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Griqualand West

Griqualand West is an area of central South Africa with an area of 40,000 km² that now forms part of the Northern Cape Province. It was inhabited by the Griqua people - a semi-nomadic, Afrikaans-speaking nation of mixed-race origin, who established several states outside the expanding frontier of the Cape Colony, it was inhabited by the pre-existing Tswana and Khoisan peoples. In 1873 it was proclaimed as a British colony, with its capital at Kimberley, in 1880 it was annexed by the Cape Colony; when the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, Griqualand West was part of the Cape Province but continued to have its own "provincial" sports teams. The indigenous population of the area were the Khoi-khoi and Bushmen peoples, who were hunter-gatherers or herders. Early on they were joined by the agriculturalist Batswana, who migrated into the area from the north, they comprised the majority of the population throughout the region's history, up until the present day. By the early 19th century the whole area came to be dominated by the powerful Griqua people, who gave the region its name.

The Griqua are a mixed people who originated in the intermarriages between Dutch colonists in the Cape and the Khoikhoi living there. They turned into a semi-nomadic Afrikaans-speaking nation of horsemen who migrated out of the Cape Colony and established short-lived states on the Colony's borderlands, similar to the Cossack states of imperial Russia; the Dutch East India Company did not intend the Cape Colony at the Southern tip of Africa to become a political entity. As it expanded and became more successful, its leaders did not worry about frontiers; the frontier of the colony flowed at the whim of individuals. While the VOC undoubtedly benefited from the trading and pastoral endeavours of the trekboers, it did little to control or support them in their quest for land; the high proportion of single Dutch men led to their taking indigenous women as wives and companions, mixed-race children were born. They grew to be a sizeable population who spoke Dutch and were instrumental in developing the colony.

These children did not attain the social or legal status accorded their fathers because colonial laws recognised only Christian forms of marriage. This group bastards; the colonists, in their paramilitary response to insurgent resistance from Khoi and San people conscripted the Basters into commandos. This ensured the men became skilled in armed, skirmish tactics. Equipped with guns and horses, many of the Basters who were recruited to war chose instead to abandon their paternal society and to strike out and live a semi-nomadic existence beyond the Cape's frontier; the resulting stream of disgruntled, Dutch-speaking, trained marksmen leaving the Cape hobbled the Dutch capability to crew their commandos. It created belligerent, skilled groups of opportunists who harassed the indigenous populations the length of the Orange River. Once free of the colonies, these groups called themselves the Oorlam. In particular, the group led by Klaas Afrikaner became notorious, he attracted enough attention from the Dutch authorities to cause him to be rendered to the colony and banished to Robben Island in 1761.

One of the most influential of these Oorlam groups was the "Griqua". In the 19th century, the Griqua controlled several political entities which were governed by Kapteins or Kaptyns and their Councils, with their own written constitutions; the Griqua had largely adopted the Afrikaans language before their migrations. Adam Kok I, the first Kaptein of the Griqua and recognised by the British, was a slave who had bought his own freedom, he led his people north from the interior of the Cape Colony. Because of discrimination against his people, they again moved north—this time outside the Cape, taking over areas controlled by San and Tswana people; this area, where most of the Griqua nation settled, was near the Orange River, just west of the Orange Free State, on the southern skirts of the Transvaal. It came to be called Griqualand West, the territory was centered on its capital "Klaarwater" renamed Griekwastad. While much of the Griqua people now settled, many remained nomadic, Adam Kok's people split into several semi-nomadic nations.

After a significant schism, a portion of the Griqua nation migrated to the south-east under the leadership of Adam Kok's son Adam Kok II (to the south-east they were to found Philippolis and Griqualand East. In the original area, which now came to be called Griqualand West, Andries Waterboer took over control and founded the powerful Waterboer dynasty; the Waterboer Kapteins ruled the region until the influx of Europeans accompanying the discovery of diamonds, to some degree afterwards too. In 1834, the Cape Colony recognized Waterboer’s rights to his land and people, it signed a treaty with him to ensure payment for the use of the land for mining. In both Griqualands and West, the Griqua were demographically outnumbered by the pre-existing Bantu people and, in some areas, by European settlers, thus the two Griqualands maintained their Griqua identity only through political control. In the years 1870-1871 a large number of diggers moved into Griqualand West and settled on the diamond fields near the junction of the Vaal and Orange rivers.

This was land through which the Griqua moved with their herds and it was additionally situated in part on land claimed by both the Griqua chief Nicholas Waterboer and by the Boer Republic of the Orange Free State. In 1870, Transvaal President Marthinus Wessel Pretorius declared the diamond fields as Boer property and established a temporary government over the diamond fields; the administ

Tolerance to infections

Tolerance to infections, or disease tolerance, is one of the mechanisms host organisms can use to fight against parasites, pathogens or herbivores that attack the host. Tolerance to infections is defined as the ability of a host to limit the impact of parasites, pathogens or herbivores on host health, on fitness. Tolerance is not equivalent to resistance. Disease resistance is the host trait that prevents infection or reduces the number of pathogens and herbivores within or on a host. Tolerance to infections can be illustrated as the reaction of host performance along with increasing pathogen, parasite or herbivore load; this is a reaction norm in which host performance is regressed against an increasing pathogen, parasite or herbivore burden. The slope of the reaction norm defines the degree of tolerance. High tolerance is indicated as a flat slope, i.e. host performance is not influenced by increasing number of pathogens, parasites or herbivores. Steep downward slope indicates low tolerance.

