click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Greywater

Grey water or sullage is all the wastewater generated in households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination, i.e. all streams except for the wastewater from toilets. Sources of grey water include sinks, baths, washing machines or dishwashers; as grey water contains fewer pathogens than domestic wastewater, it is safer to handle and easier to treat and reuse onsite for toilet flushing, landscape or crop irrigation, other non-potable uses. The application of grey water reuse in urban water systems provides substantial benefits for both the water supply subsystem by reducing the demand for fresh clean water and for the wastewater subsystems by reducing the amount of wastewater required to be conveyed and treated. Treated grey water has many uses, for toilet flushing or irrigation. Grey water contains some traces of excreta and is therefore not free of pathogens; the excreta come from washing the anal area from the laundry. The quality of grey water can deteriorate during storage because it is warm and contains some nutrients and organic matter, as well as pathogens.

Stored grey water leads to odour nuisances for the same reason. In households with conventional flush toilets, grey water makes up about 65% of the total wastewater produced by that household, it may be a good source of water for reuse because there is a close relationship between the production of grey water and the potential demand for toilet flushing water. Misconnections of pipes can cause grey water tanks to contain a percentage of black water; the small traces of feces that enter the grey water stream via effluent from the shower, sink, or washing machine do not pose practical hazards under normal conditions, as long as the grey water is used correctly. In Hong Kong regional usage, an alternative term for grey water is "foul water"; the separate treatment of grey water falls under the concept of source separation, one principle applied in ecological sanitation approaches. The main advantage of keeping grey water separate from toilet wastewater is that the pathogen load is reduced, the grey water is therefore easier to treat and reuse.

When grey water is mixed with toilet wastewater, it is called sewage or black water and should be treated in sewage treatment plants or an onsite sewage facility, a septic system. Grey water from kitchen sinks contains fats and grease, high loads of organic matter, it should undergo preliminary treatment to remove these substances before discharge into a grey water tank. If this is difficult to apply, it could be directed to an existing sewer. Most grey water is easier to recycle than sewage because of lower levels of contaminants. If collected using a separate plumbing system from black water, domestic grey water can be recycled directly within the home, garden or company and used either or processed and stored. If stored, it must be used within a short time or it will begin to putrefy due to the organic solids in the water. Recycled grey water of this kind is never safe to drink, but a number of treatment steps can be used to provide water for washing or flushing toilets; the treatment processes that can be used are in principle the same as those used for sewage treatment, except that they are installed on a smaller scale at household or building level: Biological systems such as constructed wetlands or living walls and bioreactors or more compact systems such as membrane bioreactors which are a variation of the activated sludge process and is used to treat sewage.

Mechanical systems In constructed wetlands, the plants use contaminants of grey water, such as food particles, as nutrients in their growth. However and soap residues can be toxic to microbial and plant life alike, but can be absorbed and degraded through constructed wetlands and aquatic plants such as sedges and grasses. Global water resource supplies are worsening. According to a report from the United Nations, water shortages will affect 2.7 billion people by 2025, which means 1 out of every 3 people in the world will be affected by this problem. Reusing the wastewater has become a good way to solve this problem, wastewater reuse is called recycled or reclaimed water. Demand on conventional water supplies and pressure on sewage treatment systems is reduced by the use of grey water. Re-using grey water reduces the volume of sewage effluent entering watercourses which can be ecologically beneficial. In times of drought in urban areas, grey water use in gardens or toilet systems helps to achieve some of the goals of ecologically sustainable development.

The potential ecological benefits of grey water recycling include: Reduced freshwater extraction from rivers and aquifers Less impact from septic tank and treatment plant infrastructure Reduced energy use and chemical pollution from treatment Groundwater recharge Reclamation of nutrients Greater quality of surface and ground water when preserved by the natural purification in the top layers of soil than generated water treatment processesIn the U. S. Southwest and the Middle East where available water supplies are limited in view of a growing population, a strong imperative exists for adoption of alternative water technologies; the potential economic benefits of grey water recycling include: Can reduce the demand for fresh water, when people reduce the use of fresh water, the cost of domestic water consumption is signif

2011 Southern Conference football season

The 2011 Southern Conference football season began on Thursday, September 1, 2011 with Western Carolina visiting Georgia Southern. The season ended in the semifinals of the NCAA Division I Football Championship, with Georgia Southern losing to North Dakota State. New coaches - Furman First place votes in parentheses Offensive Player of the Year: Eric Breitenstein, Jr. FB, WoffordCo-Defensive Players of the Year: Ameet Pall, Sr. DL, Wofford & Brent Russell, Jr. DL, Georgia Southern All times Eastern time. Rankings reflect that of the Sports Network poll for that week. Players of the Week Players of the Week Players of the Week Players of the Week Players of the Week Players of the Week Players of the Week Players of the Week Players of the Week Players of the Week Players of the Week Players of the Week

