Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Paul Ehrenfest was an Austrian and Dutch theoretical physicist, who made major contributions to the field of statistical mechanics and its relations with quantum mechanics, including the theory of phase transition and the Ehrenfest theorem. Paul Ehrenfest grew up in Vienna in a Jewish family from Loštice in Moravia, his parents, Sigmund Ehrenfest and Johanna Jellinek, ran a grocery store. Although the family was not overly religious, Paul studied Hebrew and the history of the Jewish people, he always emphasized his Jewish roots. Ehrenfest excelled in grade school but did not do well at the Akademisches Gymnasium, his best subject being mathematics. After transferring to the Franz Josef Gymnasium, his marks improved. In 1899 he passed the final exams, he majored in chemistry at the Institute of technology, but took courses at the University of Vienna, in particular from Ludwig Boltzmann on his kinetic theory of thermodynamics. These lectures had a profound influence: they were instrumental in developing Ehrenfest's interest in theoretical physics, defined his main area of research for years to come, provided an example of inspired teaching.
At the time it was customary in the German-speaking world to study at more than one university and in 1901 Ehrenfest transferred to Göttingen, which until 1933 was an important centre for mathematics and theoretical physics. There he met his future wife Tatyana Afanasyeva, a young mathematician born in Kiev capital of the Kiev Governorate, Russian Empire, educated in St Petersburg. In the spring of 1903 he met H. A. Lorentz during a short trip to Leiden. In the meantime he prepared a dissertation on Die Bewegung starrer Körper in Flüssigkeiten und die Mechanik von Hertz, he obtained his Ph. D. degree on 23 June 1904 in Vienna, where he stayed from 1904 to 1905. On 21 December 1904 he married Russian mathematician Tatyana Alexeyevna Afanasyeva, who collaborated with him in his work, they had two daughters and two sons: Tatyana became a mathematician. The Ehrenfests returned to Göttingen in September 1906, they would not see Boltzmann again: on September 6 Boltzmann took his own life in Duino near Trieste.
Ehrenfest published an extensive obituary in which Boltzmann's accomplishments are described. Felix Klein, dean of the Göttinger mathematicians and chief editor of the Enzyklopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften, had counted on Boltzmann for a review about statistical mechanics. Now he asked Ehrenfest to take on this task. Together with his wife, Ehrenfest worked on it for several years, it is a review of the work of Boltzmann and his school, shows a style all of its own: a sharp logical analysis of the fundamental hypotheses, clear delineation of unsolved questions, an explanation of general principles by cleverly chosen transparent examples. In 1907 the couple moved to St Petersburg. Ehrenfest found good friends there, in particular A. F. felt scientifically isolated. Moreover, as an Austrian citizen and of Jewish origin, he had no prospect of a permanent position. Early in 1912 Ehrenfest set out on a tour of German-speaking universities in the hope of a position, he visited Berlin where he saw Max Planck, Leipzig where he saw his old friend Herglotz, Munich where he met Arnold Sommerfeld Zürich and Vienna.
While in Prague he met Albert Einstein for the first time, they remained close friends thereafter. Einstein recommended Ehrenfest to succeed him in his position in Prague; this was due to the fact. Sommerfeld offered him a position in Munich. H. A. Lorentz resigned his position as professor at the University of Leiden, on his advice Ehrenfest was appointed as his successor. In October 1912 Ehrenfest arrived in Leiden, on 4 December he gave his inaugural lecture Zur Krise der Lichtaether-Hypothese, he remained in Leiden for the rest of his career. In order to stimulate interaction and exchange among physics students he organized a discussion group and a study association called De Leidsche Flesch, he maintained close contact with prominent physicists within the country and abroad, invited them to visit to Leiden and give a presentation in his lecture series. Ehrenfest was an outstanding debater, quick to summarize the essentials. In his lectures he would focus on simple models and examples to illustrate and clarify the underlying assumptions.
His classes were small, he made an effort to get to know students who made use of the reading room. Though few of them were accepted as majors in Theoretical Physics, he had long discussions with them on a daily basis. According to Einstein: He was not the best teacher in our profession whom I have known. To understand others, to gain their friendship and trust, to aid anyone embroiled in outer or inner struggles, to encourage youthful talent—all this was his real element more than his immersion in scientific problems. If Ehrenfest felt that there was little more he could teach his students, he would send them to other centers in Europe for more training, he would encourage them to accept positions abroad. Among his students were Johannes Burgers, Hendrik Kramers, Dirk Coster, George Uhlenbeck
Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants; the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, in the larger Leiden urban area Teylingen and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km from Amsterdam to its north; the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling and international atmosphere.
Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden's motto: ‘City of Discoveries’. The city houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden University is one of Europe's top universities, with thirteen Nobel Prize winners, it is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university. Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave. Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the world's most famous painters, was born and educated in Leiden. Other famous Leiden painters include Jan van Goyen and Jan Steen. Leiden was formed on an artificial hill at the confluence of the rivers Nieuwe Rijn.
In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- "canal" in dative pluralis, thus meaning "at the canals". "Canal" is not the proper word. A leitha was a human-modified natural river natural artificial. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum; this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, the city's name was thought to be derived from the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in fact closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called Matilo; the landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holland. Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland.
He captured Ada. Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons. In 1420, during the Hook and Cod wars, Duke John III of Bavaria along with his army marched from Gouda in the direction of Leiden in order to conquer the city since Leiden did not pay the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his niece and only daughter of Count William VI of Holland. Burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels, but John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first. He rolled the cannons along with his army but one, too heavy went by ship. By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one. Within a week John of Bavaria conquered the castles of Poelgeest, Ter Does, Hoichmade, de Zijl, ter Waerd, Warmond and de Paddenpoel. On 24 June the army appeared before the walls of Leiden. On 17 August 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered to John of Bavaria.
The burgrave Filips of Wassenaar was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity. Leiden flourished in the 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments of Leiden were important, after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important publishing industry; the influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir, who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through 1712 and the name subsequently adopted by contemporary publisher Elsevier. In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town.
As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 Oc
Salem is the capital of the U. S. state of Oregon, the county seat of Marion County. It is located in the center of the Willamette Valley alongside the Willamette River, which runs north through the city; the river forms the boundary between Marion and Polk counties, the city neighborhood of West Salem is in Polk County. Salem was founded in 1842, became the capital of the Oregon Territory in 1851, was incorporated in 1857. Salem had a population of 169,798 in 2017, making it the second-largest city in the state after Portland. Salem is a little under an hour's driving distance away from Portland. Salem is the principal city of the Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Marion and Polk counties and had a combined population of 390,738 at the 2010 census. A 2013 estimate placed the metropolitan population at the state's second largest; the city is home to Willamette University, Corban University, Chemeketa Community College. The State of Oregon is the largest public employer in the city, Salem Health is the largest private employer.
Transportation includes public transit from Salem-Keizer Transit, Amtrak service, non-commercial air travel at McNary Field. Major roads include Interstate 5, Oregon Route 99E, Oregon Route 22, which connects West Salem across the Willamette River via the Marion Street and Center Street bridges; the Native Americans who inhabited the central Willamette Valley at first European contact, the Kalapuya, called the area Chim-i-ki-ti, which means "meeting or resting place" in the Central Kalapuya language. When the Methodist Mission moved to the area, they called the new establishment Chemeketa; when the Oregon Institute was established, the community became known as the Institute. When the Institute was dissolved, the trustees decided to lay out a town site on the Institute lands; some possible sources for the name "Salem" include William H. Willson, who in 1850 and 1851 filed the plans for the main part of the city, suggested adopting an Anglicized version of the Biblical word "Shalom", meaning "peace".
The Reverend David Leslie, President of the town's Trustees wanted a Biblical name, suggested using the last five letters of "Jerusalem". Or, the town may be named after Salem, where Leslie was educated. There were many names suggested, after the change to Salem, some people, such as Asahel Bush, believed the name should be changed back to Chemeketa; the Vern Miller Civic Center, which houses the city offices and library, has a public space dedicated as the Peace Plaza in recognition of the names by which the city has been known. It is estimated; the Kalapuya peoples would gather on the plateau east and south of the current downtown area in the winter and establish camps. They harvested in the streams and fields of the area. One staple of life was the camas root, periodically the Kalapuya would set fires that would clear and fertilize the meadows where it grew. In the early 1850s, the Kalapuya, along with the other native peoples west of the Cascade Mountains, were removed by the U. S. government through a combination of treaties and force.
