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Paul Ehrenfest

Paul Ehrenfest was an Austrian and Dutch theoretical physicist, who made major contributions to the field of statistical mechanics and its relations with quantum mechanics, including the theory of phase transition and the Ehrenfest theorem. Paul Ehrenfest grew up in Vienna in a Jewish family from Loštice in Moravia, his parents, Sigmund Ehrenfest and Johanna Jellinek, ran a grocery store. Although the family was not overly religious, Paul studied Hebrew and the history of the Jewish people, he always emphasized his Jewish roots. Ehrenfest excelled in grade school but did not do well at the Akademisches Gymnasium, his best subject being mathematics. After transferring to the Franz Josef Gymnasium, his marks improved. In 1899 he passed the final exams, he majored in chemistry at the Institute of technology, but took courses at the University of Vienna, in particular from Ludwig Boltzmann on his kinetic theory of thermodynamics. These lectures had a profound influence: they were instrumental in developing Ehrenfest's interest in theoretical physics, defined his main area of research for years to come, provided an example of inspired teaching.

At the time it was customary in the German-speaking world to study at more than one university and in 1901 Ehrenfest transferred to Göttingen, which until 1933 was an important centre for mathematics and theoretical physics. There he met his future wife Tatyana Afanasyeva, a young mathematician born in Kiev capital of the Kiev Governorate, Russian Empire, educated in St Petersburg. In the spring of 1903 he met H. A. Lorentz during a short trip to Leiden. In the meantime he prepared a dissertation on Die Bewegung starrer Körper in Flüssigkeiten und die Mechanik von Hertz, he obtained his Ph. D. degree on 23 June 1904 in Vienna, where he stayed from 1904 to 1905. On 21 December 1904 he married Afanasyeva, who collaborated with him in his work, they had two daughters and two sons: Tatyana became a mathematician. The Ehrenfests returned to Göttingen in September 1906, they would not see Boltzmann again: on September 6 Boltzmann took his own life in Duino near Trieste. Ehrenfest published an extensive obituary.

Felix Klein, dean of the Göttinger mathematicians and chief editor of the Enzyklopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften, had counted on Boltzmann for a review about statistical mechanics. Now he asked Ehrenfest to take on this task. Together with his wife, Ehrenfest worked on it for several years, it is a review of the work of Boltzmann and his school, shows a style all of its own: a sharp logical analysis of the fundamental hypotheses, clear delineation of unsolved questions, an explanation of general principles by cleverly chosen transparent examples. In 1907 the couple moved to St Petersburg. Ehrenfest found good friends there, in particular A. F. felt scientifically isolated. Moreover, because he was unwilling to declare belief in any religious denomination, he could not apply for a professorship, therefore had no prospect of securing a permanent position. Early in 1912 Ehrenfest set out on a tour of German-speaking universities in the hope of a position, he visited Berlin where he saw Max Planck, Leipzig where he saw his old friend Herglotz, Munich where he met Arnold Sommerfeld Zürich and Vienna.

While in Prague he met Albert Einstein for the first time, they remained close friends thereafter. Einstein recommended Ehrenfest to succeed him in his position in Prague; this was due to the fact. Sommerfeld offered him a position in Munich. H. A. Lorentz resigned his position as professor at the University of Leiden, on his advice Ehrenfest was appointed as his successor. In October 1912 Ehrenfest arrived in Leiden, on 4 December he gave his inaugural lecture Zur Krise der Lichtaether-Hypothese, he remained in Leiden for the rest of his career. In order to stimulate interaction and exchange among physics students he organized a discussion group and a study association called De Leidsche Flesch, he maintained close contact with prominent physicists within the country and abroad, invited them to visit to Leiden and give a presentation in his lecture series. Ehrenfest was an outstanding debater, quick to summarize the essentials. In his lectures he would focus on simple models and examples to illustrate and clarify the underlying assumptions.

His classes were small, he made an effort to get to know students who made use of the reading room. Though few of them were accepted as majors in theoretical physics, he had long discussions with them daily. According to Einstein: He was not the best teacher in our profession whom I have known. To understand others, to gain their friendship and trust, to aid anyone embroiled in outer or inner struggles, to encourage youthful talent—all this was his real element more than his immersion in scientific problems. If Ehrenfest felt that there was little more he could teach a student, he would send the student to other centers in Europe for more training, he would encourage students to accept positions abroad. Among his students were Johannes Burgers, Hendrik Kramer


