Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid
Perry County, Mississippi
Perry County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,250; the county seat is New Augusta. The county is named after the War of Oliver Hazard Perry. Perry County is part of MS Metropolitan Statistical Area; until 1906, the county seat was the old town of Augusta, near the center of the county on the east bank of the Leaf River. At Old Augusta, the outlaw James Copeland was executed by hanging on October 30, 1857. Old Augusta remains a small village today. New Augusta, two miles south of Old Augusta, was made the county seat of Perry County, because it was situated on the Mobile, Jackson & Kansas City Railroad. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 650 square miles, of which 647 square miles is land and 3.0 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 98 Mississippi Highway 15 Mississippi Highway 29 Mississippi Highway 42 Wayne County Greene County George County Stone County Forrest County Jones County De Soto National Forest Black Creek Wilderness Leaf River Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2000, there were 12,138 people, 4,420 households, 3,332 families residing in the county.
The population density was 19 people per square mile. There were 5,107 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.17% White, 22.59% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 0.47% from two or more races. 1.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,420 households out of which 37.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 21.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.18. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 11.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females, there were 95.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,189, the median income for a family was $32,791. Males had a median income of $29,130 versus $18,632 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,837. About 19.60% of families and 22.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.60% of those under age 18 and 25.50% of those age 65 or over. Beaumont New Augusta Richton Hintonville Janice Runnelstown Swords Lee, timber owner and member of the Louisiana House of Representatives for Grant Parish, 1904-1908.
U.S. Route 45
U. S. Route 45 is a major north–south United States highway and a border-to-border route, from Lake Superior to the Gulf of Mexico. A sign at the highway's northern terminus notes the total distance as 1,300 miles. US 45 is notable for incorporating, in its maiden alignment, the first paved road in the South, a 49-mile segment in Lee County, Mississippi. Let to contract in July 1914, the concrete highway opened on November 15, 1915; as of 2006, the highway's northern terminus is in Ontonagon, Michigan, at the corner of Ontonagon and River Streets, a few blocks from Lake Superior. M-64 terminated there as well until its rerouting in October 2006 to use the newly built Ontonagon River Bridge, its southern terminus is in Mobile, Alabama, at an intersection with U. S. Route 98. US 45 is concurrent with unsigned SR 17 between Mobile and Vinegar Bend, just north of Deer Park, in Washington County, Alabama. From Vinegar Bend to the Mississippi state line, US 45 is concurrent with unsigned SR 57. U. S. Highway 45 is part of a designated hurricane evacuation route in Mississippi.
It is four-laned from its point of entry from Alabama, at the town of State Line, to the Tennessee line just north of Corinth, along the way serving the towns of Waynesboro, Meridian and Tupelo. At Brooksville, U. S. 45 splits away from U. S. 45 Alternate and serves the towns of Columbus and Aberdeen before rejoining U. S. 45 Alternate south of Tupelo. The alternate roadway provides a more direct and four-laned route between Meridian and Tupelo, bypassing Columbus to the west and, more Starkville to the east. Major junctions of U. S. 45 in Mississippi include U. S. Route 84 at Waynesboro, Interstate 20/59 at Meridian, U. S. Route 82 at Columbus, Interstate 22/U. S. Route 78 at Tupelo and U. S. Route 72 at Corinth; each of these junctions is an interchange and, with the exception of Waynesboro, each is part of a freeway segment. The Mississippi section of U. S. 45 is defined at Mississippi Code Annotated § 65-3-3. From the Mississippi state line U. S. 45 extends north past Selmer and Jackson to Three Way, just north of Jackson.
At Three Way, the highway splits into U. S. 45E and U. S. 45W. From Three Way to the northeast, U. S. 45E extends past Milan Martin and is concurrent with unsigned State Route 43 for most of the route's length past except for short segments at South Fulton and Martin, where it is cosigned with State Route 216 and State Route 215 respectively. From Three Way to the northwest, U. S. 45W extends past Humboldt and is concurrent with unsigned State Route 5 to Union City and with U. S. 51 to the junction with U. S. 45E less than a quarter mile south of the Kentucky state line. Mainline U. S. 45, concurrent with U. S. 51, continues north into Kentucky. U. S. 45 enters Kentucky at Fulton northeast past Mayfield heads directly north into Paducah as a four-lane highway. In Paducah, U. S. 45 serves as a major artery, intersecting with Interstate 24 at exit 7, intersecting US 60 and 62. U. S. 45 leaves Kentucky from Paducah's northern border across the two-lane, metal-grate Brookport Bridge to Brookport, Illinois across the Ohio River.
