Newcastle upon Tyne known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles south of Edinburgh and 277 miles north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi from the North Sea. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the UK Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming part of Tyne and Wear in 1974; the regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, as well as Northumbria University; the city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son.
The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, digital technology, retail and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year; the first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. It was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD; this rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain. The population of Pons Aelius is estimated at 2,000.
Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields; the extent of Hadrian's Wall was 73 miles. After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, was known throughout this period as Munucceaster. Conflicts with the Danes in 876 left the settlements along the River Tyne in ruins. After the conflicts with the Danes, following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed by Odo of Bayeux; because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080. The town was henceforth known as New Castle; the wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087. The castle was rebuilt again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period.
Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. In 1400 Newcastle was separated from Northumberland and made a county of itself by Henry IV. Newcastle was given the title of the county of the town of Newcastle upon Tyne; the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589. A 25-foot high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century, to defend it from invaders during the Border war against Scotland; the Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century. From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen; this monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in 1538.
The phrase itself means a pointless pursuit. In the 18th century, the American entrepreneur Timothy Dexter, regarded as an eccentric, defied this idiom, he was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him. In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families, they were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population. Within the year 1636, it is estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the population of Newcastle died from the epidemic. During the English Civil War, the North declared for the King. In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn. In 1644, the Scots captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege
David Roy Gavitt was an American college basketball coach and athletic director at Providence College in Providence, Rhode Island. He was well known as the first commissioner of the Big East Conference and as part of the committee which created the 1992 Olympic basketball "Dream Team". Born in Westerly, Rhode Island, Gavitt graduated from Dartmouth College in 1959, where he was a member of the 1959-1960 varsity basketball team, the last Dartmouth basketball team to win the Ivy League championship. While an undergraduate at Dartmouth in 1958, Gavitt played summer collegiate baseball for the Orleans Cardinals of the Cape Cod Baseball League, he became player-manager of the CCBL's Harwich Mariners returned to Orleans as manager in 1963-64 and 1966-67. Gavitt spent two years as an assistant basketball coach at Worcester Academy before becoming an assistant coach at Providence under the legendary Joe Mullaney in 1962, he left in 1966 to become assistant coach and head coach at his alma mater before taking over for Mullaney at Providence in 1969.
Under his ten-year tenure, the Friars advanced to the postseason eight straight years. In 1973, Gavitt's team made it to the Final Four for the first time in school history, he served as director of athletics at PC from 1971 to 1982, was at that position when the school's women's athletics programs were started as a result of Title IX. In 1979, along with several other college athletics administrators, helped to form the Big East Conference as a means to better compete with the major schools in the country, he became the conference's first commissioner, from 1979 to 1990. Under his direction, the Big East expanded and was an immediate success, as several schools became basketball powerhouses. During his tenure, six of the conference's schools participated in the Final Four, all nine teams made it to the NCAA tournament at least once, his contributions are memorialized in the Dave Gavitt Trophy, given to the winner of the Big East's men's basketball tournament, which he was responsible for not only creating, but its annual use of Madison Square Garden.
From 1982 to 1984, he was chairman of the NCAA Division I Basketball Committee. It was under his guidance that the tournament expanded to sixty-four teams, in order to provide better opportunity for small conference teams to participate, he was responsible for the playing of Final Four games in larger venues such as domed stadiums, the first full contract with a television network to provide universal coverage of the tournament, further adding to the tournament's popularity and prestige. Gavitt has been involved in Olympic basketball. In 1980, he was selected as the head coach of the Olympic basketball team, only to lose out on the opportunity due to the boycott of the Moscow games by the United States, he would go on to serve on the Olympic governing body, including a presidency from 1988 to 1992. It was during his tenure that he developed the concept of the "Dream Team," an Olympic basketball team composed of the NBA's best. Besides these responsibilities, Gavitt was CEO of the Boston Celtics from 1990 to 1994, President of the NCAA Foundation from 1995 to 1997, Chairman of the Board of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame until 2003.
He is a member of the Providence College Athletic Hall of Fame, National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics Hall of Fame, the International Scholar-Athlete Hall of Fame. Gavitt was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame on September 8, 2006, he became the third former member of the Friar athletic program, the first native of Rhode Island to be enshrined. The Providence Friars' court at the Dunkin' Donuts Center is named after Gavitt. Gavitt died on September 16, 2011, from congestive heart failure in a hospital near his hometown of Rumford, Rhode Island, he was 73. List of NCAA Division I Men's Final Four appearances by coach Dave Gavitt at the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
Champions of Rock is a compilation album by the Canadian rock band April Wine, released in 1996 on Disky Records. All tracks written by Myles Goodwyn. "Just Between You and Me" – 3:54 "I Like to Rock" – 4:22 "Roller" – 4:15 "This Could be the Right One" – 4:15 "All Over Town" – 2:59 "Say Hello" – 2:59 "Tellin' Me Lies" – 2:59 "Big City Girls" – 3:40 "Caught in the Crossfire" – 3:34 "Crash and Burn" – 2:31 "One More Time" – 3:55 "Rock Myself to Sleep" – 3:12 "Bad Boys" – 3:08 "Money Talks" – 3:27 "Too Hot to Handle" – 5:05 "Wanna Rock" – 2:04 Myles Goodwyn – vocals, keyboards Brian Greenway – guitar, vocals Gary Moffet – guitar, background vocals Steve Lang – bass, background vocals Jean Pellerin – bass Jerry Mercer – drums & percussion, background vocals Marty Simon – drums Daniel Barbe – keyboards