SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Northern Cape

The Northern Cape is the largest and most sparsely populated province of South Africa. It was created in 1994, its capital is Kimberley. It includes the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, part of the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, an international park shared with Botswana, it includes the Augrabies Falls and the diamond mining regions in Kimberley and Alexander Bay. The Namaqualand region in the west is famous for its Namaqualand daisies; the southern towns of De Aar and Colesberg, in the Great Karoo, are major transport nodes between Johannesburg, Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. In the northeast, Kuruman is known as a mission station and for its artesian spring, the Eye of Kuruman; the Orange River flows through the province, forming the borders with the Free State in the southeast and with Namibia to the northwest. The river is used to irrigate the many vineyards in the arid region near Upington. Native speakers of Afrikaans comprise a higher percentage of the population in the Northern Cape than in any other province.

The Northern Cape's four official languages are Afrikaans, Tswana and English. Minorities speak the other official languages of South Africa, a few people speak indigenous languages such as Nama and Khwe; the provincial motto, Sa ǁa ǃaĩsi'uĩsi, is in the Nǀu language of the Nǁnǂe people. It was given in 1997 by one of the language's last speakers, Ms. Elsie Vaalbooi of Rietfontein, who has since died, it was South Africa's first registered motto in a Khoisan language. Subsequently, South Africa's national motto, ǃKe e ǀxarra ǁke, was derived from the extinct Northern Cape ǀXam language; the Northern Cape was one of three provinces made out of the Cape Province in 1994, the others being Western Cape to the south and Eastern Cape to the southeast. Politically, it had been dominated since 1994 by the African National Congress. Ethnic issues are important in the politics of the Northern Cape. For example, it is the site of the Orania settlement, whose leaders have called for a Volkstaat for the Afrikaner people in the province.

The Northern Cape is the home of over 1,000 San who immigrated from Namibia following the independence of the country. They were awarded a settlement in Platfontein in 1999 by the Mandela government; the precolonial history of the Northern Cape is reflected in a rich Stone Age, archaeological heritage. Cave sites include Wonderwerk Cave near Kuruman, which has a uniquely long sequence stretching from the turn of the twentieth century at the surface to more than 1 million years in its basal layer. Many sites across the province in open air locales or in sediments alongside rivers or pans, document Earlier and Later Stone Age habitation. From Later Stone Age times there is a wealth of rock art sites – most of which are in the form of rock engravings such as at Wildebeest Kuil and many sites in the area known as ǀXam -ka!kau, in the Karoo. They occur on hilltops, rock outcrops and in a river bed. In the north eastern part of the province there are sites attributable to the Iron Age such as Dithakong.

Environmental factors have meant that the spread of Iron Age farming westwards was constrained to the area east of the Langeberg Mountains, but with evidence of influence as far as the Upington area in the eighteenth century. From that period the archaeological record reflects the development of a complex colonial frontier when precolonial social formations were disrupted and there is an increasing'fabric heavy' imprint of built structures, ash-heaps, so on; the copper mines of Namaqualand and the diamond rush to the Kimberley area resulted in industrial archaeological landscapes in those areas which herald the modern era in South African history. The provincial government consists of a premier, an executive council of ten ministers, a legislature; the provincial assembly and premier are elected for five-year terms, or until the next national election. Political parties are awarded assembly seats based on the percentage of votes each party receives in the province during the national elections.

The assembly elects a premier, who appoints the members of the executive council. The premier of the Northern Cape as of 2019 is Zamani Saul of the African National Congress; the politics of the Northern Cape are dominated by the African National Congress, but their position has not been as strong as in the other provinces. No party had an absolute majority. In 1994 the ANC's Manne Dipico became the first Premier of the Northern Cape after Ethne Papenfus, the sole elected representative of the Democratic Party, voted with the ANC. In return, she was elected speaker of the legislature; the ANC increased its voter share in elections and has remained in charge of the province after 1999. Dipuo Peters replaced Dipico as Premier in 2004; the official opposition in the Northern Cape after the 2004 elections was the Democratic Alliance, receiving 11% of the vote in the provincial ballot. The opposition's hopes of unseating the ANC has not had any success with the Congress of the People, a splinter party from the ANC, helping to split the vote in the election of 22 April 2009.