In the state of Illinois, U. S. 45 runs from a bridge across the Ohio River from Paducah, through Shawnee National Forest and north to the Wisconsin border east of Antioch, Illinois. With a length of 428.99 miles in Illinois, U. S. 45 is the longest numbered route in Illinois. In its progress north from the Ohio River U. S. 45 first joins Interstate 24 as far as Vienna heads northeast through Harrisburg and north through Fairfield, Effingham, Champaign, Urbana and Kankakee straight north through the western suburbs of Chicago in Will County, Cook County and Lake County to the Wisconsin border. U. S. 45 enters the state in southeast Wisconsin. It runs concurrent with Interstate 894 and U. S. Route 41 through the west side of metro Milwaukee to form a major artery through the metropolitan area, it runs north to Fond du Lac. The highway routes near the western shore of Lake Winnebago through Wisconsin. U. S. 45 travels north through Wittenberg and Eagle River, as well as the state and national forests, until it leaves the state at Land O' Lakes and enters Michigan.
US 45 enters Michigan south of Watersmeet. From there, the highway crosses the Western Upper Peninsula through the Ottawa National Forest running north to Ontonagon. US 45 ends just south of Lake Superior in downtown Ontonagon; the terminus was not changed in 2006 despite realignment of M-38 and M-64 from the terminus to a crossing 0.7 miles south. Until March 1935, US 45's northern terminus was in the Illinois area. Prior to the construction of the Interstate Highway system, US 45 was one of the main routes south out of Chicago toward New Orleans, Louisiana. Much of the traffic left US 45 at Effingham, continuing on through Cairo, Illinois along Illinois Route 37. Southern segmentAlabama US 98 in Mobile I‑65 in Prichard Mississippi US 84 in Waynesboro I‑20 / I‑59 in Meridian US 11 / US 80 in Meridian US 82 west of Columbus; the highways travel concurrently to Columbus. US 278 north-northwest of New Wren; the highways travel concurrently to the Verona–Tupelo city line. I‑22 / US 78 in Tupelo US 72 in Corinth Tennessee US 64 in Selmer.
The highways travel concurrently through the city. I‑40 / US 412 in Jackson US 45E / US 45W in Three Way US 79 in Milan US 79 in Humboldt Northern segmentTennessee US 45E / US 45W / US 51 in South Fulton. US 45 / US 51 travel concurrently to Fulton, Kentucky. Kentucky Future I‑69 north of Mayfield I‑24 in Paducah US 62 in Paducah; the highways travel concurrently through the city. US 60 / US 62 in Paducah. US 45/US 60 travels concurrently throu
Nathanael Greene was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. He emerged from the war with a reputation as General George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer, is known for his successful command in the southern theater of the war. Born into a prosperous Quaker family in Warwick, Rhode Island, Greene became active in the resistance to British revenue policies in the early 1770s and helped establish the Kentish Guards, a state militia. After the April 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord, the legislature of Rhode Island established an army and appointed Greene to command it. In the year, Greene became a general in the newly-established Continental Army. Greene served under Washington in the Boston campaign, the New York and New Jersey campaign, the Philadelphia campaign before being appointed quartermaster general of the Continental Army in 1778. In October 1780, General Washington appointed Greene as the commander of the Continental Army in the southern theater.
After taking command, Greene engaged in a successful campaign of guerrilla warfare against the numerically superior force of General Charles Cornwallis. He inflicted heavy losses on British forces at Battle of Guilford Court House, the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill, the Battle of Eutaw Springs, eroding British control of the Southern United States. Major fighting on land came to an end following the surrender of Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown in October 1781, but Greene continued to serve in the Continental Army until late 1783. After the war, he sought to become a successful planter in the South, but died in 1786 at his Mulberry Grove Plantation in Chatham County, Georgia. Many places in the United States are named after Greene. Greene was born on August 7, 1742, on Forge Farm at Potowomut in the township of Warwick, Rhode Island, part of British North America, he was Nathanael Greene Sr. a prosperous Quaker merchant and farmer. Greene was descended from John Greene and Samuel Gorton, both of whom were founding settlers of Warwick.