An upward slope indicates overcompensation. In farm animal science, tolerance to infections is sometimes termed disease resilience


Bluetree was a Northern Irish contemporary Christian band. The band is best known for its song "God of This City", which received international exposure when it was covered by Chris Tomlin on the Passion: God of This City and Hello Love albums; as an independent artist, Bluetree signed distribution agreements with Lucid Entertainment in the USA and Kingsway in the UK & Europe for their album, God of this City. Bluetree originated in Belfast's Christian Fellowship Church in 2004. According to lead singer, Aaron Boyd, Bluetree was born out of frustration. "I was frustrated with the idea. I don't agree with that. It's bigger than just your heart attitude towards something. Like the idea that music can be secondary and as long as you love Jesus, that's fine! I don't think that's right." Bluetree consisted of five members, with Pete Kernoghan joining later. While the band was travelling on a missions trip to Pattaya, the poor conditions of the city became the inspiration for their song, "God of this City".

Band members report. As an independent band, they recorded their debut album, Greater Things, at the Windmill Lane Studios; the record was released in September 2007, but on 24 January 2008, their album was picked up by Fierce! Records for UK Distribution. In May 2009 the band launched their charity "Stand Out International", a charity that indirectly rescues kids out of the sex industry, had their first album released in North America as "God of This City". In 2013, the charity was relaunched in the US under a US 501 non-profit. Bluetree have a Dove Award nomination from 2009 for "God of This City". Bluetree's second studio album "Kingdom" began production in Liverpool's Parr Street Studios in April 2011, was digitally released on 8 May 2012 with a small-scale US CD release in June. In 2013 two live projects were released; the first was recorded in 2010 between their first two studio albums, with all funds raised going toward their mission and justice work trip to Cambodia with Ratanak in November 2013.

The second was recorded at the Super Summer camp in June 2013 and features guest and fellow Northern Irishman, Nathan Jess. 2014 will see the release of Bluetree's first material with Integrity Media, having signed publishing and recording contracts. The first album under the contract was recorded in May 2014 with production by Michael Rossback and release due late summer. Bluetree's lead singer & founder, Aaron Boyd leads worship at his home church CFC in Belfast. Bluetree has toured with American Christian rock band 2nd Mile. In September 2017 Aaron Boyd discontinued the Bluetree moniker, continues to tour as a solo artist. Current membersAaron Boyd - lead vocals, acoustic guitar, songwriter Peter Nickell - bass, keys & tracks Peter Burton - electric guitar Matt Weir - drumsFormer membersIan Jordan - key Andy McCann - bass Ricky Bleakley - guitar Pete Kernoghan - dj, loops Peter Comfort – drums Jonny Hobson - drums Connor McCrory - electric guitar Stephen Greer - electric guitar "Break out Artist of the Year" 2009 Worship Leader Magazine Readers Choice Awards USA "Song of the Year" 2009 Worship Leader Magazine Readers Choice awards USA Nominated as ‘Best New Artist’ - GMA Dove Awards 2010 Greater Things - Cross Rhythms' 20 Best Albums of 2007 "God of this City" - Cross Rhythms' 20 Best Songs of 2007 A musical named after their hit song'God Of This City' won a Dove Award for Youth/Children's Musical of the year at the 43rd annual GMA Dove Awards.

Official website The story behind the song "God of this City" God of This City review at

1940–41 Ranji Trophy

The 1940–41 Ranji Trophy was the seventh season of the Ranji Trophy. Nineteen teams took part in four zones in a knockout format. Maharashtra retained the title defeating Madras in the final. Maharashtra would enter and lose three more finals but as of 2014, 1940-41 remains their last Ranji title. With cricket affected by the Second World War, Ranji Trophy was only regular domestic tournament that continued in the senior cricket nations. Maharashtra won their first four matches on first innings won only the final outright. Maharashtra made a Ranji record score of 798 against Northern India in the semifinal, batting for most of the first three days. Scheduled as a three-day match, the semifinal was extended to a fourth day for the teams to complete their first innings. D. B. Deodhar was 306 days old when he scored 246 against Bombay; as of 2014, he is the sixth oldest player to score a double century in first class cricket, the second oldest Indian after C. K. Nayudu who did it at the age of 50 years and 142 days in 1945-46.

