Tyne and Wear Metro
The Tyne and Wear Metro, referred to locally as the Metro, is a rapid transit and light rail system in North East England, serving Newcastle upon Tyne, South Tyneside, North Tyneside and Sunderland in Tyne and Wear. It has been described as the first modern light rail system in the United Kingdom; the initial network opened between 1980 and 1984, using converted former railway lines, linked with new tunnel infrastructure. Extensions to the original network were opened in 1991 and 2002. In 2017/18 over 36 million passenger journeys were made on the network, which spans 77.5 kilometres and has two lines with a total of 60 stations, nine of which are underground. It is the second-largest of the four metro systems in the United Kingdom, after the London Underground; the system is operated by the local transport authority Nexus. Between 2010 and 2017 it was operated under contract by DB Regio Tyne & Wear Limited, a subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains. On 1 April 2017, this contract ended, Nexus took over direct operation of the system for a planned period of two years.
The present system uses much former railway infrastructure constructed between 1834 and 1882, with one of the oldest parts being the Newcastle & North Shields Railway which opened in 1839. In 1904, in response to tramway competition, taking away passengers, the North Eastern Railway started electrifying parts of their local railway network north of the River Tyne with a 600 V DC third-rail system, forming one of the earliest suburban electric networks, known as the Tyneside Electrics. In 1938, the line south of the Tyne between Newcastle and South Shields was electrified. In the 1960s under British Rail, the decision was made to de-electrify the Tyneside Electric network, convert it to diesel operation due to falling passenger numbers, the cost of renewing end of life electrical infrastructure and rolling stock; the Newcastle-South Shields line was de-electrified in 1963, the north Tyneside routes were de-electrified in 1967. This was viewed as a backward step, as the diesel trains were slower than the electric trains they replaced.
In the early 1970s, the poor local transport system was identified as one of the main factors holding back the region's economy, in 1971 a study was commissioned by the created Tyneside Passenger Transport Authority into how the transport system could be improved. This new system was intended to be the core of a new integrated transport network, with buses acting as feeders to purpose-built transport interchanges; the plans were approved by the Tyneside Metropolitan Railway Bill, passed by Parliament in July 1973. Around 70% of the funding for the scheme came from a central government grant, with the remainder coming from local sources. Three railway lines, totalling 26 miles were to be converted into Metro lines as part of the initial system; the converted railway lines were to be connected by around six miles of new infrastructure, built both to separate the Metro from the existing rail network, to create the new underground routes under Newcastle and Gateshead. Around four miles of the new infrastructure was in tunnels, while the remainder was either at ground level or elevated.
The elevated sections included the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge. Construction work began in October 1974, it was intended to be opened in stages between 1979 and 1981, however the first part of the original network opened in August 1980, the remainder opened in stages until March 1984. The final cost of the project in 1984 prices was £265 million; some extensions to the original system have since been built. A short 3.5 km extension from Bank Foot to Newcastle Airport was opened in 1991, using a further part of the former Ponteland branch. In 2002 an 18.5 km extension was opened from Pelaw to South Hylton via Sunderland. Costing £100 million, this extension used part of the existing Durham Coast Line to Sunderland, but did not take it over. Three intermediate stations on the route were rebuilt, three new ones were added. Within Sunderland, 4.5 km of a former freight line, abandoned in 1984 was reused for the route between Sunderland station and South Hylton, becoming the second Metro segment to be built on a disused line.
The opening dates of the services and stations are as follows: The Tyne and Wear Metro was the first railway in the UK to operate using the metric system
Gosforth is an affluent, well established area of Newcastle upon Tyne, situated to the north of the city centre. Gosforth constituted an urban district from 1895 to 1974, when it became part of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne, it has a population of 23,620. There are three electoral wards that bear the Gosforth name: Dene and South Gosforth and West Gosforth, Gosforth. Modern-day Gosforth includes other wards such as Parklands; the origin of the area's name is thought to have come from the title Gese Ford, meaning "the ford over the Ouse", referring to a crossing over the local River Ouse or Ouseburn, but others think that it comes from the Old English Gosaford, meaning "a ford where the geese dwell", it is first recorded as Goseford in 1166. Richard Welford notes that the names of North and South Gosforth come from the north and south of the River Ouse. Gosforth is first mentioned in 1166, thus some think the settlement developed at this time and South Gosforth dates back past 1319, when it has been noted that the English Army retreated there from a siege on Berwick.
