In archaeology, ground stone is a category of stone tool formed by the grinding of a coarse-grained tool stone, either purposely or incidentally. Ground stone tools are made of basalt, granite, or other cryptocrystalline and igneous stones whose coarse structure makes them ideal for grinding other materials, including plants and other stones; the adoption of ground stone technology is associated with the Neolithic called the New Stone Age. The Stone Age comes from the three-age system developed by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen. In the Levant ground stones appear in Mesolithic 2. In prehistoric Japan, ground stone tools appear during the Japanese Paleolithic predating adoption elsewhere in the Neolithic by 25,000 years. Ground stones were used for a wide variety of reasons; each use resulted in a different development and process by which a person created their ground stone. For example, the process for creating the head of a hammer is different from the process used to create a detailed decoration piece for one’s home.
That being said, there are some processes. When choosing what type of stone to use for a ground stone tool, toughness is the most important factor. If the stone is not tough enough to withstand hard hits and instead just flakes and cracks the work done to create the tool has gone to waste. A stone that will not shear, flake, or crack when tested against large impacts is the most important aspect when choosing what kind of stone to use. Examples of this kind of stone include limestone, granite, basalt and other igneous and cryptocrystalline rocks. Cryptocrystalline rocks are good to use for ground stones because they have a fine grain structure; this is helpful. Holes could be ground out of stones with the use of hardened sticks. By spinning the ground stone with one's hands and applying substantial pressure to the sharp point into the ground stone, a hole could be drilled into the stone with a large amount of time and effort. Sand would be used to help quicken the process by putting it in the formed hole as the sharp point was being pressed.
The sand would help grind more of the stone away. To put a hole all the way through a piece of stone, it would be first drilled half way in one direction and be finished on the opposite side; some ground stone tools are incidental, caused by use with other tools: manos, for example, are hand stones used in conjunction with metates and other grinding slabs, develop their ground surfaces through wear. Other ground stone tools include adzes and axes, which are manufactured using a labor-intensive, time-consuming method of repeated grinding against a harder stone or with sand using water as a lubricant; these tools are made using durable finer-grained materials rather than coarse materials. In the North American arctic, tools made of ground slate were used by the Norton and Thule tool cultures, among others. Common forms of these tools were projectile ulus; these tools were purpose-made by creating a blank, either by chipping or using a technique where the slate was sawed partway through on one or both sides and snapped into a blank finished by grinding with abraders or whetstones.
When making the head of an axe out of stone, the piece would be made. In order to have the stone hafted onto a larger piece, like wood or bone, the ground stone may have at least two notches ground out of one side of the stone, making grooves for the hafting material to lie inside; these grooves would ensure. Tough hide would be wound around the handle and inside the grooves, binding the ground stone and the handle together. Ground stones were used as dinner-ware. Using large stones, lithic reduction would be done for long periods of time to create bowls and pots for food. Jewelry, ear spools and other decorative ground stones were a sign of high status due to the time and effort needed to make pieces of such small size and detail; when mashing up seeds and leaves into powders and smooth ground stones would be used inside a stone bowl. This pair of tools is called a pestle; the material would be placed into the mortar and the pestle would be moved and pressed into the mortar to grind the material into a fine powder.
This process could be used for cooking. Mortar and pestle is still used today for many cooking recipes. Stone tool Lithic reduction Microlith Household Stone tools in Karnataka Banning, Edward Bruce; the archaeologist's laboratory: the analysis of archaeological data. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. 2000, p. 151. Bender, Tricia R. "Ground Stone Artifacts: Series in Ancient Technologies: The Office of the State Archaeologist at The University of Iowa since 1959." Ground Stone Artifacts: Series in Ancient Technologies: The Office of the State Archaeologist at The University of Iowa since 1959. N.p. n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://www.uiowa.edu/~osa/learn/ancient/groundstone.html>. Fagan, Brian. Ancient North America. Thames & Hudson, London. 2005, p. 191-99. Moore, D. T. 1983, Petrological aspects of some sharpening stones and milling stones. In The Petrology of Archaeological Artefaces. Clarendon Press, Oxford. "Native Americans:Historic:The Illinois:Technology:Tools:Ground Stone." Native Americans:Historic:The Illinois:Technology:Tools:Ground Stone.