A dentil is a small block used as a repeating ornament in the bedmould of a cornice. Dentils are found in ancient Greek and Roman architecture, in styles such as Neoclassical, Georgian Revival, Greek Revival, Renaissance Revival, Second Empire, Beaux-Arts architecture; the Roman architect Vitruvius states. The earliest example is found carved into the rock of the tomb of Darius, c. 500 BC, reproducing the portico of his palace. Its first employment in Athens is in the cornice of the caryatid portico or tribune of the Erechtheum; when subsequently introduced into the bed-mould of the cornice of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates it is much smaller in its dimensions. In the temples of Ionia, as in the temple of Priene, the larger scale of the dentil is still retained; the dentil was the chief feature employed in the bedmould by the Romans and in the Italian Renaissance architecture. As a general rule, the projection of the dentil is equal to its width, thus appearing square, the intervals between are half this measure.

In some cases, the projecting band has never had the sinkings cut into it to divide up the dentils, as in the Pantheon at Rome, it is called a dentil-band. In the porch of the Studion cathedral at Constantinople, the dentil and the interval between are equal in width, the interval is splayed back from top to bottom. There, however, it no longer formed part of a bed-mould: its use at Santa Sophia was to decorate the projecting moulding enclosing the encrusted marbles, the dentils were cut alternately on both sides of the moulding; the Venetian dentil was introduced as a label round arches and as a string course

Cimarron City (TV series)

Cimarron City is an American one hour Western television series, starring George Montgomery as Matt Rockford and John Smith as Lane Temple, that aired on NBC from 1958 to 1959. Cimarron City is a boomtown in Oklahoma north of Oklahoma City. Rich in oil and gold, Cimarron City aspires to become the capital of the future state of Oklahoma, to be created in 1907. Matthew Rockford is the son of the founder of Cimarron City as well as the mayor and an area cattle rancher. Lane Temple, the blacksmith, serves as the deputy sheriff, he maintains the law amid the crooked schemes concocted in Cimarron City. Audrey Totter played the owner of the boarding house; the episodes were supposed to rotate among Montgomery and Totter. The writers, did not give Totter enough stories as promised, she left the series. Cimarron City featured Dan Blocker pre-Bonanza in two roles. In the second episode, Blocker is killed. In the fourth episode he reappears as Carl's good-hearted brother, Tiny Budinger, who becomes one of Rockford's ranch hands.

George Montgomery as Matt Rockford, Mayor John Smith as Deputy Lane Temple Audrey Totter as Beth Purcell Dan Blocker as Tiny Carl Budinger Wally Brown as Jed Fame Claire Carleton as Alice Purdy Pete Dunn as Dody Hamer George Dunn as Jesse Williams Tom Fadden as Silas Perry Stuart Randall as Sheriff Art Sampson Addison Richards as Martin Kingsley Fred Sherman as Burt Purdy The series was filmed at the Iverson Movie Ranch in Chatsworth in Los Angeles County, California. Cimarron City was placed opposite two more successful half-hour western programs on the rival CBS network, Richard Boone's Have Gun, Will Travel and James Arness' Gunsmoke. On March 6, 2012, Timeless Media Group released Cimarron City: The Complete Series on DVD in Region 1 for the first time. McNeil, Alex. Total Television. New York: Penguin Books ISBN 0-14-024916-8 Brooks and Marsh, The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows. New York: Ballantine Books ISBN 0-345-42923-0 Cimarron City on IMDb Western Clippings George Montgomery interview Cimarron City at Cimarron City at

Eureka (organisation)

EUREKA abbreviated as E!, or Σ! is an intergovernmental organisation for pan-European research and development funding and coordination. EUREKA is an open platform for international cooperation in innovation; as of March 2018, EUREKA has 41 full members, including the European Union, 1 partner country and 4 associated members All 27 EU Member States are members of EUREKA. EUREKA is not an EU research program, but rather an intergovernmental organisation, of which the EU is a member. Cooperation and synergy are sought between EUREKA and the research activities of the EU proper, notably with European Union's Horizon 2020 and the European Research Area. Founded in 1985 by major figures of the European political scene, EUREKA's steady growth over the years has helped to make it one of the longest running European organisations dedicated to the financing of joint European R&D projects. EUREKA is loosely affiliated with COST, its non-competitive research counterpart, although the two focus on different aspects of R&D with COST's efforts geared towards more focused areas of public interest while EUREKA's mandate is to provide funding for projects envisaged and executed by private industry.