According to the 19th century publication, A Topographical Dictionary of England, the township of Gosforth was held of the crown by the Surtees family from 1100 to 1509, when it passed by marriage to Robert Brandling. In 1777, Gosforth contained 7 townships of North Gosforth, South Gosforth, Kenton, East Brunton and West Brunton. By order of the Local Government Board on 20 September 1872, the parishes of South Gosforth and Coxlodge were constituted into a district, governed by the South Gosforth Local Board. After the 1894 Local Government Act, it became the South Gosforth Urban District Council. A year by a Northumberland County Council order dated 14 March 1895, the title was changed again to Gosforth Urban District Council. On 15 July 1903, the District Council applied for an order from Northumberland County Council, to extend its boundaries to include the parishes of North Gosforth, East Brunton, West Brunton and the greater part of Kenton. On 9 September 1903, an inquiry was held into the Gosforth Scheme.
The parishes of Coxlodge and South Gosforth were amalgamated into the parish of Gosforth in 1908. Gosforth extended its boundaries after the County of Northumberland Review Order 1935, to include part of Castle Ward Rural District; this comprised parts of East Brunton and North Gosforth civil parishes. The Gosforth Urban District Council was abolished on 1 April 1974 to become part of the City of Newcastle Metropolitan Borough Council. In the 19th century, Gosforth was the location of a number of collieries, including Gosforth and Coxlodge Collieries. Gosforth Colliery was located in South Gosforth, while Coxlodge Colliery was west of the Great North Road. Coxlodge Colliery comprised three pits; the modern-day centre of Gosforth, straddling the Great North Road, originated in 1826 as a settlement known for several decades as Bulman Village. It consisted of a number of properties large enough to qualify occupiers for the franchise, built by the Bulman family in an attempt to provide voters for their cause in the 1826 elections.
A stone bearing the name'Bulman Village' survives and was incorporated in the façade of a building, the Halifax Bank building north of the Brandling Arms public house. The Blacksmith's Arms public house on Gosforth High Street stands on the site of the original blacksmith's forge. At the 2001 census there were 23,620 people living in Gosforth. In the 19th century Gosforth's population was deemed by the coal trade. In 1801 there were 1,385 inhabitants, most of whom lived in Kenton, were employed in the colliery there. In 1831 the population had risen to 3,546 due to the opening of the Fawdon and Coxlodge collieries. Between 1831 and 1871 the population only grew by a small amount to 3,723, due to the pits at Fawdon and Kenton having ceased to function. There have been a number of archaeological finds in Gosforth, with the earliest piece being a prehistoric flint flake, found in 1959. In 1863 a 2nd-century Greek Colonial coin was found in a garden in Bulman Village. A Roman altar was found in North Gosforth.
It has a large business complex called the Regent Centre, which houses organisations including HM Revenue & Customs. Gosforth's main high school is Gosforth Academy, some of the private schools in Gosforth are Westfield School and Newcastle School for Boys. St Nicholas Hospital is located in Gosforth, which houses the Jubilee Theatre, a Victorian Theatre built in 1899. Apart from South Gosforth, many residential districts of Gosforth are suffixed "Park". There is Bridge Park, Brunton Park, Gosforth Park, Grange Park, Greystoke Park, Grove Park, Kingston Park, Melton Park, Newcastle Great Park and Whitebridge Park. East of the Great North Road, Garden Village was developed on'garden suburb' lines in the 1920s to house workers at the nearby London & North Eastern Railway electric train depot. Areas of Gosforth have been used as a filming locations for television films. Gosforth Park was used as a location in 1971's Get Carter and Whitebridge Park, used in an episode of Wire in the Blood. Melton Park has the ruins of a chapel which dates back to late Norman times.
Brunton Park is a neighbouring estate to the Newcastle Great Park. The oldest parts in the estate have existed since the early 1930s; the rest of the estate was built during the 1950s. It contains a number of local convenience sho
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Blaydon is a town in the North East of England in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead - in County Durham. Blaydon, neighbouring Winlaton, which Blaydon is now contiguous with, form the postal town of Blaydon-on-Tyne; the Blaydon/Winlaton resident population in 2011 was 13,896. Between 1894 and 1974, Blaydon was an urban district which extended inland from the Tyne along the River Derwent for ten miles, included the mining communities of Chopwell and High Spen, the villages of Rowlands Gill, Blackhall Mill, Winlaton Mill and Stella, as well as Blaydon and Winlaton. During its existence, the Urban District's fourteen and a half square miles constituted the second largest administrative district by area, on Tyneside, after Newcastle upon Tyne; the town of Blaydon is an industrial area and is not more than two centuries old. Indeed, in the 1760s there was little here but a few cottages. In the latter part of the same century a smelting works was set up from which sprang the industrial growth of the area.
