Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song in Latin of the Roman Catholic Church. Gregorian chant developed in western and central Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries, with additions and redactions. Although popular legend credits Pope Gregory I with inventing Gregorian chant, scholars believe that it arose from a Carolingian synthesis of Roman chant and Gallican chant. Gregorian chants were organized into four eight, 12 modes. Typical melodic features include a characteristic ambitus, characteristic intervallic patterns relative to a referential mode final and cadences, the use of reciting tones at a particular distance from the final, around which the other notes of the melody revolve, a vocabulary of musical motifs woven together through a process called centonization to create families of related chants; the scale patterns are organized against a background pattern formed of conjunct and disjunct tetrachords, producing a larger pitch system called the gamut.
The chants can be sung by using six-note patterns called hexachords. Gregorian melodies are traditionally written using neumes, an early form of musical notation from which the modern four-line and five-line staff developed. Multi-voice elaborations of Gregorian chant, known as organum, were an early stage in the development of Western polyphony. Gregorian chant was traditionally sung by choirs of men and boys in churches, or by men and women of religious orders in their chapels, it is the music of the Roman Rite, performed in the monastic Office. Although Gregorian chant supplanted or marginalized the other indigenous plainchant traditions of the Christian West to become the official music of the Christian liturgy, Ambrosian chant still continues in use in Milan, there are musicologists exploring both that and the Mozarabic chant of Christian Spain. Although Gregorian chant is no longer obligatory, the Roman Catholic Church still considers it the music most suitable for worship. During the 20th century, Gregorian chant underwent a popular resurgence.
Singing has been part of the Christian liturgy since the earliest days of the Church. Until the mid-1990s, it was accepted that the psalmody of ancient Jewish worship influenced and contributed to early Christian ritual and chant; this view is no longer accepted by scholars, due to analysis that shows that most early Christian hymns did not have Psalms for texts, that the Psalms were not sung in synagogues for centuries after the Destruction of the Second Temple in AD 70. However, early Christian rites did incorporate elements of Jewish worship that survived in chant tradition. Canonical hours have their roots in Jewish prayer hours. "Amen" and "alleluia" come from Hebrew, the threefold "sanctus" derives from the threefold "kadosh" of the Kedushah. The New Testament mentions singing hymns during the Last Supper: "When they had sung the hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives". Other ancient witnesses such as Pope Clement I, Tertullian, St. Athanasius, Egeria confirm the practice, although in poetic or obscure ways that shed little light on how music sounded during this period.
The 3rd-century Greek "Oxyrhynchus hymn" survived with musical notation, but the connection between this hymn and the plainchant tradition is uncertain. Musical elements that would be used in the Roman Rite began to appear in the 3rd century; the Apostolic Tradition, attributed to the theologian Hippolytus, attests the singing of Hallel psalms with Alleluia as the refrain in early Christian agape feasts. Chants of the Office, sung during the canonical hours, have their roots in the early 4th century, when desert monks following St. Anthony introduced the practice of continuous psalmody, singing the complete cycle of 150 psalms each week. Around 375, antiphonal psalmody became popular in the Christian East. In the fifth century, a singing school, the Schola Cantorum, was founded at Rome to provide training in church musicianship. Scholars are still debating how plainchant developed during the 5th through the 9th centuries, as information from this period is scarce. Around 410, St. Augustine described the responsorial singing of a Gradual psalm at Mass.
At c. 520, Benedict of Nursia established what is called the rule of St. Benedict, in which the protocol of the Divine Office for monastic use was laid down. Around 678, Roman chant was taught at York. Distinctive regional traditions of Western plainchant arose during this period, notably in the British Isles, Spain and Italy; these traditions may have evolved from a hypothetical year-round repertory of 5th-century plainchant after the western Roman Empire collapsed. John the Deacon, biographer of Pope Gregory I, modestly claimed that the saint "compiled a patchwork antiphonary", given his considerable work with liturgical development, he reorganized the Schola Cantorum and established a more uniform standard in church services, gathering chants from among the regional traditions as as he could manage. Of those, he retained what he could, revised where necessary, assigned particular chants to the various services. According to Donald Jay Grout, his goal was to organize the bodies of chants from diverse traditions into a uniform and orderly whole for use by the entire western region of the Church.