EUREKA was established with the "Paris Declaration" of July 17, 1985, its principles are based on the Hannover Declaration, subscribed by Ministers on November 6, 1985. The two main founders were former head of states François Helmut Kohl. Other important personalities involved were Hubert Curien, French ex-Minister of Research and former Chairman of the European Space Agency and Jacques Attali, adviser to François Mitterrand, it is about assuring the technological independence of Europe in the key domains of the future. There are numerous obstacles. Once the initial idea of EUREKA was formulated, we were able to foresee the difficulties to be faced, but we know that each time we come together — for example to address high-energy physics, research into nuclear fusion, the development of an integrated space programme or the construction of crucial scientific equipment — our successes encourage us in the idea that we can work together in R&D areas close to industrial markets, despite the problems arising from the normal and legitimate competition between firms.

François Mitterrand, Paris, 17 July 1985. Before 1989, EUREKA chairmanship changed hands every six months. Since the chairmanship rotates every 1 July, for a period of one year. Eureka projects are numbered, preceded by'E!'. E! 45 helped to fund the Prometheus project for safer road vehicles, such as through autonomous driving with 745 million euros. E! 95 was a 730 million euros HDTV project, which created the HD-MAC standard for high definition television. E! 147 was a 93 million euros digital audio broadcasting project whose technologies went into Musicam, and, used as the basis for MPEG-1 Layer II and used in DAB, ASPEC, used in a modified form in MP3 audio. E! 127 paid 3.8bn euros into the JESSI project whose goal was to regain ground lost to Asia and the US in microchips. E! 2551 cost 6.1 million euros for the integration of existing CAD/CAM programs under a common user interface, part of, paid to Vero Software. E! 3674 is Information Technology for European Advancement, an industry-driven cooperative R & D programme for maintaining European leadership in software-intensive systems, with the project due to end in January 2014 having received 3.0bn euros.

ITEA2 Projects notably include WellCom, OSAMI-E Open Source AMbient Intelligence) and Easy Interactions. E! 4986 AlienVault developed a security software called OSSIM, now not only a reference in the field but an essential component in modern cyber-wars. E! 4986 received 1.2 million euros. E! 3728 OMIM invented a new method of medical waste disposal. MIMO is safe for the environment and treats infectious waste by applying a combination of heat and pressure; this is an alternative to incineration methods. The project was an initiative between Spain and Morocco. E! 3728 received 0.37 million euros. EUREKA ` Clusters' are long-term, they have a large number of participants, aim to develop inclusive technologies of key importance for European competitiveness in ICT, energy and more in the biotechnology and automation sectors. Eureka Clusters are known to have had a particular impact on the ability of the European microelectronics sector to compete with other continents. Eureka Clusters are CELTIC NEXT: Telecommunications EURIPIDES: Electronic packaging and smart systems ITEA 3: Software-intensive systems PENTA: Micro and nanoelectronics enabled systems and applications EUROGIA2020: Low-carbon energy technologies METALLURGY EUROPE: New metals SMART: Advance manufacturing programme Umbrellas are thematic networks within the Eureka framework which focus on a specific technology area or business sector.

The main goal of an umbrella is to facilitate the generation of EUREKA projects in its own target area. Eureka Umbrellas are Eureka Tourism Eureka build 2 EuroAgri Foodchain P

Will Leer

Will Leer is an American mid-distance runner. He graduated from Pomona College in Claremont, California in May 2007. Leer has represented the United States in international competition. Will Leer ran track, cross country and played soccer at Minnetonka High School in Minnetonka, Minnesota, he was coached by Jeff Renlund. He began running track his sophomore year as a means to stay in shape for soccer in the fall, he found success as a runner. However he did not make the switch to cross country until his senior year when coach Renlund convinced him to run in a few races for the Minnetonka cross country team. In the 2002 section 6AA championships, Leer finished 11th; that spring Leer ran a 4:16.41 1600, setting the Minnetonka High School record held by his coach. Leer's 1600 time was the 4th fastest time of the year in Minnesota, he ran a 1:54.64 800, the 5th fastest time in Minnesota. At the state meet he opted to run on the 4x800 team instead of the 1600, he competed in the open 800, finishing fourth in 1:55.25.

His team's 4x800 relay team ran 7:58.87 and finished eighth in a deep field which included nine sub-8:00 times. Leer had a successful college career running for Pomona College in Claremont, California. In his junior year he finished 90th at cross country nationals with a time of 27:10. After a disappointing performance at cross country nationals, Leer won the NCAA Division-III indoor national title in the mile with a time of 4:09.42. At outdoor nationals, he placed second in the 1500 behind Nick Symmonds with a time of 3:49.70. He competed in the 800, finishing eighth with a time of 1:52.82. In Leer's senior year he finished 7th at cross country nationals with a time of 27:03 on a slow and muddy course. During the indoor season, Leer repeated as national champion in the mile with a time of 4:08.19. In the meet he came back in the 5000, finishing third with a time of 14:34.24. During his 2007 outdoor season, Leer ran a 1:50.79 in the 800, 3:41.98 in the 1500, a 14:23 in the 5000. All of his times put him in the top three of DIII performances.