Though the town itself has a short history there has been activity in the area for many centuries. The earliest recorded evidence of human activity at Blaydon is a Neolithic polished stone axe found in the early 20th century. Finds and structures from prehistoric periods include a bronze spearhead and log-boat, both recovered from the River Tyne in the 19th century. A number of Bronze Age cists are recorded from several others from Bewes Hill. Little is recorded of medieval Blaydon, which appears to have been based upon the modern farm sites of High and Low Shibdon; the Blaydon Burn Belts Corn Mill, part of a row of 5 or 6 water corn mills stretching from Brockwell Wood to the River Tyne is known to have been present by the early 17th century, suggesting a healthy population at that time. It is that, as well as farming, many industrial activities such as mining and quarrying had begun in the medieval and post-medieval periods, well before the industrial period of the 18th to 20th centuries when Blaydon became an important industrial centre.
Known as the Battle of Newburn or Newburn Ford, this unknown battle has been elevated in importance by English Heritage. On 28 August 1640, 20,000 Scots defeated 5,500 English soldiers who were defending the ford over the Tyne four miles west of Newcastle; the Scots had been provoked by Charles I, who had imposed bishops and a foreign prayer book on their church. The Scots army, led by Alexander Leslie, fought its way to Newcastle and occupied the city for a year before Charles I paid it £200,000 to depart; the battle brought to an end the so-called'Eleven Years of Tyranny' by forcing Charles to recall Parliament. This was the last battle in Britain to feature the use of archers; the stimulus for industry at Blaydon and Blaydon burn, as elsewhere in the region, was the growth in coal mining and the coal trade from the early 18th century, when the Hazard and Speculation pits were established at Low Shibdon linked to the Tyne by wagonways. The 18th century Blaydon Main Colliery was reopened in the mid-19th century and worked until 1921.
Other pits and associated features included Blaydon Burn Colliery, Freehold pit and the Blaydonburn wagonway. Industries supported by the coal trade included chemical works, bottle works, sanitary pipe works, lampblack works, an ironworks, a smithy and brickworks - Cowen's Upper and Lower Brickworks were established in 1730 and were associated with a variety of features including a clay drift mine and coal/clay drops; the Lower works remains in operation. Blaydon Burn Coke Ovens of 19th-century origin, were replaced in the 1930s by Priestman Ottovale Coke and Tar Works, the first in the world to produce petrol from coal known as Blaydon Benzole. In addition to the workers’ housing developments associated with industrialisation, a number of grand residences were constructed for industrialists in the area, such as Blaydon Burn House, home of Joseph Cowen, owner of the brickworks; the remains of Old Dockendale Hall, an earlier grand residence of 17th century or earlier construction, was destroyed when the coke and tar works was built at Blaydon Burn.
In the 1930s, pupils at the now demolished Blaydon Intermediate School, under the leadership of English teacher Mr Elliott and art teacher Mr Boyce developed a technique for producing hardback books. Their productions were respected and favourably compared to other successful private printing presses of the time. In one volume produced by the school in 1935, entitled "Songs of Enchantment", the pupils were successful in convincing the famous poet Walter de la Mare to write a foreword in which he praised their enterprise and efforts; the post war era of the late 40s and 50s saw a rapid rise in demand for electricity and, in the North East, the extension of existing and construction of a number of new power stations was seen as a key part of the solution. For the Blaydon area, this meant the arrival of a new power station at Stella Haugh, known as the South Stella Power Station, which helped to meet the energy demands of the North East until its closure in 1991, it was demolished in 1992. The House of Commons constituency seat of Blaydon is held by MP Liz Twist.
The area has traditionally been a Labour stronghold and has been held by the Labour Party since 1935. The Labour candidate David Anderson received 51.5% of the vote in 2005, with the Liberal Democrat candidate, Peter Maughan, second at 37.9%. Blaydon ward elects three councillors to Gateshead Council; as of the May 2007 election, they are Kathryn Ferdinand and Steve Ronchetti. Modern Blaydon stands close to the Tyne with the A695, a key road from Gateshead to Hexham, passi
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles south of Edinburgh and 277 miles north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi from the North Sea. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the UK Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming part of Tyne and Wear in 1974; the regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, as well as Northumbria University; the city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son.
The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, digital technology, retail and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year; the first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. It was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD; this rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain. The population of Pons Aelius is estimated at 2,000.
Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields; the extent of Hadrian's Wall was 73 miles. After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, was known throughout this period as Munucceaster. Conflicts with the Danes in 876 left its settlements in ruin. After the conflicts with the Danes, following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed by Odo of Bayeux; because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080. The town was henceforth known as New Castle; the wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087. The castle was rebuilt again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period.
Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. Incorporated first by Henry II, the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589. A 25-foot high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century, to defend it from invaders during the Border war against Scotland; the Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in 1400. From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen; this monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in 1538; the phrase itself means a pointless pursuit.
In the 18th century, the American entrepreneur Timothy Dexter, regarded as an eccentric, defied this idiom. He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him. In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families, they were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population. Within the year 1636, it is estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the population of Newcastle died from the epidemic. During the English Civil War, the North declared for the King. In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn. In 1644, the Scots captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege. and the city was besieged for many months.
It was storm
Carr Hill is a suburb in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is bordered by Felling to the north, Sheriff Hill to the south, Windy Nook to the east and Deckham to the west, it lies 1.5 miles south of Gateshead, 2 miles south of the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and 13 miles north of the historic City of Durham. Once a village in County Durham, it was incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead by the Local Government Act 1972 on 1 April 1974. One of the less populous of the former villages that comprise the metropolitan borough, Carr Hill has a long history and was first developed by the Romans. During the Industrial Revolution it became the centre of pottery making in Tyneside, numerous stone quarries, glass makers and windmills were set up, it had a large reservoir providing water to several areas of Gateshead and Newcastle upon Tyne. Industrial decline from the turn of the 20th century, coupled with the building of Gateshead's first council estate, saw Carr Hill transformed from an industrial settlement into a residential suburb of the Gateshead Council ward of Deckham.
Governed locally and nationally by the Labour Party, the suburb is economically disadvantaged compared to other areas of the borough and nationally, with high levels of unemployment and low levels of income. It is served by Carr Hill Primary School. There are two small parks that contribute to the social activity of the area, as does the Elgin Centre at Elgin Road. Two historic venues, both now closed, face uncertain futures; the origins of the name "Carr Hill" are subject to speculation. In the 18th and 19th centuries the village was referred to as Carr's Hill, a possessive form suggesting that, like Deckham, the name stems from a notable family in residence, it is more however that the name was taken from the Scottish Gaelic carr, meaning "rocky shelf". Parts of the early village were in Upper Heworth, the remainder in Gateshead Fell, a wild and treacherous area of common land notable for the criminality of the tinkers and hawkers who lived there. There is some evidence of Roman occupation; the explanation for Roman interest in the area is Swan Pond, twice the size of the pond at Saltwell Park, the fresh water from which might be used to fill bathhouses and flush latrines.
Indeed, in 1697, William Yarnold obtained a lease for the laying of cisterns and pipes to bring water from "the Great Pond at Carr's Hill", shown on ordnance survey maps as Swan Pond, to Newcastle upon Tyne. The most important event in Carr Hill's formative history occurred in 1740, when John Warburton established a pottery at Carr Hill Lane. Warburton's pottery referred to as'Carr Hill Pottery' and credited with bringing white earthenware to the region, transformed the village into one of Gateshead's potting epicentres and encouraged workers and traders to move to the area. Warburton passed the pottery to his son-in-law Issac Warburton in about 1760, by the time John Warburton died in June 1794 it was the largest in the Tyne Valley, commanding a rent of £100 per annum; when placed for sale in 1812, the advert described Carr Hill Pottery as "valuable and extensive". Carr Hill by 1820 was a modern and populous village, situated on hill, still isolated from Gateshead and Felling. A variety of industries were prospering.
There were three inns and "some neat houses occupied by respectable families". By 1840 Carr Hill Reservoir had been built and, under the management of the Newcastle Water Company was the major water supplier for residents in Carr Hill, Sheriff Hill and Windy Nook, freestone quarries, similar to Kells' Quarry in Windy Nook, were producing Newcastle Grindstone of excellent quality. In 1856 a Methodist Chapel was built. During the mid-19th century, the increasing population led to calls for social amenities to be improved; the success of Warburton's pottery resulted in a street being named after him, but the lack of residential development is evident. Carr Hill glassworks and quarries are still marked, along with Swan Pond and a public house, The Free Gardeners Arms. By the mid-19th century Carr Hill Reservoir was in the hands of the Whittle Dean Water Company, in 1883 was converted into a 10-million imperial gallon open reservoir. Carr Hill House was the largest estate in the village; the date of building is unknown, but it does not appear on an enclosure map of 1766, suggesting it was built after that date.
