Greifensee Reformed Church
Reformierte Kirche Greifensee, is a church and a listed heritage building in the municipality of Greifensee, Canton of Zürich, Switzerland. The triangular building is considered to be the oldest intact Gothic monument of the medieval town of Greifensee, it was integrated into the eastern corner of the city walls as a Wehrkirche, a fortified church, repeating in its ground floor the plan of the small town. The Gothic building got its unusual floor plan due to the inclusion in the town walls of Greifensee; the facade is dominated by a clock tower with pinnacles. The interior has a single central pillar, which unfolds to a stellar vault with magnificent keystones; the wooden gallery dates back to 1638, the baptismal font is from 1603, the pulpit in rococo style dates from 1780. On the inner walls Bible verses are painted. Nobleman Hermann IV von Landenberg donated, for his salvation and on his wife Elisabeth von Schellenberg favour, the fortified chapel around 1330–1340; the year book of the Uster church lists donations by the Landenberg family in favor of the Uster church, as well as the foundation of the chapel in Greifensee and the foundation of the Greifensee castle chapel around 1350.
The castle chapel is dedicated to St Catherine, was given by Hermann IV. For centuries, the tiny Gallus chapel has been the Parish church of the medieval town of Greifensee; the church is associated to the Reformed Church of the canton of Zürich and is popular for weddings. The small building is listed as Reformierte Kirche, Im Städtli in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a Class A object of national importance. Official website
Uster is a town and the capital of the Uster District in the Swiss canton of Zürich. It is the third largest town in the canton of Zürich, with 35,000 inhabitants, is one of the twenty largest towns in Switzerland. Uster is located next to a lake, called Greifensee; the official language of Uster is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The town of Uster received the Wakker Prize in 2001; the village of Riedikon was first mentioned in year 741, while Uster was first mentioned in 775, as Ustra villa. The toponym has been explained as reflecting Old High German *ustrâ or *uster-aha "voracious " by Boesch. First mentioned in 1099, the donation of the St. Andreas Church was given by the House of Rapperswil as a spacious three-naved country church; the Burg Uster was first mentioned in 1267, as being in the possession of the Freiherr von Bonstetten. On 7 January 1300 Elisabeth von Rapperswil sold the pledge of the reign Greifensee to the knight Hermann II. von Landenberg, including the Greifensee castle, the town and the lake of the same name, a larger number of farms, as well as the pastoral rights in Uster.
In 1438 the church rights were sold to the Rüti Abbey. The church was considered as a part of the so-called "Laubishof" estate, located at the nearby plateau where the Uster Castle is situated. During the Old Zürich War, in May 1444, the Old Swiss Confederacy laid siege to the nearby town of Greifensee, held by about 70 defenders, most of them inhabitants of the Amt Greifensee, a few Habsburg and Zürich soldiers; the town was captured after four weeks, on May 27, all but two of the surviving 64 defenders were beheaded on the next day, including the leader, Wildhans von Breitenlandenberg. In times of war, mass execution was considered a cruel and unjust deed. On May 29, the Castle of Greifensee and the city walls were broken. Among many other transfers of lands and goods, on 25 April 1448 Beringer von Landemberg von Griffensee confirmed, with permission of his sons Hug and Beringer dem Jungen that at the place where all his ancestors have been buried, a long list of money and lands have to be transferred to the church as a benefice.
In 1473 the church comrades, based on an older Jahrzeitbuch which now is lost, created a new one, among the best preserved of the Canton of Zürich. With the dissolution of the monastery Ruti during the Reformation in Zürich its rights fell on the government of the city of Zürich in 1525. In 1824 the new Reformed church was consecrated. On 22 November 1830 about 10,000 men of the Canton of Zurich gathered near Uster and demanded a new constitution; this assembly, known as the Ustertag, together with other assemblies in Switzerland led to the Restoration and the creation of the Swiss Federal State. Uster has an area of 28.5 km2. Of this area, 44.4 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 26.2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 18.4% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 0.4% of the area. As of 2007 22.2% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction.
Uster has a population of 34,516. As of 2007, 21.6% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 50.4 % female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 14.2%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Albanian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the CSP and the Green Party. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 22.2% of the population, while adults make up 65% and seniors make up 12.8%. In Uster about 73.9% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 12605 households in Uster. Uster has an unemployment rate of 3.28%. As of 2005, there were 392 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 92 businesses involved in this sector. 3,204 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 238 businesses in this sector.