Most Kalapuya people were moved to the Grande Ronde Reservation somewhat to the west of Salem, with smaller numbers ending up at Siletz Reservation and other Oregon and Washington reservations. The first people of European descent arrived in the area as early as 1812; the first permanent American settlement in the area was the Jason Lee Methodist mission located in the area north of Salem known as Wheatland. In 1842, the missionaries established the Oregon Institute in the area, to become the site of Salem. In 1844, the mission was dissolved and the town site established. In 1851, Salem became the territorial capital; the capital was moved to Corvallis in 1855, but was moved back to Salem permanently that same year. Salem incorporated as a city in 1857, with the coming of statehood in 1859, it became the state capital. Oregon has had three capitol buildings in Salem. A two-story state house, occupied for only two months, burned to the ground in December 1855. Oregon's second capitol building was completed in 1876 on the site of the original.
The Revival-style building was based in part on the U. S. Capitol building; the building received its distinctive copper dome in 1893. On April 25, 1935, this building was destroyed by fire; the third and current Oregon State Capitol was completed on the same site in 1938. It is recognizable by its distinctive pioneer statue atop the capitol dome, plated with gold-leaf and named the Oregon Pioneer. Agriculture has always been important to Salem, the city has recognized and celebrated it in a number of ways. In 1861, Salem was chosen as the permanent site of the Oregon State Fair by the Oregon State Agricultural Association. Salem is nicknamed the "Cherry City", because of the past importance of the local cherry-growing industry; the first cherry festival in Salem was held in 1903 and was an annual event, with parades and the election of a cherry queen, until sometime after World War I. The event was revived as the Salem Cherryland Festival for several years in the late 1940s. Salem is located in Marion and Polk counties.
The 45th Parallel
The Kherson Governorate or Government of Kherson was a guberniya, or administrative territorial unit, between the Dnieper and Dniester Rivers, of the Russian Empire. It was one of three governorates created in 1802, it was known as the Nikolayev Governorate until 1803, when Kherson replaced Nikolayev as the governorate's capital. The economy of the governorate was based on agriculture. During the grain harvest, thousands of agricultural laborers from the parts of the Empire found work in the area; the industrial part of the economy, consisting of flour milling, metalworking industry, iron mining, beet-sugar processing, brick industry, was underdeveloped. The governorate bordered Bessarabia Governorate to the west, with Kiev and Poltava Governorates to the north, to the east could be found Yekaterinoslav Governorate, in the southward direction was located Taurida Governorate. From 1809, the governorate consisted of five uyezds: Kherson, Ovidiopol and Yelisavetgrad; the city of Odessa carried a special status.
In 1825, The Odessa uyezd was added into the territorial division of the Kherson Governorate. A seventh uyezd — Bobrynets, existed from 1828 to 1865; the cities of Odessa and Nikolayev and their surrounding vicinity were governed separately: Odessa by a gradonachalnik, answerable directly to the tsar and the governor-general of Novorossiya and Bessarabia, Nikolayev by a military governor. In 1920, while being under Soviet Ukrainian rule, the governorate's territory, 70,600 km2, was divided to form the newer Odessa Governorate; the Kherson Governorate was renamed Mykolaiv Governorate in 1921, in 1922 - merged with the Odessa Governorate. In 1925, the Odessa Governorate was abolished, its territory was divided into six okruhas: Kherson, Kryvyi Rih, Odessa and Zinoviivske. In 1932, much of this territory was incorporated into the new Odessa Oblast, now an administrative division of the modern Ukrainian nation, divided to form the Mykolaiv Oblast. From the Russian Census of 1897Odessa – 403,815 Nikolayev – 92,012 Yelizavetgrad – 61,488 Kherson – 59,076 Tiraspol – 31,616 Ananyiv – 16,684 Voznesensk – 15,748 Bobrinets – 14,281 Aleksandriya – 14,007 Beryslav – 12,149 Dubossary – 12,089 Novogeorgiyevsk – 11,594 Ochakov – 10,786 Novomirgorod – 9,364 Grigoriopol – 7,605 Olviopol – 6,884 Ovidiopol – 5,187 Mayaki – 4,575 Until 1858, a third of the population was subject to martial law.
The gubernia had a population of about 245,000 in 1812. In the 1850s it consisted of Ukrainians, Russians, Germans, Poles and Gypsies. In 1914, Ukrainians composed only 53% of the population, while Russians made up 22% and Jews - 12%. Urban dwellers made up 10 to 20 percent of the population until the 1850s, after which the proportion of urban dwellers increased, to about 30% in 1897. Migration within the Russian Empire accounted for the area's population growth, with 46% of the population born outside of the governorate in 1897. Kherson Guberniya - Article in Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary Kherson Guberniya - Historical coat of arms / Kherson gubernia - Article in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine From Kherson Governorate to Kherson Oblast. Kherson regional universal science library of Oles Honchar