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Maxïmo Park are an English alternative rock band, formed in 2000 in Newcastle upon Tyne. The band consists of Paul Smith, Duncan Lloyd, Tom English; the band have released six studio albums: A Certain Trigger, Our Earthly Pleasures, Quicken The Heart, The National Health, Too Much Information and Risk to Exist. The first two albums went gold in the UK and their debut was nominated for the Mercury Prize; the band was created by guitarist Duncan Lloyd and is named after Máximo Gómez Park, located in Little Havana, Miami. The four founding members played several small shows including Manchester's'In the City', which showcases unsigned bands in the UK. In 2003, the band decided they wanted a frontman as the original singers and Duncan, wanted to focus on writing the songs; the then-girlfriend of the drummer Tom English noticed his friend Paul Smith singing along to Stevie Wonder's "Superstition". When Smith was found, the band did not know if he could sing: "When he first joined we didn't know if he could.
With Smith joining the band gave him demos of their songs and from on started writing as unit. Around March 2004, a friend funded 300 copies of a 7" red vinyl single, recorded by Duncan Lloyd in his and Thomas English's flat in Fenham, Newcastle; the band's second release was a 7" single of their songs "The Coast Is Always Changing" and "The Night I Lost My Head", recorded by Paul Epworth. After some time of doing gigs around their home town, Steve Beckett of the dance-electronic label Warp Records acquired one of these records and decided to sign the band to his label after seeing the band perform at the Notting Hill Arts Club hosted by Creation Records founder Alan McGee. In 2005, Maxïmo Park released their first album, A Certain Trigger, which sold over 300,000 copies and was nominated for the Mercury Prize in July 2005. In July, Maxïmo Park had the honour of being the first band to play the Ibiza Rocks festival on its opening event. In December 2006, the band were brought to Shanghai by Split Works and were one of the earlier big-name acts from abroad to play in China.
In August 2006, the band announced that they had started work on their next album, produced by Gil Norton and recorded at Rak Studios in St John's Wood in London. On 22 January 2007, the band announced that their second album, Our Earthly Pleasures, would be released on 2 April 2007 and would be preceded by the album's lead single, "Our Velocity", on 19 March 2007. On 30 January 2007, the band released details of a tour to promote Our Earthly Pleasures, the tickets of which sold out within minutes of their release on 2 February 2007. In October 2008, the band announced that they had started recording their third album in Los Angeles with the producer Nick Launay, known for his recent work with Nick Cave and Grinderman; the full track list of the album was announced on 11 March 2009. Quicken the Heart was released on 11 May, with the first single, "The Kids Are Sick Again" being released a week earlier. Tickets for a tour taking place in May 2009 sold out in record time. In 2010, they performed a new song called "Banlieue", which ended up on their next album, The National Health.
Their 2011 tour had "Banlieue" in the set list, as well as another song, to be on The National Health, "Waves of Fear". On 28 March 2012, Maxïmo Park announced the fourth album title as The National Health. Smith said, "everyone is being bombarded with bouncy, happy music; the nation is out of control and the record is about taking back control, being a force for change in your own life. It can't speak for everybody but it has its eyes and ears all around us… that's always been a Maxïmo Park thing: look at yourself." The album was released on 11 June 2012. In September 2012, it was announced that the bass guitarist Archis Tiku would be taking time away from touring, to be covered by Paul Rafferty of Hot Club de Paris. On 15 November 2013, Maxïmo Park announced the forthcoming release of their fifth album. Titled Too Much Information, the album was released on 3 February 2014. Of the album, Smith said, "Our lyrics and our music will never be too-cool-for-school - we are an emotional band if it might be too much information for some."
The album was recorded and produced by the band, with additional production by The Invisible's Dave Okumu on the track Brain Cells. Recording started as an EP of 5 tracks in Sunderland, with help from Field Music's David and Peter Brewis, before turning into a formed album with the extra tracks recorded in the band's studio in Newcastle. On 20 January 2017, Maxïmo Park announced their sixth album Risk to Exist via their website, following the debut of the title track and first single the night before on BBC 6 Music's Steve Lamacq Show; the band confirmed via Twitter that bassist Archis Tiku, who had not performed with the band live since the end of the Quicken the Heart tour, had retired. His live replacement, Paul Rafferty, was confirmed to be the session bassist on Risk to Exist, although he is not an official member of the band. In 2007 the band contributed their song "Wasteland" to Help!: A Day in the Life. In 2009 they contributed a cover version of a Vincent Gallo song to the Warp20 compilation, as well as having their own song "Acrobat" covered by Seefeel.
Current membersTom English – drums Duncan Lloyd – guitar, backing vocals Paul Smith – lead vocals Touring membersPaul Rafferty – bass guitar Former membersArchis