N.p. n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/te_ground.html>. Sepp, Siim. "Conchoidal Fracture." Sandatlas. N.p. n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.sandatlas.org/2013/03/conchoidal-frac
In archaeology, a celt is a long, prehistoric, stone or bronze tool similar to an adze, a hoe or axe-like tool. The term "celt" came about from what was probably a copyist's error in many medieval manuscript copies of Job 19:24 in the Latin Vulgate Bible, which became enshrined in the authoritative Sixto-Clementine printed edition of 1592. While this is now considered to be the case by most scholars, some are still prepared to consider the existence of a real Latin word. A "celt" was thus wrongly assumed to be a type of ancient chisel. Early eighteenth century antiquarians, such as Lorenz Beger adopted the word for the stone and bronze tools they were finding at prehistoric sites. A shoe-last celt was a polished stone tool used during the early European Neolithic for felling trees and woodworking. Palstave "Celt, a word in common use among British and French archaeologists to describe the hatchets, adzes or chisels of chipped or shaped stone used by primitive man". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
A sickle, bagging hook or reaping-hook, is a hand-held agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock, either freshly cut or dried as hay. Falx was a synonym but was used to mean any of a number of tools that had a curved blade, sharp on the inside edge such as a scythe. Since the beginning of the Iron Age hundreds of region-specific variants of the sickle have evolved of iron and steel; this great diversity of sickle types across many cultures can be divided into smooth or serrated blades, both of which can be used for cutting either green grass or mature cereals using different techniques. The serrated blade that originated in prehistoric sickles still dominates in the reaping of grain and is found in modern grain-harvesting machines and in some kitchen knives; the development of the sickle in Mesopotamia can be traced back to times that pre-date the Neolithic Era. Large quantities of sickle blades have been excavated in sites surrounding Israel that have been dated to the Epipaleolithic era.
Formal digs in Wadi Ziqlab, Jordan have unearthed various forms of early sickle blades. The artifacts possessed a jagged edge; this intricate ‘tooth-like’ design showed a greater degree of design and manufacturing credence than most of the other artifacts that were discovered. Sickle blades found during this time were made of flint and used in more of a sawing motion than with the more modern curved design. Flints from these sickles have been discovered near Mt. Carmel, which suggest the harvesting of grains from the area about 10,000 years ago; the sickle had a profound impact on the Agricultural Revolution by assisting in the transition to farming and crop based lifestyle. It is now accepted that the use of sickles led directly to the domestication of Near Eastern Wild grasses. Research on domestication rates of wild cereals under primitive cultivation found that the use of the sickle in harvesting was critical to the people of early Mesopotamia; the narrow growing season in the area and the critical role of grain in the late Neolithic Era promoted a larger investment in the design and manufacture of sickle over other tools.
Standardization to an extent was done on the measurements of the sickle so that replacement or repair could be more immediate. It was important that the grain be harvested at the appropriate time at one elevation so that the next elevation could be reaped at the proper time; the sickle provided a more efficient option in collecting the grain and sped up the developments of early agriculture. The sickle remained common both in the Ancient Near East and in Europe. Numerous sickles have been found deposited in hoards in the context of the European Urnfield culture, suggesting a symbolic or religious significance attached to the artifact. In archaeological terminology, Bronze Age sickles are classified by the method of attaching the handle. E.g. the knob-sickle is so called because of a protruding knob at the base of the blade which served to stabilize the attachment of the blade to the handle. The sickle played a prominent role in the Druids' Ritual of oak and mistletoe as described from a single passage in Pliny the Elder's Natural History: Due to this passage, despite the fact that Pliny does not indicate the source on which he based this account, some branches of modern Druidry have adopted the sickle as a ritual tool.
The sickle has been discovered in southwest North America with a unique structure. These sickles are said to have originated from the Far East. There is evidence that Kodiak islanders had for cutting grass “sickles made of a sharpened animal shoulder blade”; the artifacts found in present-day Arizona and New Mexico resemble curved tools that were made from the horns of mountain sheep. A similar site discovered sickles made from other material such as the Caddo Sickle, made from a deer mandible. Scripture from early natives document the use of these sickles in the cutting of grass; the instruments ranged from 13 to 16 inches tip to tip. Several other digs in eastern Arizona uncovered wooden sickles that were shaped in a similar fashion; the handles of the tools help describe how the tool was held in such a way so that the inner portion that contained the cutting surface could serve as a gathering surface for the grain. Sickles were sharpened by scraping a shape beveled edge with a coarse tool; this action has left marks on artifacts.