Versailles Orangerie

The Versailles Orangerie was built by Jules Hardouin-Mansart between 1684 and 1686, replacing Louis Le Vau’s design from 1663 –, to say, before work on the Château had begun. It is an example of many such prestigious extensions of grand gardens in Europe designed both to shelter tender plants and impress visitors. Louis XIV's gardens were no longer just a sanctuary for him to stroll through, but now the theatrical setting to entertain guests at court. In the winter, the Versailles Orangerie houses more than a thousand trees in boxes. During the winter the trees were housed in a cathedral like space and during the coldest months the gardeners would burn fires to heat the housing of the trees. In 1689 gardener Valentin Lopin created a device to move the large orange trees. Most of the trees are citrus trees shipped form Italy, but there are many tender Mediterranean plants including oleanders, olive and palm trees, totaling over 1,055 altogether. From May to October, they are put outdoors in the "Parterre Bas".

The bitter orange was introduced to Europe by the sixteenth century. At first, they were an expensive food item. Medieval cookbooks tell how many orange slices a visiting dignitary was entitled to. Citrus soon became the fashion of rich merchants. By the sixteenth century, sweet oranges had become well-established and had assumed commercial importance in Europe. In France, the first orangery was stocked by Charles VIII at the Château d'Amboise. There is general agreement that the arrival of the sweet orange in Europe was linked with the activities of the Portuguese during the fifteenth century, by Vasco de Gama's voyages to the East. Although the Romans had been acquainted with lemons and oranges as well as different types of citrus fruits and lemons reached Europe centuries apart. By withholding water and nutrients, by using pruning techniques, French gardeners were able to make citrus trees bloom throughout the year, to the delight of Louis XIV. Citrus motifs formed themes in sculpture, embroidery, paintings and songs throughout history, orange blossoms remain prized as floral ornaments at weddings.

However, during a trip to Versailles, John Locke wrote about the appearance of the trees stating, the boxes the trees were planted in did not enable proper rooting causing the trees to develop a unique shape with small heads and thick trunks. The central gallery is flanked by two side galleries located under the "Escaliers des Cent Marches"; the three galleries enclose the lower bed called "Parterre de l'orangerie". The walls of these galleries are 4-5 meters thick and the central gallery is over 150 meters long and 13 meters high; the central gallery faces south to optimize the natural warming effects of the sun, combined with the double glazing of the windows, provides a frost-free environment without the use of artificial heating year round. At the center of the "Parterre Bas" is a large circular pool with a jet d'eau water feature, surrounded by formal lawns planted with topiary. From May to October, the orange trees and other trees are exposed in the lower bed. There are over 1,000 different containers altogether, with several pomegranate and orange trees that are over 200 years old.

The Orangerie shelters an assortment of statuary, the most famous of, an equestrian statue of Louis XIV by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, the most prominent sculptor of the Baroque period. Louis XIV was famously displeased with the likeness of Bernini's statue of him, ordering its' destruction when he first saw it in 1685. Louis was a skilled horseman and felt the sculpture's pose and drama was wild and inconsistent with his royal dignity, he was persuaded to move the statue to a remote location in the gardens, on the north side of the Neptune Basin rather than destroy it, but he did call in his preferred sculptor François Girardon to re-shape the face and the base of the statue. Recast as a representation of the ancient Roman hero Marcus Curtius, it was moved to the north side of the Pièce d'eau des Suisses, opposite the boundary of the Orangerie parterre, where it remained for centuries. In another part of the Orangerie lies the octagon bath of Rouge de Rance marble which once belonged to Louis XIV.

It was installed in a lavish five-room bathing complex belonging to the King's mistress, Madame de Montespan. The Orangerie was home to many Bronze replicas of Classical sculpture. Symmetry and antithesis dominated Orangerie. In 1701 a bronze Hercules was placed in the Orangerie at Versailles and the themes of the pice reflected those of Lois XIV's rule. Other Italian Renisances pieces in the gardens included copies of Diana. Completed in 1663, the Orangerie was intended to supply the much smaller hunting lodge of Versailles and the small retinue which Louis XIV would bring with him in the summer. In 1678, after the Court had relocated to Versailles, an enlargement of the Orangerie was begun by Jules Hardouin-Mansart, which doubled the size of the original. Completed in 1688, the masonry pavilions of the new Orangerie were modelled on the theories of the horticulturalist Jean-Baptiste de La Quintinie, the master gardener of the Potager du roi, whose writings detailed a system for protecting exotic plants from the cold without the use of artificial heating.