9475 people are employed with 1091 businesses in this sector. As of 2007 51.5% of the working population were employed full-time, 48.5% were employed part-time. As of 2008 there were 11,890 Protestants in Uster. In the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the census, 45% were some type of Protestant, with 41.8% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 3.3% belonging to other Protestant churches. 31.7% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 5.4% were Muslim, 7.2% belonged to another religion, 3.4% did not give a religion, 11.7% were atheist or agnostic. Uster has an average of 135.4 days of rain per year and on average receives 1,164 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is June. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 13.1 days. The driest month of the year is October with an average of 69 mm of precipitation over 13.1 days. Uster received the Wakker
Rapperswil is a former municipality and since January 2007 part of the municipality of Rapperswil-Jona in the Wahlkreis of See-Gaster in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland, located at the east side of the Lake Zurich; the town's main sights are concentrated in the Altstadt of Rapperswil and can be seen while strolling through the medieval alleys. The main sights of Rapperswil are its rose gardens, Rapperswil Castle, the reconstructed wooden bridge to Hurden with its bridge chapel Heilig Hüsli located at Seedamm, the Kapuzinerkloster, the remains of the Middle Ages fortifications located on Lake Zürich, Lindenhof hill, Engelplatz, Hauptplatz, Bühlerallee and Fischmarktplatz at Rapperswil harbour. Rapperswil is referred to as the "town of roses" because of its extensive displays of roses in three designated parks. No less than 15,000 plants of 600 different kinds may be viewed between October. There is a rose garden in the town center, accessible to blind and disabled people; the old town is dominated by the Schloss Rapperswil located at the peninsula called Endingen and Herrenberg on Lake Zürich perched atop this rocky hill at the bay of Kempraten.
The castle dates back to the early 13th century. In 1350, it was destroyed by Rudolf Brun, the mayor of Zürich, was rebuilt in 1352/54 by Albrecht II, Duke of Austria. Deer inhabit lands surrounding the castle. Since 1870, the castle has been home to the Polish National Museum created by Polish émigrés, including the castle's lessee and restorer, Count Wladyslaw Broel-Plater. A small Capuchin's monastery was established in 1606 at the lakeside Endingerhorn as a Catholic counterpart to the Reformation's centre in the city of Zürich; the monastery buildings belong to the citizens of Rapperswil rather than to the monks who inhabit it, is still in use. The main churches in town include the Roman Catholic St. John's Church, the cemetery chapel and a small Protestant church; the locational advantage of the place attracted the national Circus Knie who built its headquarters in Rapperswil in 1919. The circus is now responsible for the Circus Museum and the Knie's Kinderzoo located in Rapperswil, aimed at children.
Rapperswil hosts the Hochschule für Technik Rapperswil HSR and an Economics school for parts of the cantons Zürich and St. Gallen. Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft operates passenger vessels on the Lake Zürich, connecting the surrounding towns between Zürich-Bürkliplatz and the Rapperswil peninsula with its beautiful harbour area. Settlements in the region of Rapperswil date back to at least 5000 years ago. Archaeological relicts have been found at the Technikum island settlement, the remains of a first wooden bridge to Hurden located on the Obersee lakeshore nearby the Technical University the so-called Heilig Hüsli at the northwestern part of the Seedamm area; the three neighbouring Prehistoric settlements, as well as the early lake crossings, are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps. In Kempraten, two kilometers away, there was a Helvetic settlement; the neolithic bridge between Hurden and Rapperswil was renewed by the Romans at least around 165 AD.
Historians mention a 10th-century ferry station assumably at the so-called Einsiedlerhaus in Rapperswil – in 981 AD as well as the vineyard on the Lindenhof hill – between Kempraten on Kempratnerbucht, Lützelau and Ufenau island and assumably present Hurden, which allowed the pilgrims towards Einsiedeln to cross the lake before the prehistoric bridge at the Seedamm isthmus was re-built in 1358. Rapperswil Castle and the fortifications of the former locus Endingen were built by the Counts of Rapperswil, i.e. by Rudolf II and his son Rudolf III von Rapperswil around 1200: The town was founded when the nobility of Rapperswil moved from Altendorf across the lake to Rapperswil. On the peninsula at Oberbollingen, the St. Nicholas Chapel is mentioned, where around 1229 a small Cistercian monastery was established by the house of Rapperswil. St. Martin Busskirch is one of the oldest churches around uper Lake Zürich; the citizens of Rapperswil had to attend services in Busskirch until Count Rudolf II built the Stadtpfarrkirche on Herrenberg next to Rapperswil Castle on Lindenhof hill.