The sharpening process was necessary to keep the cutting edge from being dulled after extended use. The edge is seen to be quite polished, which in part proves that the instrument was used to cut grass. After collection, the grass was used as material to create bedding; the sickle in general provided the convenience of cutting the grass as well as gathering in one step. In South America, the sickle is used as a tool to harvest rice. Rice clusters are left to dry in the sun; the genealogy of sickles with serrated edge reaches back to the Stone Age, when individual pieces of flint were first attached to a “blade body” of wood or bone. Teeth have been cut with hand-held chisels into iron, steel-bladed sickles for a long time. In many countries on the African continent and South America as well as the Near and Far East this is still the case in the regions within these large geographies where the traditional village blacksmith remains alive and well. En
Mortar and pestle
Mortar and pestle are implements used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder in the kitchen and pharmacy. The mortar is a bowl made of hard wood, ceramic, or hard stone, such as granite; the pestle is a blunt club-shaped object. The substance to be ground, which may be wet or dry, is placed in the mortar, where the pestle is pressed and rotated onto it until the desired texture is achieved. Scientists have found ancient mortars and pestles that date back to 35000 BC; the English word mortar derives from classical Latin mortarium, among several other usages, "receptacle for pounding" and "product of grinding or pounding". The classical Latin pistillum, meaning "pounder", led to English pestle; the Roman poet Juvenal applied both mortarium and pistillum to articles used in the preparation of drugs, reflecting the early use of the mortar and pestle as a symbol of a pharmacist or apothecary. The antiquity of these tools is well documented in early writing, such as the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus of ~1550 BC and the Old Testament.
Mortars and pestles were traditionally used in pharmacies to crush various ingredients prior to preparing an extemporaneous prescription. The mortar and pestle, with the Rod of Asclepius, the Green Cross, others, is one of the most pervasive symbols of pharmacology, along with the show globe. For pharmaceutical use, the mortar and the head of the pestle are made of porcelain, while the handle of the pestle is made of wood; this is known as a Wedgwood mortar and pestle and originated in 1759. Today the act of reducing the particle size is known as trituration. Mortars and pestles are used as drug paraphernalia to grind up pills to speed up absorption when they are ingested, or in preparation for insufflation. To finely ground drugs, not available in liquid dosage form is used if patients need artificial nutrition such as parenteral nutrition or by nasogastric tube. Mortars are used in cooking to prepare wet or oily ingredients such as guacamole and pesto, as well as grinding spices into powder.
The molcajete, a version used by pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican cultures including the Aztec and Maya, stretching back several thousand years, is made of basalt and is used in Mexican cooking. Other Native American nations use mortars carved into the bedrock to other nuts. Many such depressions can be found in their territories. In Japan large mortars are used with wooden mallets to prepare mochi. A regular sized Japanese mortar and pestle are called surikogi, respectively. Granite mortars and pestles are used in Southeast Asia, as well as India. In India, it is used extensively to make spice mixtures for various delicacies as well as day to day dishes. With the advent of motorized grinders, use of the mortar and pestle has decreased, it is traditional in various Hindu ceremonies to crush turmeric in these mortars. In Malay, it is known as batu lesung. Large stone mortars, with long wood pestles were used in West Asia to grind meat for a type of meatloaf, or kibbeh, as well as the hummus variety known as masabcha.
In Indonesia and the Netherlands mortar is known as Cobek or Tjobek and pestle is known as Ulekan or Oelekan. It is used to make fresh sambal, a spicy chili condiment, hence the sambal ulek/oelek denote its process using pestle, it is used to grind peanut and other ingredients to make peanut sauce for gado-gado. Large mortars and pestles are used in developing countries to husk and dehull grain; these are made of wood, operated by one or more persons. Good mortar and pestle-making materials must be hard enough to crush the substance rather than be worn away by it, they can not be too brittle either. The material should be cohesive, so that small bits of the mortar or pestle do not mix in with the ingredients. Smooth and non-porous materials are trap the substances being ground. In food preparation, a rough or absorbent material may cause the strong flavour of a past ingredient to be tasted in food prepared later; the food particles left in the mortar and on the pestle may support the growth of microorganisms.
