Green Lantern is the name of several superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. They fight evil with the aid of rings that grant them a variety of extraordinary powers, all of which come from imagination and/or emotions; the characters are depicted as members of the Green Lantern Corps, an interstellar law enforcement agency. The first Green Lantern character, Alan Scott, was created in 1940 by Martin Nodell during the Golden Age of Comic Books and fought common criminals in Capitol City with the aid of his magic ring. For the Silver Age of Comic Books, John Broome and Gil Kane reinvented the character as Hal Jordan in 1959 and shifted the focus of Green Lantern stories from fantasy to science fiction. Other notable Green Lanterns include Guy Gardner, John Stewart, Kyle Rayner; the Green Lanterns are among DC Comics' longer lasting sets of characters. They have been adapted to television, video games, motion pictures. Martin Nodell created the first Green Lantern, he first appeared in the Golden Age of Comic Books in All-American Comics #16, published by All-American Publications, one of three companies that would merge to form DC Comics.
This Green Lantern's real name was Alan Scott, a railroad engineer who, after a railway crash, came into possession of a magic lantern which spoke to him and said it would bring power. From this, he crafted a magic ring; the limitations of the ring were that it had to be "charged" every 24 hours by touching it to the lantern for a time, that it could not directly affect objects made of wood. Alan Scott fought ordinary human villains, but he did have a few paranormal ones such as the immortal Vandal Savage and the zombie Solomon Grundy. Most stories took place in New York; as a popular character in the 1940s, the Green Lantern featured both in anthology books such as All-American Comics and Comic Cavalcade, as well as his own book, Green Lantern. He appeared in All Star Comics as a member of the superhero team known as the Justice Society of America. After World War II the popularity of superheroes in general declined; the Green Lantern comic book was cancelled with issue #38, All Star Comics #57 was the character's last Golden Age appearance.
When superheroes came back in fashion in decades, the character Alan Scott was revived, but he was forever marginalized by the new Hal Jordan character, created to supplant him. He made guest appearances in other superheroes' books, but got regular roles in books featuring the Justice Society, he never got another solo series. Between 1995 and 2003, DC Comics changed Alan Scott's superhero codename to "Sentinel" in order to distinguish him from the newer and more popular science fiction Green Lanterns. In 2011, the Alan Scott character was revamped, his costume was redesigned and the source of his powers was changed to that of the mystical power of nature. In 1959, Julius Schwartz reinvented the Green Lantern character as a science fiction hero named Hal Jordan. Hal Jordan's powers were more or less the same as Alan Scott's, but otherwise this character was different than the Green Lantern character of the 1940s, he had a new name, a redesigned costume, a rewritten origin story. Hal Jordan received his ring from a dying alien and was commissioned as an officer of the Green Lantern Corps, an interstellar law enforcement agency overseen by the Guardians of the Universe.
Hal Jordan was introduced in Showcase #22. Gil Kane and Sid Greene were the art team most notable on the title in its early years, along with writer John Broome, his initial physical appearance, according to Kane, was patterned after his one-time neighbor, actor Paul Newman. With issue #76, the series made a radical stylistic departure. Editor Schwartz, in one of the company's earliest efforts to provide more than fantasy, worked with the writer-artist team of Denny O'Neil and Neal Adams to spark new interest in the comic book series and address a perceived need for social relevance, they added the character Green Arrow and had the pair travel through America encountering "real world" issues, to which they reacted in different ways — Green Lantern as fundamentally a lawman, Green Arrow as a liberal iconoclast. Additionally during this run, the groundbreaking "Snowbirds Don't Fly" story was published in which Green Arrow's teen sidekick Speedy developed a heroin addiction that he was forcibly made to quit.