Leer's 1500 performance was the best run of his collegiate career. At the 2007 NCAA Division III National Championships, Leer won the 1500 and the 5000 on the same day, he is the only male Division III runner to win both titles in the same meet. Leer finished 10th in the 1500 meter event at the 2007 USA Outdoor Field Championship meet, he advanced to the June 24 final by running 3:40.06 in a preliminary heat. He qualified for the event by running 3:41.13 at the Prefontaine Classic in June 2007. He ran a 1:49.37 800m at the USA Outdoor Track & Field West Region Championship meet. In January 2008, Leer ran a 3:59.83 mile at the UW Indoor Preview for The Oregon Track Club Elite. Leer is the 297th American to break 4-minutes in the mile. In the winter of 2008, Leer finished fourth in the 1500 meter event at the USA Indoor Track & Field Championships. At historic Hayward Field, the home track of the OTC-Elite, Leer advanced to the final for the 1500 meter event at the U. S. Olympic Trials by finishing third in his semifinal heat.

In the finals of the Trials Leer ran 3.41.54. A few weeks he set a 1500m personal record by running 3.37.63 in winning a "B" race at Heusden, Belgium. In 2009, Leer set a personal best in the Mile at the Prefontaine Classic and finished fifth at the 1500m U. S. A. Outdoor Championships in June set a 1500m personal best of 3:37.37 at the Ghent Flanders Cup in July. Leer began his 2010 season with a personal-best 3:55.66 mile at the Boston Indoor Games. A week he ran the 1600m anchor leg for the Oregon Track Club team that set In May he lowered his 1500m personal best to 3:37.26, finishing third at the USATF High Performance Meet at Occidental College, California. In 2012, Leer got his second win in the Morton Games Mile finishing with a 3:56.39 in a race where the first four finishers were all within.1 seconds of each other. In March 2013 in Albuquerque, NM, Leer won two Indoor National Championships, winning both the 3000m and the mile, the latter with a last minute kick in a race where three runners all broke 4 minutes for the mile, indoors and at elevation.

In June, Leer placed 4th in 1500 meters at USATF Outdoor Championships. On July 19, Leer ran 3:34.26 in 1500 meters at Heusden-Zolder in Belgium. In June, Leer was a semifinalist in 1500 meters at USATF Outdoor Championships. 800 m – 1:47.69 1500 m – 3:34.26, 3:41.93i Mile – 3:51:82, 3:52.47i, 3000 m - 7:39.38 5000 m – 13:21.55 8 km XC – 24:14.1 Video of Leer's 1500m at Ghent, Belgium, in July 2009 Eugene Register-Guard: The World Awaits | Will Leer has become a contender in the 1,500 meters TrackShark Interviews: Will Leer of Pomona-Pitzer Portrait of a National Champion: Leer Reflects on Record-Breaking Mile Run

Juana Wangsa Putri

Juana Wangsa Putri is an Indonesian taekwondo practitioner, who competed in the women's flyweight category. She claimed a silver medal in the 51 kg category at the 2002 Asian Taekwondo Championships in Amman, bronze medals at two consecutive Asian Games, represented Indonesia in two editions of the Olympic Games. Putri became the first Indonesian taekwondo athlete to debut at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, where she competed in the women's flyweight class, she moved directly into the quarterfinals with a first round bye, but fell in a 2–7 defeat to Denmark's Hanne Høgh Poulsen. When South Korea hosted the 2002 Asian Games held in Busan, Putri secured Indonesia's only bronze medal in the sport, after she was beaten by Thailand's Yaowapa Boorapolchai in the semifinal of the women's 51 kg division, she added this accolade to her previous bronze at the 1998 Asian Games and a silver from the Asian Championships a few months earlier. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Putri qualified for her second Indonesian appearance in the women's flyweight class.

Earlier in the process, she edged out Venezuela's Dalia Contreras in the final to earn a gold medal and secure a place on the Indonesian team at the World Olympic Qualifying Tournament in Paris, France. Putri failed to improve her Olympic feat from Sydney, after being defeated by Colombia's Gladys Mora on a referee decision in her opening match that ended in a 2–2 draw. With her Colombian opponent losing the quarterfinals to Taiwan's eventual gold medalist Chen Shih-hsin, Putri was unable to proceed into the repechage bracket for an Olympic bronze medal. Juana Wangsa Putri at