Hazel Jenkins became Premier following the election, COPE bec

Salicornia bigelovii

Salicornia bigelovii is a species of flowering plant in the amaranth family known by the common names dwarf saltwort and dwarf glasswort. It is native to coastal areas of the eastern and southern United States and coastal Mexico, it is a plant of a halophyte which grows in saltwater. It is an annual herb producing an erect, branching stem, jointed at many internodes; the fleshy, green to red stem can reach about 60 cm in height. The leaves are small plates, pairs of which are fused into a band around the stem; the inflorescence is a sticklike spike of flowers. Each flower is made up of a fused pocket of sepals enclosing the stamens and stigmas, with no petals; the fruit is an utricle containing fuzzy seeds. The southern part of the species range is represented by the Petenes mangroves of the Yucatán, where it is a subdominant plant associate in the mangroves; this plant is gaining scientific attention for its potential to serve as an oil crop that can be grown in desert environments and maintained with water containing high levels of salts.

It is the source of salicornia oil. The plant is up to 33% oil; the oil is functionally similar to safflower oil. It can be used as a replacement for more valuable oils in chicken feed. Domestic animals can be fed the plant as a forage; the plant could be a source of biofuel. Since the plant is a halophytic coastline species which grows in saltwater, it can be irrigated with seawater, making it a potential crop for landscapes that can support few other crop plants; the plants can be watered with high-salt drainage water, such as the effluent from farmland in California's Central Valley. Fields of the plant have been grown in wastewater from aquaculture farms in Eritrea and harvested for animal feed. Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Flora of North America Images

Hazel Marion Eaton

Hazel Marion Eaton was one of the first "mile-a-minute girls" to ride an Indian motorcycle in a carnival motordrome known as the Wall of Death. Raised in South Portland, Eaton enjoyed a local reputation for diving and long distance swimming. After the Portland Sunday Telegram ran a story touting her swimming abilities, representatives from the Johnny Jones Exposition hired her to perform shallow diving feats from an elevated platform into a tank, hoop rolling and trained monkey acts. By 1912 Eaton had taken on another dangerous occupation - motordrome thrill racing. Hazel Marion Eaton was born on July 4, 1895 in the lighthouse tower at West Quoddy Head outside Lubec, Maine where her father, Edwin L. Eaton, was the assistant light keeper, she was the only child born in the candy-striped tower due to construction in the permanent living quarters behind the lighthouse. Her mother, Jennie L. Johnson, a South Portland native, suffered from nausea due to paint fumes in the main house, her husband ushered her into the tower to seek relief, but she went into labor with Hazel.

When Eaton was five years old her father was transferred to the Cape Elizabeth Lightship off the coast of Portland Head near Portland, Maine. The family moved to South Portland to a house on Preble St. In the next few years, Eaton was joined by a brother, Morris in 1902, two sisters: Sybil in 1904, Doris in 1906. In 1910, Eaton ran away from home to join the Johnny Jones Exhibition as a high dive act in Bangor, Maine. Within two years she met Ira Watkins. Watkins had his own show and lured the adventurous Eaton to train participate in “Watkins’s Wall of Death” motordrome, she married Watkins in 1917 and one year gave birth to her only child, Beverly June Watkins. In 1920, due to the nomadic lifestyle of circus performers, Ira Watkins’s mother, took custody of Beverly and raised her in Rutland, Vermont. A motordrome known as “The Wall of Death,” is a barrel shaped track made of smooth two by four inch boards that bank upward at a 45-60 degree angle. Eaton rode her 1912 Indian motorcycle along the inside of the barrel wall at speeds up to 60 miles per hour – with no hands.

She told a reporter that although the riding appeared to be “clever,” she more or less functioned without thinking about the danger or what she was doing. Onlookers, who stood at the top of the barrel as riders edged closer and closer to the top, were unaware of the ease with which the riders performed – for the most part. On one occasion, Eaton’s back brake locked during a performance, she tumbled to the bottom of the motordrome and spent several weeks in the hospital suffering from head and facial injuries. While death was common in the motordrome, Eaton’s injuries never stopped her from riding the walls. After 15 years trick riding in the motordrome, Eaton divorced Ira Watkins purchased and managed her own show for several years, traveling throughout the world and every state in America, she married Jesse Reis, a traveling circus auditor in 1928. Together they continued to contract with circus troupes until 1942. Beatrice Houdini, who became a close friend of the Reis’s and wintered with them in Florida, requested Eaton hold a private seance in her home on Halloween night 1936, simultaneous to other seances held around the country, to connect with Harry Houdini who had died in 1926.

Beatrice Houdini was on her way to visit the Reis’s Rainbow Farm in Yarmouth, Maine when she died in 1943. Eaton remained in Maine until 1958 when she moved to Mt. Dora, Florida for health reasons, she died there in December 1970