The stories were critically acclaimed, with publications such as The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Newsweek citing it as an example of how comic books were "growing up". However, the O'Neil/Adams run was not a commercial success, the series was cancelled after only 14 issues, though an additional unpublished three installments were published as backups in The Flash #217-219; the title saw a number of cancellations. It changed to Green Lantern Corps at one point as the popularity waned. During a time there were two regular titles, each with a Green Lantern, a third member in the Justice League. A new character, Kyle Rayner, was created to become the feature while Hal Jordan first became the villain Parallax died and came back as the Spectre. In the wake of The New Frontier, writer Geoff Johns returned Hal Jordan as Green Lantern in Green Lantern: Rebirth. Johns began to lay groundwork for "Blackest Night", viewing it as the third part of the trilogy
Menajahtwa was a female rap duo from Compton, California composed of female rappers Spice and Royal T. They were signed to Eazy-E's Ruthless Records in the 1990s; the duo made their debut in 1992 on Eazy-E's EP, 5150: Home 4 tha Sick on the track entitled "Merry Muthafuckin' Xmas" alongside Eazy-E, Buckwheat and Atban Klann. Two years on August 23, 1994, Menajahtwa released their first and only album entitled Cha-Licious, which featured production from Eazy-E, DJ Yella, Rhythum D and DJ U-Neek; the album spawned two singles "La La La" and "Giv Tha Azz 2 No 1", however the album did not do well and neither the album nor the singles charted. Despite the albums' miscomings they would stay together for a few more years and appeared on Eazy-E's 1995 song "Gangsta Beat 4 Tha Street", on Adina Howard's 1997 "Swerve On"; as well as writing Adina Howards "Freak And You Know It" produced by DJ Quik. Shortly after "Swerve On" the duo disbanded, but remain best friends to this day
The Shire of Noosa is a local government area about 130 kilometres north of Brisbane in the Sunshine Coast district of South East Queensland, Australia. The shire covers an area of 870 square kilometres; the shire existed as a local government entity from 1910 until 2008, when it was amalgamated with the Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra to form the Sunshine Coast Region, again from 1 January 2014, when it was re-established. The Noosa area was home to several Aboriginal groups; these include the Undumbi tribe to the south, the Dulingbara to the north, the Kabi Kabi to the west. Gubbi Gubbi is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken on Gubbi Gubbi country; the Gubbi Gubbi language region includes the landscape within the local government boundaries of the Sunshine Coast Region and Gympie Region the towns of Caloundra, Noosa Heads and extending north towards Maryborough and south to Caboolture. In 2003 the Australian Federal Court determined that the native title holders for the Noosa area are the Kabi Kabi First Nation.
Although much of the culture and presence of the traditional owners of the Noosa district has been lost during the short period of white settlement, there still exist many subtle reminders. These include: bora rings, used during rituals. Canoe trees, marks on trees where bark was removed for canoes. Border/navigation trees, marks on trees tribal borders. Stone carvings burial trees middens, shell mound created by thousands of years of discarded shells. Stone axes spoken legends, many local legends which were traditionally passed through the generations survive today. Place names, many local names are versions of the original Aboriginal names, it is represented that the name Noosa comes from the local Aboriginal word for shadow or shady place. An 1870 map of Noosa shows the Noosa River as Nusa River; the word Nusa is derived from the Indonesian word for island. A Keeping Place of indigenous cultural and sacred objects is maintained at the Noosa Shire Museum, Pomona. Although reports of the area can be traced back to Captain Cook's voyages in May 1770, European settlement in the region did not proceed for a century.
This early settlement was driven firstly by timber logging and secondly a gold rush in the Gympie area, north of Noosa. The difficulty of transport in the region, which persisted to the 1920s and beyond, was one major reason for this. In 1871, the Government laid out a port at Tewantin, duly surveyed and by 1877 contained two hotels, a boarding house, police station and telegraph office. In 1872, the Noosa Heads and coastal region south to Peregian Beach was set aside as an Aboriginal Mission, however this was cancelled in 1878 and land was opened for selection on 15 January 1879. With the advent of the railway, Tewantin declined in importance. Noosa is a region, not a town, it contains beaches and a beach national park, the cleanest river in South-East Queensland and an extensive trail network inland, linking a number of lifestyle villages, including Cooroy and Pomona. In the last 50 years Noosa has been transformed from an isolated fishing village to a tourist destination. Although this has had its costs the shire is known for its greener approach to development.
Most development in Noosa has been restrained. Noosa has no high rise buildings, due both to local community pressure and to council planning action, much remaining native forest. 34.8% of the Noosa district consists of National Parks, Conservation Parks, State Forests, other protected land. The popularity of Noosa Heads comes from the fact, it one of Australia's few North facing beaches located on the East Coast, hence Noosa Beach is protected from on-shore wind and storms; the area was incorporated as part of the Widgee Divisional Board on 11 November 1879 under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. Noosa was created as a separate shire under the Local Authorities Act 1902 in 1910, with an initial population of 2,000; the first elections were held on 22 April 1910 and resulted in James Duke becoming the first shire chairman. The Noosa Shire Hall was constructed in Pomona in 1911. On Saturday 8 September 1917, an Honour Roll was unveiled at the Noosa Shire Hall in Pomona, it was to honour and commemorate those from the district who had left Australia to serve in the armed forces during World War I.
