The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U. S. state of Vermont. The range runs south to north and extends 250 miles from the border with Massachusetts to the border with Quebec, Canada; the part of the same range, in Massachusetts and Connecticut is known as The Berkshires or the Berkshire Hills and the Quebec portion is called the Sutton Mountains, or Monts Sutton in French. All mountains in Vermont are referred to as the "Green Mountains". However, other ranges within Vermont, including the Taconics—in southwestern Vermont's extremity—and the Northeastern Highlands, are not geologically part of the Green Mountains; the best-known mountains—for reasons such as high elevation, ease of public access by road or trail, or with ski resorts or towns nearby—in the range include: Mount Mansfield, 4,395 feet, the highest point in Vermont Killington Peak, 4,241 feet Camel's Hump, 4,084 feet Mount Ellen, 4,083 feet Mount Abraham, 4,017 feet Pico Peak, 3,957 feet Stratton Mountain, 3,940 feet, the mountain at which the initial ideas of both the Long Trail and the Appalachian Trail were born Jay Peak, 3,862 feet, receives the most snowfall on average in the eastern United States.
Bread Loaf Mountain, 3,835 feet Mount Wilson, 3,780 feet Glastenbury Mountain, 3,748 feet Burke Mountain, 3,280 feet The Green Mountains are part of the Appalachian Mountains, a range that stretches from Quebec in the north to Alabama in the south. The Green Mountains are part of the New England/Acadian forests ecoregion. Three peaks—Mount Mansfield, Camel's Hump, Mount Abraham—support alpine vegetation; some of the mountains are developed for skiing and other snow-related activities. Others have hiking trails for use in summer. Mansfield, Killington and Ellen have downhill ski resorts on their slopes. All of the major peaks are traversed by the Long Trail, a wilderness hiking trail that runs from the southern to northern borders of the state and is overlapped by the Appalachian Trail for 1⁄3 of its length; the Vermont Republic known as the Green Mountain Republic, existed from 1777 to 1791, at which time Vermont became the 14th state. Vermont not only takes its state nickname from the mountains, it is named after them.
The French Monts Verts or Verts Monts is translated as "Green Mountains". This name was suggested in 1777 by Dr. Thomas Young, an American revolutionary and Boston Tea Party participant; the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College is referred to as UVM, after the Latin Universitas Viridis Montis. The Green Mountains are a physiographic section of the larger New England province, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division. Lemon Fair runs through the towns of Orwell, Shoreham and Cornwall, before flowing into Otter Creek; the story is that its name derives from early English-speaking settlers' phonetic approximation of'Les Monts Verts'. Green Mountain National Forest Green Mountain Boys—paramilitary infantry led by Ethan Allen that took Fort Ticonderoga during the American Revolution Green Mountain Club Green Mountains travel guide from Wikivoyage U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Green Mountains "Green Mountains"; the New Student's Reference Work.
Pedro de Castro van Dúnem known as Comandante Loy, was an Angolan politician. He served in various leading functions within the MPLA during the Angolan liberation struggle against Portuguese colonial rule and within the country's government after achieving independence. At the end of 1962, he fled Portuguese rule and arrived in January 1963 in Leopoldville, where he took refuge and, in June 1963, he was elected into the leadership of the Youth of MPLA. From September 1963 to 1970 he studied electrical engineering in Moscow and underwent military training in the Soviet Union. In 1970 he took over logistical tasks for the military struggle against the Portuguese colonial rule in Angola for the MPLA's Eastern Front, based at the rear base in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In 1975, he was one of the members of the revolutionary council, served as Director of the Cabinet of the Minister of Defense. In 1976, he was named Third Deputy Prime Minister of the Angolan government. In 1978 he was assigned the post of Minister for Coordination of the Provinces.