The Bombay - Maharashtra match was scheduled for three days but went to five before the first innings were completed. Maharashtra made 675 and Bombay 650. Cricketarchive

Bud Hardin

William Edgar "Bud" Hardin was an American professional baseball player. Although he played professionally for 13 seasons, Hardin appeared in only three Major League games as a shortstop, second baseman and pinch hitter for the 1952 Chicago Cubs; the native of Shelby, North Carolina and batted right-handed, stood 5 feet 10 inches tall and weighed 165 pounds. He served in the United States Army during World War II. Hardin made the Cubs' early season roster in 1952 as a 29-year-old rookie after being selected in the 1951 Rule 5 draft out of the St. Louis Cardinals' organization. In his debut game on April 15, 1952, Hardin pinch hit for second baseman Bob Ramazzotti in the fourth inning of a game against the Cincinnati Reds at Crosley Field stayed in the game at second base, going hitless in four at bats but playing errorless ball in the field as the Cubs won, 6–5, his next appearance came a week against the Pittsburgh Pirates at Forbes Field. He entered the game, a one-sided Chicago victory, in the fifth inning in relief of starting shortstop Leon Brinkopf.

The following inning, Hardin collected his only Major League hit, a single off the Pirates' Jim Suchecki. Again he played errorless ball. In his final appearance, lone game played at Wrigley Field, he was again a defensive replacement in the late innings of a winning Cubs' effort, taking over from Roy Smalley at shortstop. In his final MLB at bat, facing Clyde King, Hardin grounded out to his opposite number, Pee Wee Reese of the Brooklyn Dodgers, he turned a double play. During his minor league career, Hardin played in 1,347 games. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference

Province of Crotone

The province of Crotone is a province in the Calabria region of southern Italy. It was formed in 1992 out of a section of the province of Catanzaro; the provincial capital is the city of Crotone. It borders the provinces of Cosenza and the Ionian Sea, it contains the mountain Pizzuta, the National Park of the Sila, Montagnella Park, the Giglietto Valley. Crotone was founded in 710 BCE, it participated in the Second Punic War against the Roman Republic. The province contains 27 comuni, listed at comuni of the Province of Crotone; the area around Capo Colonna, the easternmost point of the province, revealed numerous archaeological remains of Stone Age settlements, with large quantities of Neolithic pottery being found. The Greeks settled on the coasts of Calabria during the 8th and 7th centuries BC, the city of Crotone was founded, under the name of Kroton, by Greek Achaeans in around 710 BC, it grew to become a town of 50,000 to 80,000 inhabitants around 500 BC. The wrestler Milo of Croton was born in Crotone during the sixth century BC and the town had a great reputation for prowess in athletics having produced many Olympic champions.

Pythagoras moved to Croton in around 530 BC, a medical school was based in the region at around this time. It conquered the city Sybaris under the command of Milo. Pyrrhus of Epirus controlled the city until it fell under Roman Republic rule; the city Crotone participated in the Second Punic War, in which, it rebelled and fought against its Roman Republic rulers. The province of Crotone was formed in 1992 from land, part of the province of Catanzaro; the province of Crotone is one of the four provinces in the region of Calabria in southern Italy. To the northwest lies the Province of Cosenza and to the southwest lies the Province of Catanzaro. To the south and east, the province has a coastline on the Gulf of Taranto, part of the Mediterranean Sea; the northwesterly part of Crotone forms part of the high plateau of La Sila and includes part of the Sila National Park, a rugged wilderness area which has open heathland, forests of pine, oak and fir. In the upland areas chestnuts and olives are grown, most of the province is a lowland agricultural area with orchards of citrus fruits and vineyards.

The rivers are many dry up in summer. Crotone has many interesting features; the cathedral originates from the 9th to 11th centuries AD but has seen many changes to its architecture over the years. The 16th century castle of Charles V houses the local museum, but an older castle is located on an island just offshore and can only be approached by foot. Near the town are the remains of the Greek temple of Hera Lacinia, at one time the most important temple in Magna Graecia; the historic town of Santa Severina dates back to the ninth century BC when the Enotri, an ancient Italian tribe, inhabited the region. It became an important Byzantine trading centre, it is built on the top of a steep-sided hill with the castle on the summit. The castle is one of the best-preserved Norman structures in the region and now houses the Archaeological Museum of Castles and Fortifications in Calabria. In the main square stands the Cathedral of Saint Anastasia, which dates back to 1274, nearby is the Baptistry, a fine example of Byzantine architecture from the seventh to ninth centuries, the oldest such structure in Calabria.

On the other side of the castle stands the eleventh century Church of Santo Filomena, another fine Byzantine edifice. Pallagorio is another ancient town; the "Cave of St. Maurice" was occupied in Neolithic times, Greek colonists settled here in around the seventh century BC, Roman colonists did several centuries and traces of their villas remain near the river. In medieval times, the village situated here came to be known as "San Giovanni in Palagorio", it chapels. Umbriatico was founded by the Oenotrians before Greek colonists arrived in this district and founded nearby Kroton, it is situated on a rocky hill and accessible via a bridge over the river. During the Second Punic War it had a defensive wall, but this did not prevent the Romans from storming it and massacring the citizens; the Cathedral of San Donato has a crypt, a Greek temple, with Doric columns. Since 2009, various people have been arrested in the provinces of Catanzaro and Reggio Calabria in connection with organised crime. Official website Calabria's History, Culture and Genealogy