In the early 1970s, development commenced in the area around Noosa Sound with Queensland Government backing. In December 1980, the Shire headquarters moved to Tewantin; the former shire hall in Pomona became. Following the election of Noosa's first green mayor, Noel Playford, in 1988, Noosa's first strategic plan was gazetted, in 1990 development was limited to four storeys. In 1993, a major Council and community complex covering 9 hectares opened at Wallace Park, Noosaville. In 1995, the mayor Noel Playford controversially announced a "population cap" of 56,500 people for Noosa Shire; the population cap was the expected population under the planning scheme if all available land was developed in accordance with the planning scheme. Noosa had performed the calculations for all land in the shire and provided the results in the strategic planning documents. Noosa was the first Council in Australia to do so. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Noosa merged with the Shire of Maroochy and the City of Caloundra to form the Sunshine Coast Region.
Noosa's mayor, Bob Abbot, won the mayoralty o
Kawee Tanjararak or Beam was a member of the Thai boy band D2B which included Worrawech Danuwong and Panrawat Kittikorncharoen. After his contract with RS was invalidated, he became a freelance singer. Kawee Tanjararak or Beam was born on May 1980 in Thailand, he changed his name before he entered high school. He is the elder brother of three siblings; the youngest sister Bua-Sarocha is an singer as well. Beam debuted as actor when he was studying in year two of university, he made contract with RS Public Company Limited 1999. Soon after, he was well known as a member of one of the Thai boy band D2B, which included Dan-Worrawech and Big-Panrawat. In 2001. D2B won the Most Popular Artists award from the MTV Music Awards of 2003 in Singapore, but their second official album was just being revealed when sorrowful happening occurred. On July 22, 2003, Big was in a coma; because of this, Beam made the decision to ordain on September 21, 2003. After left the monkhood and Dan performed the charity album "D2B the Neverending Album Tribute to Big D2B" and concert "D2B the Neverending Concert Tribute to Big D2B" to give Big's family the profit for treatment outgoing.
Beam traveled to Australia to study English program from Queensland College Of English about six months. In 2005, Beam and Dan come back as duo band Dan-Beam, their album had been received positive feedback just like D2B did, but they announced the termination of D2B on October 25, 2007. Their last special album "DB2B" is the charity album for Big's family. In 2008, Beam's solo album was releasing. Furthermore, he was assigned as the first WWF Ambassador of Thailand for three years continuously to participate in many environmental events, such as Earth Hour. A year before termination of RS's contract in 2010, Beam was suspended by RS. So, he begun and spent two years after to look after his own business Trip Buster Ltd, closed down in 2013, he came back on screen in winter 2011 and released a solo single in summer 2012. Now, he is singer. Role as Seong of Ra-Berd-Therd-Therng Sing-To-Thong the sitcom... Airing Lun-Rak-Kham-Rua the series... Airing Game-Ma-Ya... Shooting Ban-Lang-Dok-Mai... Shooting* Ordered by official announcement date Priminary School: Assumption Samrong School High School: Rachwinit Bangkeaw School Diploma: Pre-Engineering Program, College of Industrial Technology from King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok Under Graduate: B.
Eng. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering from Chulalongkorn University Graduated: MBA English Program, Faculty of Commerce and Accountancy from Chulalongkorn University D2B D2B Summer Type Two D2B the Neverending Album Tribute to Big D2B... Chan-Ja-Jab-Mheu-Ther-Aw-Wai song was produced by Dan; the Album The Album II: Relax The Album 3: Freedom DB2B Beam... Duai-Hua-Jai-Ther song was written by Beam Meu-Thee-Mong-Mai-Hen - RS Meeting Concert 2001 Star Mission's special song Tuk-Wi-Na-Thee - RS Acoustic for Friends' special song Mee-Ther - RS Star Club's special song Marathon - Marathon Dance Expo Sud-Rang-Ten - Marathon Dance Expo Chai-Mak-A-Rom-Nee - Marathon Dance Expo D2B YMCA MIX - Marathon Dance Expo Yu-Thee-Ther-Leau - Anti-Counterfeit Concert Tham-Duai-Mhue Sang-Duai-Jai Anti-Counterfeit Concert Thing-Hua-Jai-Wai-Thee-Ther - MIXICLUB's special song Ya-Krod-Nan - MIXICLUB's special song Luk-Kong-Poe - Luk-Kong-Poe album Pleaw-Fai-Haeng-Plai-Fan - Suphanburi's Game Kon-Thai-Rak-Kan - Southern Thailand Insurgency-involved song Infinite - Freedom Around the World Live in Concert's special song...