In 1980, he became Minister of Energy, in the next year he took over as head of the Ministry of Petroleum. When in 1986 the ministries of energy and petroleum were merged, he continued as minister of the combined ministry, he served as the Minister of External Relations of Angola from 1989 to 1992. In 1993 he was named administrator of the Central Bank of Angola, he served as Minister of Public Works and Urban Affairs from 1996 to 1997, resigning shortly before his death. In November 2011, the Banco Angolano de Investimentos opened a branch office named "Comandante Loy" in their banking school in Luanda barrio Morro Bento, Belas municipality. There is a "Comandande Loy" Consortium, building housing for veterans of the liberation war in Viana and Icolo e Bengo. Website of a "Fundaçao Comandante Loy" Manuel Eduardo Bravo. "Memória do comandante Loy". Club K
U. S. Route 12 is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Aberdeen, Washington, to Detroit, Michigan. In the U. S. state of Indiana, it is part of the state road system. US 12 enters US 41 in Whiting; the 45.16 miles of US 12 that lie within Indiana serve as a major conduit. Some of the highway is listed on the National Highway System. Various sections are rural two-lane highway, urbanized four-lane undivided highway and one-way streets; the easternmost community along the highway is Michiana Shores at the Michigan state line. US 12 passes through parallel to the Lake Michigan shoreline; the highway is included in the Lake Michigan Circle Tour and passes through Indiana Dunes National Park. Historical landmarks along the highway include the Miller Town Hall, Beverly Shores South Shore Railroad Station and the Old Michigan City Lighthouse. A memorial highway designations have been applied to the route since 1917, named for the Civil War Union Army unit. US 12 was first designated as a US Highway in concurrent with US 20 west of Michigan City.
A section of the highway served as part of the Dunes Highway, a connection between Gary and Michigan. US 12 replaced the original SR 43 designation of the highway which dated back to the formation of the Indiana state road system. SR 43 ran from the Illinois state line through Gary to Michigan City and ended at the Michigan state line. In the early 1920s, it was the most important route between Chicago and Detroit and in 1922 the first sections started being paved; the Indiana State Highway Commission renamed Indiana Department of Transportation, removed US 20 from the section east of Gary in the early 1930s. Most of the route has since been supplanted by the Indiana Toll Road. Only one segment of U. S. Route 12 is included in the National Highway System; that is the segment, concurrent with U. S. Route 20 from the Illinois state line to the split with US 20 in East Chicago; the NHS is a network of highways that are identified as being most important for the economy and defense of the nation. The highway is maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation like all other U.
S. Highways in the state; the department tracks the traffic volumes along all state highways as a part of its maintenance responsibilities using a metric called average annual daily traffic. This measurement is a calculation of the traffic level along a segment of roadway for any average day of the year. In 2010, INDOT figured that the lowest traffic levels were 3,120 vehicles and 350 commercial vehicles used the highway daily near Ogden Dunes; the peak traffic volumes were 30,510 vehicles and 2,430 commercial vehicles AADT along the section of US 12 at the Illinois state line, concurrent with US 20 and US 41. The highway has been designated as the Iron Brigade Memorial Highway to honor the Civil War Union Army unit. US 12 enters Indiana concurrent with US 20 and US 41, at which point it passes under the Indiana Toll Road; the road passes both commercial and industrial areas between Horseshoe Casino. US 12, US 20, US 41 are concurrent until US 41 turns south on Calumet Avenue. Both US 12 and US 20 head southeast toward East Chicago, where US 12 turns east while US 20 continues south.
The route heads east through East Chicago as a four-lane undivided highway passing through residential areas. The road heads south concurrent with State Road 912, passing through industrial area between East Chicago and Gary; the two routes have an interchange at SR 312 and access to the Indiana Toll Road, via an interchange at Gary Avenue. The road has two bridges with the first passes over Grand Calumet River and the other passing over the Indiana Toll Road and the South Shore commuter rail line. After passing the rail line, the road has an interchange with US 20, this interchange is the southern end of the SR 912 concurrency. US 12 follows US 20 east towards downtown Gary, as a four-lane divided highway; the two highways pass through residential areas and crosses the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway owned by Norfolk Southern Railway, before downtown Gary. At Bridge Street in Gary, the road becomes one-way streets, with westbound on Fourth Avenue and eastbound on Fifth Avenue. In downtown Gary it has an intersection with SR 53, locally known as Broadway.
The streets pass by the historical Knights of Columbus Building and the old Ralph Waldo Emerson School building. East of downtown Gary, the road passes by U. S. Steel Yard the home of an independent professional baseball team; the one-way streets end and the road becomes a six-lane divided highway, known as Dunes Highway. The Dunes Highway passes between residential houses. East of Gary the route has a signalized intersection with the northern terminus of Interstate 65. After I-65, the road has a trumpet interchange with I-90. In the far eastern portion of Gary, US 12 and US 20 split for the final time, although US 20 parallels US 12 for the next 20 miles, sometimes coming within 0.2 miles. US 20 follows a more southerly route to Michigan City, while US 12 passes through Indiana Dunes National Park and retains the name "Dunes Highway." After splitting from US 20, US 12 becomes a rural two-lane highway, passing through the woodland. The road passes just south in the community of Miller Beach. After the community of Miller Beach, the highway enters Indiana Dunes National Park.
The road passes through woodland and parallel to the South Shore track