As Louis XIV grew older he became allergic to flowers and preferred the smell of the citrus trees developing a love for orange trees. He had them potted

Dalyr

Dalyr is a rural locality, the administrative centre of and one of three settlements, in addition to Bychchagdan and Kulusunnakh, in Dalyrsky Rural Okrug of Verkhnevilyuysky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located 75 kilometers from the administrative center of the district, its population as of the 2010 Census was 888, of whom 439 were male and 449 female, up from 840 as recorded during the 2002 Census. Official website of the Sakha Republic. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic. Verkhnevilyuysky District. Государственное Собрание Республики Саха. Закон №173-З №353-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха », в ред. Закона №1058-З №1007-IV от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.

Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г

Vince Coleman (train dispatcher)

Patrick Vincent Coleman was a train dispatcher for the Canadian Government Railways, killed in the Halifax Explosion, but not before he sent a message to an incoming passenger train to stop out of range of the explosion. Today he is remembered as one of the heroic figures from the disaster. On the morning of 6 December 1917, the 45-year-old Coleman and Chief Clerk William Lovett were working in the Richmond station, surrounded by the railway yards near the foot of Richmond Street, only a few hundred feet from Pier 6. From there, trains were controlled on the main line into Halifax; the line ran along the western shore of Bedford Basin from Rockingham Station to the city's passenger terminal at the North Street Station, located a mile to the south of Richmond Station. Coleman was an experienced dispatcher, commended a few years earlier for helping to safely stop a runaway train. At 8:45 a.m. there was a collision between SS Mont-Blanc, a French munitions ship carrying a cargo of high explosives, a Norwegian vessel, SS Imo.

Thereafter Mont-Blanc caught fire, the crew abandoned ship. The vessel drifted from near the mid-channel over to Pier 6 on the slack tide in a matter of minutes and beached herself. A sailor, believed to have been sent ashore by a naval officer, warned Coleman and Lovett of her cargo of high explosives; the overnight express train No. 10 from Saint John, New Brunswick, carrying nearly 300 passengers, was due to arrive at 8:55 a.m. Before leaving the office, Lovett called CGR terminal agent Henry Dustan to warn him of a burning ship laden with explosives, heading for the pier. After sending Lovett's message and Lovett were said to have left the CGR depot. However, the dispatcher returned to the telegraph office and continued sending warning messages along the rail line as far as Truro to stop trains inbound for Halifax. An accepted version of Coleman's Morse code message reads. Ammunition will explode. Guess this will be my last message. Good-bye boys." The telegraphed warnings were heeded, as the No. 10 passenger train was stopped just before the explosion occurred.

The train was halted at Rockingham Station, on the western shore of Bedford Basin 6.4 kilometres from the downtown terminal. After the explosion, Coleman's message, followed by other messages sent by railway officials who made their way to Rockingham, passed word of the disaster to the rest of Canada; the railway mobilized aid, sending a dozen relief trains with fire and medical help from towns in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick on the day of the disaster, followed two days by help from other parts of Canada and from the United States, most notably Boston. Though Lovett had left the station, both he and Coleman were killed in the explosion. Although historians debate whether Coleman's initial message contributed to stopping the No. 10 train, there is some documented evidence to indicate it did. No. 10's Conductor Gillespie reported to the Moncton Transcript that although running on time, "his train was held for fifteen minutes by the dispatcher at Rockingham."Vince Coleman was the subject of a Heritage Minute and was a prominent character in the CBC miniseries Shattered City: The Halifax Explosion.

The Heritage Minute and other sources contain historical inaccuracies in that Coleman is shown warning others in the area surrounding the depot station of the impending explosion. In reality the Richmond Station was surrounded by freight yards. Another error is the exaggeration of the number of passengers aboard the Saint John train; the four-car overnight passenger train contained a maximum of 300 people, not 700 as claimed in the Heritage Minute. The warning message is changed. Coleman's telegraph key and pen are on display in the Halifax Explosion exhibit at Halifax's Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. Coleman is interred at Mount Olivet Cemetery in Halifax, at the intersection of Mumford Road with Joseph Howe Drive. A street is named after him in the Clayton Park neighbourhood of Halifax, in 2007 a section of Albert Street near his old home was renamed Vincent Street. A condominium near Mount Olivet Cemetery on Bayer's Road is named The Vincent Coleman in his honour. Coleman was inducted into the Canadian Railway Hall of Fame in 2004.