Known members of the family are Countess Elisabeth von Rapperswil, her sons Wernher von Homberg and minnesang poet, Count Johann I. von Habsburg-Laufenburg-Rapperswil. His son Johann II, the opposition's leader against Rudolf Brun, the mayor of Zürich, was arrested for two years, the town walls of Rapperswil, its castle and Altendorf castle were destroyed by Brun in 1350. Between 1358 and 1360 Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, built a wooden bridge across the lake, used to 1878 – measuring 1,450 metres in length and 4 metres wide. In 1415, the town bought freedom for itself. In 1442, during Old Zurich War, Rapperswil was in alliance with the Habsburg Dynasty. In 1458 Rapperswil was controlled by the Swiss Confederation as a so-called Gemeine Herrs
Fällanden is a municipality in the district of Uster in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland, belongs to the Glatt Valley. Fällanden is first mentioned around 820 as Fenichlanda. Fällanden has an area of 6.4 km2. Of this area, 40.8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 29.4% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 26.2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 20% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 1.2% of the area. As of 2007 26.7% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. The municipality is an agglomeration that grew up from the village of Fällanden and the settlements of Benglen, Pfaffhausen und Neuhausen, it is located on the north-east slope of the Pfannenstiel mountain chain, with Greifensee lake nearby. Bus lines branch toward Schwerzenbach, Duebendorf and uphill directly to Zurich, giving good enough connection for the people to work in central areas of Zurich.
Fällanden has special bus lanes, ensuring efficient operation in high traffic hours. Fällanden has a population of 8,606; as of 2007, 18.2% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 49.3% male and 50.7% female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 12.6%. Most of the population speaks German, with French being second most English being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 30.8% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SPS, the FDP and the CSP; the age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 21.3% of the population, while adults make up 67.6% and seniors make up 11.1%. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Fällanden about 84.3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 2855 households in Fällanden. Fällanden has an unemployment rate of 2.62%.
As of 2005, there were 21 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 10 businesses involved in this sector. 988 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 68 businesses in this sector. 1221 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 213 businesses in this sector. As of 2007 31.8% of the working population were employed full-time, 68.2% were employed part-time. As of 2008 there were 2887 Protestants in Fällanden. In the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the census, 43.9% were some type of Protestant, with 41.7% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 2.2% belonging to other Protestant churches. 28.8% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 0% were Muslim, 5.6% belonged to another religion, 3.1% did not give a religion, 17.9% were atheist or agnostic. The historical population is given in the following table: The town has a small industrial district dominated by Bruker that manufactures medical NMR scanners and related devices.
It is the former Swiss Trüb-Täuber, purchased by Bruker in 1964. Another notable manufacturer is Bucher Leichtbau AG There are more facilities like glass factory and some others; the 120 km, 380 kV Sils-Fällanden power line ends near the town towards Dübendorf. Rudolf Wolf and mathematician Albert Meyer and member of the Swiss Federal Council Official website Fällanden in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Schwerzenbach is a municipality in the district of Uster in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland, belongs to the Glatt Valley. Schwerzenbach has an area of 2.7 km2. Of this area, 40.8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 6.8% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 38.5% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 26.9% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 1.1% of the area. As of 2007 39.8% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. Mayor is Thomas Weber. Schwerzenbach has a population of 5,093; as of 2007, 18.4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 49.3% male and 50.7% female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 6.5%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Albanian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 34.4% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the SPS, the CSP and the FDP. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 23.8% of the population, while adults make up 66.2% and seniors make up 10%. In Schwerzenbach about 79.7% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 1890 households in Schwerzenbach. Schwerzenbach has an unemployment rate of 2.57%. As of 2005, there were 86 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 11 businesses involved in this sector. 1083 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 41 businesses in this sector. 2011 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 188 businesses in this sector. As of 2007 90.9% of the working population were employed full-time, 9.1% were employed part-time. As of 2008 there were 1645 Protestants in Schwerzenbach. In the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the census, 44.1% were some type of Protestant, with 41.1% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 2.9% belonging to other Protestant churches.
32% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 0% were Muslim, 8% belonged to another religion, 2.6% did not give a religion, 12.5% were atheist or agnostic. Schwerzenbach railway station is a stop of the Zürich S-Bahn on the lines S9 and S14, it is a 14-minute ride from Zürich Hauptbahnhof. Schwerzenbach is twinned with: Aizpute, Latvia Official website
Switzerland in the Roman era
The territory of modern Switzerland was a part of the Roman Republic and Empire for a period of about six centuries, beginning with the step-by-step conquest of the area by Roman armies from the 2nd century BC and ending with the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. The Celtic tribes of the area were subjugated by successive Roman campaigns aimed at control of the strategic routes from Italy across the Alps to the Rhine and into Gaul, most by Julius Caesar's defeat of the largest tribal group, the Helvetii, in 58 BC. Under the Pax Romana, the area was smoothly integrated into the prospering Empire, its population assimilated into the wider Gallo-Roman culture by the 2nd century AD, as the Romans enlisted the native aristocracy to engage in local government, built a network of roads connecting their newly established colonial cities and divided up the area among the Roman provinces. Roman civilization began to retreat from Swiss territory when it became a border region again after the Crisis of the Third Century.