When dealing with medications, the prepared drugs may interact or mix, contaminating the used ingredients. Rough ceramic mortar and pestle sets can be used to reduce substances to fine powders, but stain and are brittle. Porcelain mortars are sometimes conditioned for use by grinding some sand to give them a rougher surface which helps to reduce the particle size. Glass mortars and pestles are fragile, but suitable for use with liquids. However, they do not grind as finely as the ceramic type. Other materials used include stone marble or agate, bamboo, steel and basalt. Mortar and pestle sets made from the wood of old grape vines have proved reliable for grinding salt and pepper at the dinner table. Uncooked rice is sometimes ground in mortars to clean them; this process must be repeated until the rice comes out white. Some stones, such as molcajete, need to be seasoned first before use. Metal mortars are kept oiled. Since the results obtained with hand grinding are neither reproducible nor reliable, most laboratories work with automatic mortar grinders.
Grinding time and pressure of the mortar can be adjusted and fixed, saving time and labor. The first automatic Mortar Grinder was invented by F. Kurt
A woomera is a wooden Australian Aboriginal spear-throwing device. Similar to an atlatl, it serves as an extension of the human arm, enabling a spear to travel at a greater speed and force than possible with only the arm; the word "woomera" comes from the Dharug language of the Eora people of the Sydney basin. The name was adopted for the town of Woomera, South Australia, founded in 1947 as the home of the Anglo-Australian Long Range Weapons Establishment known as the "Woomera Rocket Range". Now called RAAF Woomera Range Complex, it is considered the largest land-based test and evaluation facility in the world; the woomera is 2 to 3 feet in length. One end is 3 inches wide and possessing a hollow, curved cross-section not unlike an airfoil, while the other is more pointed and has a hook; the woomera was traditionally decorated with incised or painted designs that indicated belonging to a particular linguistic group that it may be returned to if found abandoned. Records show, it is still used today in some remote areas of Australia.
Like spears and boomerangs, woomeras were traditionally used only by men. Some woomeras those used in the central and western Australian deserts, were multi-purpose tools. Shaped like long narrow bowls, they could be used for carrying water-soaked vegetable matter as well as small food items such as little lizards or seeds. Many woomeras had a sharp stone cutting edge called a tula adze attached to the end of the handle with black gum from the triodia plant; this sharp tool had many uses, such as cutting up other food and wood. It is supposed that the woomera could be used as a shield for protection against spears and boomerangs; the woomera is held in one hand while the other hand places the butt of the spear on the woomera's hook. The woomera doubles the length of the thrower's arm increasing the velocity of the spear. Correcting for the game animal's lateral dodging is accomplished by tilting the wing-shape woomera during the throw for last-second corrections; the kinetic energy of a spear launched from a woomera has been calculated as four times that of an arrow launched from a compound bow.
Aboriginal technology A drawing of a woomera, from the book Boy Scouts Beyond the Seas: "My World Tour" by Sir Robert Baden-Powell, 1913
Baton fragment (Palart 310)
Dating to the last Ice Age, this decorated fragment of a perforated antler baton was discovered in 1863 by Edouard Lartet and Henry Christy at the Abri de la Madeleine, an overhanging cliff situated near Tursac, in the Dordogne département and the Aquitaine Région of South-Western France. This is the type-site for the Magdalenian culture, it was bequeathed to the British Museum by Christy, is now catalogued as Palart.310, but not on display. The baton is 5.5 cm wide and 3 cm thick. The fragment is broken at both ends and is distinguished by a near-cylindrical section, interrupted on one side by a horse motif, on the other side by three cut grooves; the baton has one perforated hole in the near centre, with a deep groove above it, which runs long ways just below the upper edge. Directly to the left of the perforated hole is an image of a horse; the figure has a large eye, a high angular shaped mane, small forelegs that seem to sweep backwards. There are two incised V shapes on its flank – that might suggest injury – or more movement.
The occurrence of a large eye is a feature found on other baton examples excavated at La Madeleine. This decorated antler baton was used in the throwing of spears; the hole is a gauge to shape the shaft of the spear. It can be used to straighten both the tips and the shafts. By looping a strip of raw hide through the hole the tool becomes a weapon. Looping the thong around the end of the spear, turns the baton into a spear thrower; the object represents both a decorated weapon. April to June 2010 –'Ice Age Sculpture' at the Henry Moore Institute, Leeds. May to July 2006 –'Undercover Surrealism' at Hayward Gallery, London. February to May 2013 – exhibition at the British Museum Ice Age Art: Arrival of the Modern Mind Art of the Upper Paleolithic List of Stone Age art "British Museum", on the British Museum online database Ades, D. and Baker, S. 2006. Undercover surrealism: Georges Bataille and DOCUMENTS. London: Hayward Gallery. Sieveking, A. 1987. A catalogue of Palaeolithic art. London: The British Museum Press.