His renowned love for music was recorded only 34 years after his death. While lege
In religion, ethics and psychology "good and evil" is a common dichotomy. In cultures with Manichaean and Abrahamic religious influence, evil is perceived as the dualistic antagonistic opposite of good, in which good should prevail and evil should be defeated. In cultures with Buddhist spiritual influence, both good and evil are perceived as part of an antagonistic duality that itself must be overcome through achieving Śūnyatā meaning emptiness in the sense of recognition of good and evil being two opposing principles but not a reality, emptying the duality of them, achieving a oneness. Evil, in a general context, is the absence or opposite of that, described as being good. Evil is used to denote profound immorality. In certain religious contexts, evil has been described as a supernatural force. Definitions of evil vary. However, elements that are associated with evil involve unbalanced behavior involving expediency, ignorance, or neglect; the modern philosophical questions regarding good and evil are subsumed into three major areas of study: meta-ethics concerning the nature of good and evil, normative ethics concerning how we ought to behave, applied ethics concerning particular moral issues.
Every language has a word expressing good in the sense of "having the right or desirable quality" and bad in the sense "undesirable". A sense of moral judgment and a distinction "right and wrong and bad" are cultural universals. In the eastern part of ancient Persia three thousand years ago a religious philosopher called Zoroaster simplified the pantheon of early Iranian gods into two opposing forces: Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu which were in conflict; this idea developed into a religion which spawned many sects, some of which embraced an extreme dualistic belief that the material world should be shunned and the spiritual world should be embraced. Gnostic ideas influenced many ancient religions which teach that gnosis may be reached by practising philanthropy to the point of personal poverty, sexual abstinence and diligently searching for wisdom by helping others. In ancient Egypt, there were the concepts of Ma'at, the principle of justice and cohesion, Isfet, the principle of chaos and decay, with the former being the power and principles which society sought to embody where the latter was such that undermined society.
This correspondence can be seen reflected in ancient Mesopotamian religion as well in the conflict between Marduk and Tiamat. In Western civilisation, the basic meanings of κακός and ἀγαθός are "bad, cowardly" and "good, capable", their absolute sense emerges only around 400 BC, with Pre-Socratic philosophy, in particular Democritus. Morality in this absolute sense solidifies in the dialogues of Plato, together with the emergence of monotheistic thought; the idea is further developed in Late Antiquity by Neoplatonists and Church Fathers. This development from the relative or habitual to the absolute is evident in the terms ethics and morality both being derived from terms for "regional custom", Greek ήθος and Latin mores, respectively. Medieval theology was shaped by St. Augustine of Hippo and St. Thomas Aquinas. According to the classical definition of St. Augustine of Hippo, sin is "a word, deed, or desire in opposition to the eternal law of God." Many medieval Christian theologians both broadened and narrowed the basic concept of Good and evil until it came to have several, sometimes complex definitions such as: a personal preference or subjective judgment regarding any issue which might be earn praise or punishment from the religious authorities religious obligation arising from Divine law leading to sainthood or damnation a accepted cultural standard of behaviour which might enhance group survival or wealth natural law or behaviour which induces strong emotional reaction statute law imposing a legal duty Today the basic dichotomy breaks down along these lines: Good is a broad concept associated with life, continuity, love, or justice.
Evil is associated with conscious and deliberate wrongdoing, discrimination designed to harm others, humiliation of people designed to diminish their psychological needs and dignity and acts of unnecessary or indiscriminate violence. The modern English word evil and its cognates such as the German Übel and Dutch euvel are considered to come from a Proto-Germanic reconstructed form of *ubilaz, comparable to the Hittite huwapp- from the Proto-Indo-European form *wap- and suffixed zero-grade form *up-elo-. Other Germanic forms include Middle English evel, ufel, Old Frisian evel, Old Saxon ubil, Old High German ubil, Gothic ubils; the nature of being good has been given many treatments. Differing views exist as to why evil might arise. Many religious and philosophical traditions claim that evil behavior is an aberration that results from the imperfect human condition. Sometimes, evil is attributed to the existence of human agency; some argue that evil itself is based in an ignorance of truth. A variety of Enlightenment thinkers have alleged the opposi
Letitia MacTavish Hargrave was a Scottish-born Canadian settler and socialite. The wife of Hudson's Bay Company trader James Hargrave, MacTavish-Hargrave travelled across the Canadian frontier staying at the York Factory settlement south of Churchill, Manitoba and in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. MacTavish Hargrave is known for a series of written correspondence which detail a female perspective of accounts detailing life in colonial Canada in the 19th century. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, at some point in 1813, Letitia MacTavish Hargrave was born into the wealthy MacTavish clan, known at the time for their dealings with the Hudson's Bay Company. MacTavish met her future husband, James Hargrave, through her brother and his career in the HBC. Letitia MacTavish and James Hargrave married in 1839. In the following spring, the couple travelled to London to the home of Governor-in-Chief of the Hudson's Bay Company, George Simpson. Letitia would develop a long-term friendship with Simpson's wife and sister-in-law-Frances and Isobel, respectively.