A Halifax harbour ferry was named Vincent Coleman, by popular vote in the spring of 2017. The ferry was dedicated and entered service in a ceremony at the Halifax ferry terminal on March 14, 2018Coleman was survived by his wife Frances, although she and the youngest of their four children were injured in the explosion. PEPCON disaster - Roy Westerfield sacrificed himself to warn others of an imminent explosion. Watch the Heritage Minute about Coleman Vince Coleman at Find a Grave Photos of Vince Coleman's tombstone Google Maps location of Vince Coleman's burial site

Viktor Schreckengost

Viktor Schreckengost was an American industrial designer as well as a teacher and artist. His wide-ranging work included noted pottery designs, industrial design, bicycle design and seminal research on radar feedback. Schreckengost's peers included designers Raymond Loewy, Norman Bel Geddes, Eva Zeisel, Russel Wright. Born and raised in Sebring, Schreckengost was one of six children, his father worked at a ceramics factory from which he brought home material for his children to model. Every week he held a sculpture contest among the children, the winner of which accompanied his father on his weekend trip into the local big city, Ohio. Only years did Schreckengost realize that his father systematically rotated the winner, his younger brothers Donald and Paul Schreckengost went on to careers as ceramicists. Schreckengost graduated from the Cleveland School of the Arts in 1929, at which time he earned a partial scholarship to study at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna. To make the trip, he borrowed $1,500 from two owners of Gem Clay, an industrial ceramics manufacturer in Sebring.

When he returned six months Schreckengost paid back his loans — a lucky event for the men from Gem Clay, since separate bank failures during the Great Depression would have otherwise wiped them out. Schreckengost taught industrial design at the Cleveland Institute of Art for more than 50 years and was a professor emeritus at CIA until his death, he was the youngest faculty member at CIA. Schreckengost founded CIA's school of the first of its kind in the country, his notable students include Giuseppe Delena, chief designer at Ford Motor Co.. Schreckengost enlisted in the Navy at age 37 to help the Allies in World War II, he was flown on secret missions to Europe where he used his modeling knowledge to help improve the radar used in the Battle of the Bulge. He helped design prosthetics for wounded soldiers, he retired from the Naval Reserves as a Captain. Schreckengost was good friends with Cleveland safety director Eliot Ness; the Viktor Schreckengost Foundation homepage indicates: Every adult in America has ridden in, ridden on, drunk out of, stored their things in, eaten off of, been costumed in, mowed their lawn with, played on, lit the night with, viewed in a museum, cooled their room with, read about, printed with, sat on, placed a call with, enjoyed in a theater, hid their hooch in, been awarded with, seen at a zoo, put their flowers in, hung on their wall, served punch from, delivered milk in, read something printed on, seen at the World's Fair, detected enemy combatants with, written about, had an arm or leg replaced with, graduated from, protected by, or seen at the White House something created by Viktor Schreckengost.

Schreckengost designed the Jazz Bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt during his association with Cowan Pottery. He created the largest freestanding ceramic sculpture in the world, Early Settler at Lakewood High School in Lakewood, Ohio, he designed bicycles manufactured by Murray bicycles for Murray and Sears and Company. With engineer Ray Spiller, he designed the first truck with a cab-over-engine configuration, a design in use to this day, and he created modern dinnerware designs that became popular throughout the United States. Schreckengost lived in Cleveland Heights, Ohio with his second wife Gene, he celebrated his 100th birthday in June 2006; the Viktor Schreckengost Foundation planned more than 100 exhibits of his work, with at least one in each US state, to celebrate the milestone. The exhibits opened in March 100 days before his 100th birthday. Schreckengost attended an exhibit in New York City to open the shows; the night before his birthday he was honored at Cain Park in Cleveland Heights by a large and appreciative crowd.

In 2006, Schreckengost was awarded the National Medal of Arts, the highest honor the federal government can bestow on an American artist. He and the nine other winners were feted in an Oval Office ceremony by President George W. Bush and the First Lady Laura Bush on November 9, 2006. Schreckengost died on January 26, 2008. At age 101 while visiting family in Tallahassee and was interred at Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland, he was predeceased by his three sisters, Pearl Eckleberry, Ruth Key, Lucille Jackson, his two brothers and Donald Schreckengost. In 1976 a retrospective exhibition was organized by the Cleveland Institute of Art. Broad in scope, the exhibition included sculpture, dinnerware and paintings; the centerpiece of the exhibit was the Jazz Bowl. The industrial design portion included many of his famous designs such as safer and cleaner printing presses, economical pedal cars, cab-over-engine trucks, banana-seat bicycles, electric fans, lawn chairs. In his 90s, Schreckengost made many personal appearances at the exhibit.

In April 1991, Schreckengost traveled with Henry B. Adams curator of the CIA, to Norfolk, Virginia to address the Hampton Roads chapter of the American Institute of Architects at age 93. In 2010, the Viktor Schreckengost Foundation signed a three-year contract to open a museum in the Tower Press Bu