Underwood, L. 1965. Le baton de commandement. MAN 65, 140–4. Zervos, C. 1959. L'art de l'epoque du renne en France. Paris: Cahiers d'art
History of archery
The bow and arrow are known to have been invented by the end of the Upper Paleolithic, for at least 10,000 years archery was an important military and hunting skill, features prominently in the mythologies of many cultures. Archers, whether on foot, in chariots or on horseback were a major part of most militaries until about 1500 when they began to be replaced by firearms, first in Europe, progressively elsewhere. Archery continues to be a popular sport. Based on indirect evidence, the bow seems to have been invented near the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic, some 10,000 years ago; the oldest direct evidence dates to 8,000 years ago. The discovery of stone points that could have been employed successfully as insets for spears or arrows in Sibudu Cave, South Africa, has prompted the proposal that bow and arrow technology could have existed as early as 64,000 years ago. In the Levant, artifacts which may be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, onwards.
The Khiamian and PPN A shouldered. The oldest indication for archery in Europe comes from Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg, Germany, they were associated with artifacts of the late Paleolithic. The arrows were made of pine and consisted of a mainshaft and a 15-20 centimetre long foreshaft with a flint point, they had shallow grooves on the base. The oldest definite bows known so far come from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. In the 1940s, two bows were found there, dated to about 8,000 BP; the Holmegaard bows have flat arms and a D-shaped midsection. The center section is biconvex; the complete bow is 1.50 m long. Bows of Holmegaard-type were in use until the Bronze Age. Mesolithic pointed shafts have been found in England, Germany and Sweden, they were rather long, up to 120 cm and made of European hazel, wayfaring tree and other small woody shoots. Some still have flint arrow-heads preserved; the ends show traces of fletching, fastened on with birch-tar. The oldest depictions of combat, found in Iberian cave art of the Mesolithic, show battles between archers.
A group of three archers encircled by a group of four is found in Cueva del Roure, Morella la Vella, Castellón, Valencia. A depiction of a larger battle, in which eleven archers are attacked by seventeen running archers, is found in Les Dogue, Ares del Maestrat, Castellón, Valencia. At Val del Charco del Agua Amarga, Alcañiz, seven archers with plumes on their heads are fleeing a group of eight archers running in pursuit. Archery seems to have arrived in the Americas via Alaska, as early as 6000 BCE, with the Arctic small tool tradition, about 2,500 BCE, spreading south into the temperate zones as early as 2,000 BCE, was known among the indigenous peoples of North America from about 500 CE; the oldest Neolithic bow known from Europe was found in anaerobic layers dating between 7,400-7,200 BP, the earliest layer of settlement at the lake settlement at La Draga, Girona, Spain. The intact specimen is short at 1.08m, has a D-shaped cross-section, is made of yew wood. Stone wrist-guards, interpreted as display versions of bracers, form a defining part of the Beaker culture and arrowheads are commonly found in Beaker graves.
European Neolithic fortifications, arrow-heads and representations indicate that, in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Europe, archery was a major form of interpersonal violence. For example, the Neolithic settlement at Carn Brea was occupied between around 3700 and 3400 BC. Chariot-borne archers became a defining feature of Middle Bronze Age warfare, from Europe to Eastern Asia and India. However, in the Middle Bronze Age, with the development of massed infantry tactics, with the use of chariots for shock tactics or as prestigious command vehicles, archery seems to have lessened in importance in European warfare. In the same period, with the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon and the spread of the Andronovo culture, mounted archery became a defining feature of Eurasian nomad cultures and a foundation of their military success, until the massed use of guns. In China, crossbows were developed, Han Dynasty writers attributed Chinese success in battles against nomad invaders to the massed use of crossbows, first attested at the Battle of Ma-Ling in 341 BCE.
Ancient civilizations, notably the Persians, Egyptians, Indians, Koreans and Japanese fielded large numbers of archers in their armies. Arrows were destructive against massed formations, the use of archers proved decisive; the Sanskrit term for archery, came to refer to martial arts in general. Mounted archers were used as the main military force for many of the equestrian nomads, including the Cimmerians and the Mongols; the ancient Egyptian people took to archery as early as 5,000 years ago. Archery was widespread by the time of the earliest pharaohs and was practiced both for hunting and use in warfare. Legendary figures from the tombs of Thebes are depicted giving "lessons in archery"; some Egyptian deities are connected to archery. The "Nine bows" were a conventional representation