Lyric by Beam and melody by Dan Nai-Jai-Ter-Mee-Hua-Jai-Chan-Eak-Duang - "Ma-Has-Sa-Jan-Kwam-Kid-Teung" D2B Encore Concert 2015... Melody by Dan Duai-Ai-Rak - OST. Sexphone and the Lonely Wave Klab-Ma-Dai-Mhai - OST. Sexphone and the Lonely Wave Tha-Mae-Mai-Leau-Krai-Rak - Missing Mom Riang-Kuam-Ruan-Mae album Porn-Kong-Poe - Luk-Kong-Poe album Kon-Klai-Chid-Kid-Ja-Seung - OST. Ku-Pan-Ku-Puan Pak-Kang-Kwa-Jai - OST. Sed-Thee-Kang-Khiang Sak-Wan-Chan-Ja-Jab-Mheu-Ther - OST. Sed-Thee-Kang-Khiang Jud-Plian - Love Maker II by AM:PM Mai-Yak-Mai-Mee-Ther - OST. Bangkok Sweeter Rak-Rai-Siang - OST. Mae-Tang-Rom-Bai Rak-Mai-Roo-Dab - OST. Jood-Nut-Pob RS Meeting Concert Star Mission... Guest D2B Summer Live in Concert Marathon Dance Expo Concert... Guest D2B Goodtime Thanks Concert for Friends Anti-Counterfeiting Concert... Guest D2B the Miracle Concert PCT Marathon Dance... Guest Anti-Counterfeiting Concert... Guest D2B the Neverending Concert Tribute to Big D2B "Kid-Teung" D2B Live Concert 2014 "Ma-Has-Sa-Jan-Kwam-Kid-Teung" D2B Encore Concert 2015 Kid-Mak Concert Unseen Concert Riang-Kuam-Rung-Mae...
Guest Thai-Chinese Friendship Concert... Guest Nice Club Concert Rao-Ja-Pen-Kon-Dee Concert... Guest Freedom Around the World Live in Concert Concert Pleng-Khong-Po Ja-Rong-Pleng-Po Hai-Preo-Tee-Sud... Guest One Man & Fan-Krai-Mai-Ru Concert Salz Systema Show in One 22... Guest Halloo Beam Concert My Name is Kim Concert... Guest My Blue World Concert... Guest 72 Years Chula Accounting Charity Concert and Enjoy with Soontraporn Song... Guest Ther-Rak-Chan-Roo - Momay Sa-Pa-Wa-Thing-Tua - Dan Bao-Wan - Wan Thanakrit Where is Tong... Khing Omen... Beam
Atbash is a monoalphabetic substitution cipher used to encrypt the Hebrew alphabet. It can be modified for use with any known writing system with a standard collating order; the Atbash cipher is a particular type of monoalphabetic cipher formed by taking the alphabet and mapping it to its reverse, so that the first letter becomes the last letter, the second letter becomes the second to last letter, so on. For example, the Latin alphabet would work like this: Due to the fact that there is only one way to perform this, the Atbash cipher provides a communications security, as it lacks any sort of key. If multiple collating orders are available, which one was used in encryption can be used as a key, but this does not provide more security, considering only a few letters can give away which one was used; the name derives from the first, last and second to last Hebrew letters. The Atbash cipher for the modern Hebrew alphabet would be: Several biblical verses are described by commentators as being examples of Atbash: Jeremiah 25:26 – "The king of Sheshach shall drink after them" – Sheshach meaning Babylon in Atbash Jeremiah 51:1 – "Behold, I will raise up against Babylon, against the inhabitants of Lev-kamai, a destroying wind."
– Lev-kamai meaning Chaldeans Jeremiah 51:41 – "How has Sheshach been captured! and the praise of the whole earth taken! How has Babylon become a curse among the nations!" - Sheshach meaning Babylon The Atbash cipher can be seen as a special case of the affine cipher. Under the standard affine convention, an alphabet of m letters is mapped to the numbers 0, 1... M − 1.. The Atbash cipher may be enciphered and deciphered using the encryption function for an affine cipher, by setting a = b =: E = D = mod m This may be simplified to: E = mod m = − mod m If, the m letters of the alphabet are mapped to 1, 2... m the encryption and decryption function for the Atbash cipher becomes: E = + 1 Temurah Gematria Hebrew language ROT13 Paul Y. Hoskisson. "Jeremiah's Game". Insights. Retrieved 30 March 2013. Online Atbash decoder
Naj Tunich is a natural cave, used by the Maya as a ritual pilgrimage site during the Classic period. Artifacts show that the cave was accessed during the Early Classic period with deposits becoming rarer during the Late Classic period; the fame of the cave, rests on its long Late Classic hieroglyphic texts as well as on a considerable number of painted scenes and figures. The rediscovery of Naj Tunich cave occurred in 1980 by a Q'eqchi' Maya Native. Bernabe Pop found the site by chance while hunting peccary with his dogs; the first academic visitation to the site was made by Pierre Ventur in 1980. Since discovery, Naj Tunich has been mapped and photographed in order to preserve as much of the paintings and hieroglyphs as possible. Naj Tunich cave is located in modern day Guatemala near the municipality of Poptún, five kilometers west of the border with Belize; the site is near the Maya Mountains. The cave is located on a “sheer limestone cliff face more than 200m above” the surrounding valley, making access difficult.