Roman control weakened after 401 AD, but did not disappear until the mid-5th century after which the area began to be occupied by Germanic peoples. The Swiss plateau, within the natural borders of the Alps to the South and East, Lake Geneva and the Rhône to the west and the Rhine to the north, was recognized as a contiguous territory by Julius Caesar; this area had been dominated by the La Tène culture since the 5th century BC, settled by a Celtic population, of which the Helvetii were the most numerous, but which included the Rauraci in north-west Switzerland centered on Basel, the Allobroges around Geneva. South of the Swiss plateau were the Nantuates and Veragri in the Valais, the Lepontii in the Ticino, while the Raetians controlled the Grisons as well as large areas around it; the first part of what is now Switzerland to fall to Rome was the southern Ticino, annexed after the Roman victory over the Insubres in 222 BC. The territory of the Allobroges around Geneva came under Roman sway by 121 BC and was incorporated into the province of Gallia Narbonensis prior to the Gallic Wars.
In around 110 BC, two Helvetic tribes under Divico – the Tigurini and the Tougeni, sometimes identified with the Teutons – joined the wandering Germanic Cimbri on a march to the West. In the course of the Cimbrian War they defeated a Roman force under Lucius Cassius Longinus at the Battle of Burdigala in 107 BC, but after the Roman victory over the Teutons at Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC, the Tigurini returned to settle in the Swiss Plateau. In 61 BC, the Helvetii, led by Orgetorix, decided to leave their lands and move to the West, burning their settlements behind them – twelve oppida, according to Caesar, some 400 villages, they were decisively beaten by Caesar in the Battle of Bibracte in 58 BC. After their surrender, Caesar sent the Helvetii home, according them the status of foederati or Roman allies, but not yet subjugating them to Roman sovereignty. Caesar's policy aimed at controlling the territory west of the Jura and Rhine, as well as at blocking the potential incursion routes from the East along the Jura.
The Raetians, described as savage warriors by Strabo, continued to launch incursions into the Swiss Plateau and had to be contained. To that end, Caesar charged the Helvetii and the Rauraci with defending their territory and established two colonies of veterans – one, the Colonia Julia Equestris on the shores of Lake Geneva and the other through Lucius Munatius Plancus in northwestern Switzerland, preceding the larger Augusta Raurica founded by Augustus in around 6 AD. Caesar's attempt to open the Great St Bernard Pass for Roman traffic failed in 57 BC due to strong opposition by the local Veragri. Concerted and successful efforts to gain control over the Alpine region were undertaken by his successor, Augustus, as the rapid development of Lugdunum made the establishment of a safe and direct route from Gaul to Italy a priority. In 25 BC, an army under Aulus Terentius Varro Murena wiped out the Salassi in the Aosta Valley. At some time between 25 and 7 BC – either following the Aosta campaign or, more in the course of the conquest of Raetia in 15 BC – a campaign subjugated the Celtic tribes of the Valais and opened the Great St Bernard Pass.
That conquest was a consequence of the Augustan imperative of securing the Imperial borders. To control the Alps as the shield of northern Italy, Rome needed to control both flanks of the mountain range, thus it had to extend its power to the Rhine and Danube, thereby opening a direct route to Germania and all of Central Europe. The last obstacle in this path were the Raetians. After a first expedition against them by Publius Silius Nerva in 16 BC, a more thorough campaign by Drusus and the emperor Tiberius brought Raetia – and thereby all of Switzerland – under Roman control; the tropaeum alpium, built by Augustus in 7 BC to celebrate his conquest of the Alps, lists among the defeated peoples the tribes of Raetia and of the Valais, but not the Helvetii. It appears that they were absorbed peacefully into the Empire during the first century AD, except for their part in the conflicts of the Year of the Four Emperors, AD 69; the history of Switzerland under Roman rule was, from the Augustan period up until 260 AD, a time of exceptional peace and prosperity.
The Pax Romana was made possible by the protection of well-defended and distant Imperial borders and a peaceful and smooth Romanization of the local population. The Romans urbanized the territory with numerous settlements and built a network of high-quality Roman roads connecting them, allowing for the integration of Helvetia into the imperial economy. While the Roman presence was always strong in the Alps