Greene had two older half-brothers from his father's first marriage, was one of six children born to Nathanael and Mary. Due to religious beliefs, Greene's father discouraged book learning, as well as dancing and other activities. Nonetheless, Greene convinced his father to hire a tutor, he studied mathematics, the classics and various works of the Age of Enlightenment. At some point during his childhood, Greene gained a slight limp that would remain with him for the rest of his life. In 1770, Greene moved to Coventry, Rhode Island to take charge of the family-owned foundry, he built a house in Coventry called Spell Hall. In the year and his brothers inherited the family business after their father's death. Greene began to assemble a large library that included military histories by authors like Caesar, Frederick the Great, Maurice de Saxe. In July 1774, Greene married the nineteen-year-old Catharine Littlefield, a niece-by-marriage of his distant cousin, William Greene, an influential political leader in Rhode Island.
That same year, one of Greene's younger brothers married a daughter of Samuel Ward, a prominent Rhode Island politician who became an important political ally until his death in 1776. Greene and Catherine's first child was born in 1776, they had six more children between 1777 and 1786. After the French and Indian War, the British Parliament began imposing new policies designed to raise revenue from British North America. After British official William Dudington seized a vessel owned by Greene and his brothers, Greene filed an successful lawsuit against Dudington for damages. While the lawsuit was pending, Dudington's vessel was torched by a Rhode Island mob in what became known as the Gaspee Affair. In the aftermath of the Gaspee Affair, Greene became alienated from the British government. At the same time, Greene drifted away from his father's Quaker faith, he was suspended from Quaker meetings in July 1773. In 1774, after the passage of revenue-raising measures that colonials derided as the "Intolerable Acts," Greene helped organize a local militia known as the Kentish Guards.
Because of his limp, Greene was not selected as an officer in the militia. The American Revolutionary War broke out with the April 1775 Battles of Concord. In early May, the legislature of Rhode Island established the Rhode Island Army of Observation and appointed Greene to command it. Greene's army marched to Boston, where other colonial forces were laying siege to a British garrison, he missed the June 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill because he was visiting Rhode Island at the time, but he returned immediately after the battle and was impressed by the performance of colonial forces. That same month, the Second Continental Congress established the Continental Army and appointed George Washington to command all colonial forces. In addition to Washington, Congress appointed sixteen generals, Greene was appointed as a brigadier general in the Continental Army. Washington took command of the Siege of Boston in July 1775, bringing with him generals such as Charles Lee, Horatio Gates, Thomas Mifflin. Washington organized the Continental Army into three divisions, each consisting of regiments from different colonies, Greene was given command of a brigade consisting of seven regiments.
The Siege of Boston continued until March 1776. After the end of the siege, Greene served as the commander of military forces in Boston, but he rejoined Washington's army in April 1776. Washington established his headquarters in Manhattan, Greene was tasked with preparing for the i
Wayne County, Mississippi
Wayne County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,747, its county seat is Waynesboro. The county is named for General Anthony Wayne. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 814 square miles, of which 811 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water. It is the fifth-largest county in Mississippi by land area. U. S. Highway 45 U. S. Highway 84 Mississippi Highway 63 Clarke County Choctaw County, Alabama Washington County, Alabama Greene County Perry County Jones County Jasper County De Soto National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 21,216 people, 7,857 households, 5,853 families residing in the county; the population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 9,049 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 61.29% White, 38.01% Black, 0.07% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, 0.33% from two or more races.
0.63% of the population were Latino of any race. There were 7,857 households out of which 37.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.00% were married couples living together, 17.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.50% were non-families. 23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.20% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 91.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,918, the median income for a family was $30,513. Males had a median income of $27,139 versus $16,680 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,757. About 21.40% of families and 25.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.70% of those under age 18 and 21.90% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2015 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Wayne County, Mississippi were: English - 14.0% American - 9.7% Irish - 6.0% Scottish - 3.4% German - 3.3% Scots-Irish - 2.8% French - 1.1% Swedish - 1.0% Greek - 0.5% As of 2016 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Wayne County, Mississippi were: English - 18.3% American - 8.1% Irish - 5.5% Scots-Irish - 2.9% German - 3.4% Scottish - 2.2% French - 0.8% Welsh - 0.4% Greek - 0.4% Waynesboro State Line Buckatunna Clara Eret Matherville Winchester Eucutta National Register of Historic Places listings in Wayne County, Mississippi Wayne County Sheriff's Office
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census