The newly married couple embarked from the United Kingdom to James’ post at the York Factory settlement and HBC trading post in the summer of 1840. The dramatic and bleak change of scenery led Letitia to write a series of letters to family detailing life as a pioneer in the Northwest of Canada on the Hudson's Bay amongst traders and Indigenous peoples. Though located in the vast, cold expanses of the North, the Hargraves enjoyed a position of relative comfort and privilege; the Hargraves stayed at York Factory until James’ position at the HBC was transferred to Sault Ste Marie in 1851. As James was sent to work in Sault Ste Marie, he sent Letitia and their children to the UK temporarily. Returning in 1852, the Hargraves were reunited and lived at the HBC post until Letitia's death by cholera on 18 September 1854, she is buried in Toronto. Letitia MacTavish Hargrave was born into a prominent Scottish family in Edinburgh in 1813; the eldest child of Dugald MacTavish and Letitia Lockhart, she was the first of nine children.
Born into a wealthy family—as the elder Dugald was Chief Judge of the local county—Letitia was given the best education available to women at the time, with her and her sisters—Florence and Mary—finishing their education at a ladies’ finishing school. Letitia would develop strong relationships with her two sisters; the MacTavish family would enjoy an upper-class life while growing into adulthood. The prominent family was given further opportunity through the children's uncle, John George MacTavish who, through his connections as an officer in the Hudson's Bay Company, convinced the eldest brothers and Dugald, to join the HBC in British North America; the nine MacTavish children would part ways and emigrate around the world. As Letitia MacTavish's brother William experienced great political success in the HBC, he was introduced to one James Hargrave, a Chief Trader based in Rupert's Land. James Hargrave was a Scottish expat living in British North America at this time. Coming from a wealthy family with deep roots in Scotland, James was well-read, well educated and well connected.
Much of the Hargrave family emigrated to BNA in 1819–1820. James Hargrave joined the North-West Company following his emigration and came under the tutelage of John George MacTavish; the union between the North-West Company and the HBC led the two to be folded into the new company, being stationed at York Factory in Rupert's Land. James Hargrave returned to Britain on medical leave in 1837 where—at the behest of his good friend, William MacTavish—he visited the MacTavish family. James met Letitia MacTavish in the early months of 1838 and quickly intended to marry her, they would marry on 8 January 1840. Following their marriage and James Hargrave were invited to stay with sir George Simpson, Governor-in-Chief of the Hudson's Bay Company, in his home in London; the couple would remain in Britain until the summer of 1840. James and Letitia Hargrave embarked from Britain to the New World in 1840; the rough voyage in a Hudson's Bay Company cargo ship caused a fair bit of discontent for the young Mrs. Hargrave, the subsequent dramatic change in the way of life at York Factory were the first obstacles in forging a new life in Rupert's Land.
York Factory, located in the far Northern expanse of modern-day Manitoba, was a major trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company. At the mouth of the Hayes River, the trading post gave access to the vast waterways protruding from the Hudson's Bay throughout the Northwest; this was the rugged home of Letitia MacTavish Hargrave. The Hargraves had full control over a district "more than twice the size of Great Britain". Letitia's experiences in adapting from a socialite life in Britain to that of an important woman on the frontier is the source of many of the compiled letters attributed to her, in which she describes life in the frozen wastes of the North and her dealings with fellow trader's wives, the local indigenous peoples and the dramatic weather. Making the most of her situation, Letitia held on to the societal and material comforts to which she was accustomed, wearing elaborate, beautiful gowns and retaining a host of servants in the manor in which they lived. Letitia adapted quite effortlessly to the new world in which she lived by holding on to the lifestyle to which she was accustomed, approaching life with a fair bit of optimism.
Letitia, as the only permanent white female resident at York Factory, enjoyed a life of privilege and reverence from the native inhabitants of the settlement, developing