The cave mouth itself is located “at the end of a ravine." This accessway includes two mounds which form a “gateway” to the entrance of the cave. Archaeologists note that while Naj Tunich cave was difficult to reach, the Maya altered the cave through the use of architectural modifications; these modifications included the construction of steps and the infilling of the cave floor. Studies have shown that the materials required for these alterations were chosen and carried from long distances. Naj Tunich cave is described as having a north-south orientation and includes two chambers, Chamber 1 and Chamber 2; the entrance to Naj Tunich is large enough to allow for natural light to enter into Chamber 1. The length of the cave is reported as the widest portion measuring 2.5 m. The width of the cave tunnels would have limited access to individual persons in some portions; the cave had featured “crystalline” stalagmites and stalactites of a yellowish, transparent hue. But nearly all have been destroyed through either environmental or human causes.
Naj Tunich cave is associated with many artifacts relating to possible ritual activity. Maya artifacts at Naj Tunich include offerings of ceramics, bowls, precious minerals, copal incense, human sacrifices. Chamber 1 includes wooden posts which are suspected to have created 2-3 smaller rooms within the chamber. An elaborate, 14 meter high balcony was constructed in Chamber 1; this balcony is noted as including. This pool was altered by the Maya through damming. Chamber 1 includes an altar or shrine area that includes a basin associated with cosmological rituals. Both the balcony and shrine located in Chamber 1 were likely used in water rituals which may have deepened associations between the caverns, water and natural order. Along with the features of Chamber 1, two other areas of Naj Tunich cave were associated with access and control of water. One of these is a natural pool of water “located 40 meters into the tunnel system." The Maya had built a “small earthen platform” to the north of the pool.
The presence of a large artifact assemblage in the vicinity of the pool suggests that the area was used. The second section of Chamber 1, associated with water is the “Silent Well,” located at the tunnel section furthest from the cave entrance; the well is described as having a diameter of a long, muddy shaft. Traces of ancient Maya foot prints have been found around the well. Small amounts of clay are said to have been extracted from the Silent Well by pilgrims as mementos; the Maya may have preferred the clay from the Silent Well because of its location deep within the cave. Chamber 2 is noted as being the smaller of the two chambers, it is described as circular and includes a natural window which could be covered in order to block sunlight. Much of the architectural alterations made to Chamber 2 have been destroyed by looters. Archaeologists believe that Naj Tunich was associated with the Maya city of Uxbenká, as it is located 2.3 km south of the Stela Plaza. In fact, it is believed that the Stela Plaza construction coincides with alterations made within Naj Tunich cave.
Archaeologists have noted that individuals at the Stela Plaza in Uxbenká were capable of looking out to Naj Tunich and vice versa. Which may be evidence of the importance of the relationship between the two sites. Many studies have focused on Naj Tunich as being imbued with sacred, ritual power within Maya cosmology, it has been interpreted as having what the Maya refer to as “suhuy." This word has been applied to things which are “unsullied by the human presence." For the Maya, deep cave systems such as Naj Tunich may have represented the most untouched earthly domains. Naj Tunich is unique in that it included cosmograms referred to as mesa which “defines the cosmic center and the four quarters” which originate from it; these four quarters were marked with “sacred stones” which would be of a similar size and spherical. The center stone would represent the largest of the five stones. Archaeologists have explained that for the Maya, Naj Tunich may have represented the house of a divine being or entrance to the underworld, Xibalba.
Studies have shown that Naj Tunich served as a pilgrimage site. Researchers have noted that Naj Tunich may have represented access to economic and material power; as well as a magical source of fertility and “pure” or suhuy water. Hieroglyphs at Naj Tunich have recorded the names of Maya elite who are said to have visited the site; the sites associated with having visited Naj Tunich included “Caracol, Ix