw in his lot with the monarchist forces, overthrew the government in October 1935 and appointed himself Prime Minister.
He arranged a plebiscite both to approve his government and to bring an end to the republic. On 3 November 1935 98% of the reported votes supported restoration of the monarchy; the balloting was not secret, participation was compulsory. As Time described it at the time, "As a voter one could drop into the ballot box a blue vote for George II and please General George Kondylis, or one could cast a red ballot for the Republic and get roughed up." George, living at Brown's Hotel in London, returned to Greek soil on November 25. He and Kondylis disagreed over the terms of a general amnesty the King wanted to declare, George appointed an interim Prime Minister, Konstantinos Demertzis. New elections were held in January, which resulted in a hung parliament with the Communists holding the balance of power. A series of unexpected deaths amongst the better-known politicians, as well as the uncertain political situation, led to the rise to power of veteran army officer Ioannis Metaxas. On 4 August 1936, George endorsed Metaxas's establishment of dictatorship – the "4th of August Regime", signing decrees that dissolved the parliament, banned political parties, abolished the constitution, purported to create a "Third Hellenic Civilization."
The King, ruling with Prime Minister Metaxas, oversaw a right-wing regime in which political opponents were arrested and strict censorship was imposed. An Index of banned books during that period included the works of Plato and Xenophon. Despite the nationalist government's strong economic and military ties to Germany, a connection which continued with Nazi Germany, King George was known to have pro-British feelings at the start of World War II. On 28 October 1940 Metaxas rejected an Italian ultimatum demanding the stationing of Italian troops in Greece, Italy invaded, starting the Greco-Italian War; the Greeks mounted a successful defense and occupied the southern half of Albania, but when the Germans invaded from Bulgaria on 6 April 1941 the Greeks and the British Expeditionary Force were overrun, mainland Greece occupied. On April 23 the King and the government left the Greek mainland for Crete, but after the German airborne attack on the island he was evacuated to Egypt. Once again he went into exile to Great Britain at the behest of King Farouk of Egypt and Farouk's pro-Italian ministers.
During the war he remained the internationally recognized head of state, backed by the exiled government and Greek forces serving in the Middle East. In occupied Greece, the leftist partisans of the National Liberation Front and National Popular Liberation Army, now unfettered by Metaxas' oppression, had become the largest Greek Resistance movement, enjoying considerable popular support; as liberation drew nearer, the prospect of the King's return caused dissensions both inside Greece and among the Greeks abroad. Although the King renounced the Metaxas regime in a radio broadcast, a large section of the people and many politicians rejected his return on account of his support of the dictatorship. In November 1943 George wrote to the Prime Minister-in-exile Emmanouil Tsouderos, "I shall examine anew the question of the date of my return to Greece in agreement with the Government". Either deliberately or accidentally, the version
Alexandra of Yugoslavia
Alexandra of Greece and Denmark was, by marriage to King Peter II, the last Queen of Yugoslavia. Posthumous daughter of King Alexander of Greece and his morganatic wife Aspasia Manos, Alexandra was not part of the Greek royal family until July 1922, when at the behest of Queen Sophia, a law was passed which retroactively recognized marriages of members of the royal family, although on a non-dynastic basis. At the same time, a serious political and military crisis, linked to the defeat of Greece against Turkey in Anatolia led to the deposition and exile of the royal family, beginning in 1924. Being the only members of the dynasty allowed to remain in the country by the Second Hellenic Republic, the princess and her mother found refuge in Italy, with Dowager Queen Sophia. After three years with her paternal grandmother, Alexandra left Florence to continue her studies in the United Kingdom, while her mother settled in Venice. Separated from her mother, the princess fell ill, forcing Aspasia to make her leave the boarding school where she was studying.
After the restoration of her uncle, King George II, on the Hellenic throne in 1935, Alexandra stayed in her native country several times but the outbreak of the Greco-Italian War, in 1940, forcing her and her mother to settle in Athens. The invasion of Greece by the Axis powers in April–May 1941, led to their moving to the United Kingdom. Again exiled, Alexandra met in London the young King Peter II of Yugoslavia, who went into exile after the invasion of his country by the Germans. Alexandra and Peter II fell in love and planned to marry. Opposition from both Peter's mother and the Yugoslav government in exile forced the couple to delay their marriage plans until 1944, when they celebrated their wedding. A year Alexandra gave birth to her only son, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia. However, the happiness of the family was short-lived: on 29 November 1945, Marshal Tito proclaimed the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Alexandra, who had never set foot in her adopted country, was left without a crown.
The abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy had serious consequences for the royal couple. Penniless and unable to adapt to the role of citizen, Peter II turned to alcoholism and multiple affairs with other women. Depressed by the behaviour of her husband, Alexandra neglected her son and made several suicide attempts. After the death of Peter II in 1970, Alexandra's health continued to deteriorate, she died of cancer in 1993 and her remains were buried in the Royal Cemetery Plot in the park of Tatoi in Greece, before being transferred to the Royal Mausoleum of Oplenac in 2013. Princess Alexandra was born in a difficult environment. Five months before her birth, her father, King Alexander, died of sepsis following a monkey bite which occurred in the gardens of Tatoi; the unexpected death of the sovereign caused a serious political crisis in Greece, at a time when public opinion was divided by the events of the World War I and the Greco-Turkish War. The King had concluded an unequal marriage with Aspasia Manos, and, in consequence, their offspring was not dynastic.
Due to the lack of another candidate for the throne, Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos was soon forced to accept the restoration of his enemy, King Constantine I, on 19 December 1920. Alexander's brief reign was treated as a regency, which meant that his marriage, contracted without his father's permission, was technically illegal, the marriage void, the couple's posthumous child illegitimate; the last months of pregnancy of Aspasia are surrounded by intrigue. In the case that she gave birth a boy, rumours soon assured that she was determined to place him on the throne after his birth. True or not, this possibility worried the Greek royal family, whose fears about the birth of a male child were exploited by the Venizelists to revive the succession crisis; the birth of a girl, on 25 March 1921 was a great relief for the dynasty and both King Constantine I and his mother Queen Dowager Olga agreed to be the godparents of the newborn. Still, neither Alexandra nor Aspasia received more official recognition: from a legal point of view, they were commoners without any rights in the royal family.
Things changed from July 1922 when, after the intervention of Queen Sophia, was passed a law which retroactively recognized marriages of members of the Royal Family, although on a non-dynastic basis. Thus, Alexandra's birth became legitimate in the eyes of Greek law, but since the marriage was recognized on a'non-dynastic basis,' her royal status was tenuous at best. Aspasia, was not mentioned in the law and remained a commoner in the eyes of protocol. Humiliated by this difference in treatment, she begged Prince Christopher, to intercede on her behalf. Moved by the arguments of her niece-in-law, he approached Queen Sophia, who changed her opinion. Under pressures from his wife, King Constantine I issued a decree, gazetted 10 September 1922 under which Aspasia received the title Princess of Greece and Denmark and the style of Royal Highness. Despite these positive developments, the situation o
Princess Eugénie of Greece and Denmark
Princess Eugénie of Greece and Denmark was the youngest child and only daughter of Prince George of Greece and Denmark and his wife, Princess Marie Bonaparte, daughter of Prince Roland Bonaparte, a great-nephew of Napoleon I. Her father was the second son of Olga Constantinovna of Russia; as a cousin of the bridegroom, she was a leading guest at the 1947 wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. She authored Le Tsarevitch, Enfant Martyr, a biography of Aleksey Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, written in French, published in 1990, she married Prince Dominik Rainer Radziwiłł on 30 May 1938 in Paris. They divorced in 1946, they had two children: Princess Tatiana Radziwiłł. Tatiana was a bridesmaid at the 1962 wedding of Prince Juan Carlos of Spain and Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark. Prince Jerzy Andrzej Dominik Hieronim Piotr Leon Radziwiłł. Eugénie remarried on 28 November 1949 to Prince Raymundo della Torre e Tasso, Duke of Castel Duino, a cadet member of the House of Thurn and Taxis.
Their marriage ended in divorce, in 1965. They had one son: Duke di Castel Duino. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Olga and Sophia Descendants of William the Conqueror Paul Theroff's Online Gotha